Term is derived from latin word “Societus” meaning
In general the word society denotes a group of people…..
……..however in sociology it refers to the
relationships between them
Society is also defined as the web of social relationships
Man is a social being…..
Enjoys group life……..
3. Meaning of society
A complex of groups in reciprocal relationships…
Interacting upon one another……
Enabling people to carry on their life activities and…..
Helping each person to fulfill his wishes and…..
Accomplish his interest in association with his fellows
4. Elements of society
Mutual interaction of individuals
Mutual inter relationship between individuals
A pattern of system
Reciprocal awareness is the most important ingredient
Common propensity….. “we” feeling
Implications of differences/ diversities/ variations
5. More on elements of society….
Society is responsible for the mental and intellectual
development of its dwellers
Confers safeguard of our cultures and guarantees its
transmission to the future generations
Individual and society interacts with each other and depends on one
Instability in any of the aspect gives rise to opposition between the
individuals and society
So basically, society and individuals are complimentary
and supplementary to each others
6. Characteristics of society
Composed of people
Mutual awareness, continuous reciprocal interaction
and inter relationship among members
Likeness and differences eg similarities like needs, activities, ideals
values etc differences like looks, personality, talents, attitudes etc.
Members have cooperation and share common interest.
Desires are satisfied and interests fulfilled with joined efforts
promoting solidarity and social cohesion
Responsibilities held by means of division of labor and delegation of
Members shows a pattern of interdependence
necessary to meet social needs
Society is dynamic….changes take place abruptly or gradually
Society has its own way of social control (formal or informal)
Each society has its distinct culture….
……..Its expression of human behavior viz. attitudes,
judgements, morals etc.
Interdependence is seen among groups,
communities, societies and even nations
9. Tribal society
Common territory and language but
nomadic in nature
Blood relationship (Family) and kinship are the only interconnected
Endogamy viz. marriages within the tribe
Political organization are not defined as all people are considered to
be equal as they virtually have no property.
Religion is not developed among these people in to a complex
institution viz. believed in spirits.
Common name e.g Bushmen of South Africa, some Eskimo tribes
10. Features of tribal society
Small and homogeneous (20-40 members) in composition
Main economic activity was hunting and food gathering
Division of labour is minimal, based on gender and age without any
No private property, viz. property is common to all members of the
Folkways and mores are more important means of social control
There is no competition and conflict too is minimal as there is no
accumulated surplus to fight over.
11. Agrarian (agricultural) society
Dominant economic activity was agriculture
Characteristic of rural communities
Minimal division of labour
Family plays an important role
sense of unity “WE” feeling
social control through informal means
simplicity, homogeneity and closeness to nature
12. Industrial society
Emergence of modern family
manufacture and services are the dominant economic activities
Division of labour according to the specialization pronounced
Class is more important than caste
Social mobility feasible
Women are economically and socially more independent.