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Denture adhesives and cleansers/ oral surgery courses
The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and
offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.for more details please visit
Denture adhesives and cleansers/ oral surgery courses
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing Dental Education
♦ Commercially available, non-toxic,
soluble material (powder, cream, or liquid)
that is applied to the tissue surface of the
denture in order to enhance denture
retention, stability, and performance
• Successful denturetherapy isinfluenced by thebiomechanical
phenomenaof support,stability,and retention.
• Retention,or theresistanceto movement of thedentureaway
from thesupporting tissues,iscritical.
• Physical forcesinfluencing dentureretention includeadhesion,
cohesion, capillary attraction, surfacetension,fluid viscosity,
atmospheric pressure, external forcesoriginating from theoral-
• Theinterfacial surfacetension developed asaresult of thesaliva
layer between thedenturebaseand thesupporting soft tissuesis
• Retention isrealized asthesalivalayer maximizescontact with
approximating prosthetic and mucosal surfaces.
• Dentureadhesivesaugment thesameretentivemechanisms
already operating when adentureisworn.
Indications and contraindications
♦ Dentureadhesivesareindicated when well madecomplete
denturesdo not satisfy apatient'sperceived retention and
♦ Patientswho suffer from xerostomiadueto medication side
effects, ahistory of head and neck irradiation, systemic disease
or diseaseof thesalivary glands, havegreat difficulty managing
completedenturesdueto impaired retention and an increased
tendency for ulceration of thebearing tissues
♦ Useof dentureadhesivecan compensatefor theretention that is
lacking in theabsenceof healthy saliva, and can mitigatethe
onset of oral ulcerationsthat result from frequent dislodgments.
♦ prove psychologically beneficial when the patient requires
supplemental retention and stability,
♦ Several neurological diseasescan complicatetheuseof
- CEREBROVASCULARACCIDENT(STROKE) may render part
of theoral cavity insensitiveto tactilesensation, or partially
/wholly paralyzeoral musculature. Adhesivesassist in helping
thesepatientsaccommodateto new denturesor thosefabricated
prior to thestrokewhich thepatient isnow unableto manage
dueto lost sensory feedback and neuromuscular control.
- OROFACIAL DYSKINESIAisaprominent sideeffect of
trifluoperazine, thioridazineor thiothixine), other neuroleptics
(e.g., haloperidol), and even gastrointestinal medications(e.g.,
prochlorperazine, metoclopramide). Thismovement disorder, is
often alate-onset sideeffect of dopamine-blocking drugs
characterized by exaggerated, uncontrollablemuscular actionsof
thetongue, cheeks, lipsand mandible. Heredentureretention,
stability, and function isavirtual impossibility without
adjunctiveretention, such asdentureadhesive.
♦ Patientswho haveundergoneresectivesurgery for
removal of oral neoplasia, or thosewho havelost
intraoral structuresand integrity dueto trauma, may
havesignificant difficulty in functioning with atissue-
even if rotational undercutshavebeen surgically
created to resist displacement of theprosthesis.
♦ Dentureadhesiveis notindicatedforthe
Mechanism(s) of Action
already operating when adentureisworn.
♦ Enhanceretention through optimizing interfacial forcesby:
- Increasing the adhesive and co hesive pro perties and visco sity
o f the medium lying between the denture and its basalseat
- Eliminating vo ids between the denture base and its basalseat.
♦ Adhesives( hydrated material that isformed when an adhesive
comesinto contact with salivaor water) areagentsthat stick
readily to both thetissuesurfaceof thedentureand to the
mucosal surfaceof thebasal seat.
♦ Hydrated adhesivesaremo re co hesive than saliva, physical
forcesintrinsic to theinterposed adhesivemedium resist thepull
moresuccessfully than would similar forceswithin saliva.
♦ Thematerial increases theviscosityof thesalivawith
which it mixes, and thehydrated material swells inthe
presenceof saliva/waterandflows underpressure.
♦ Aswater isabsorbed by theby theadhesiveagentsthe
resulting anionsareattracted to thecat ionsin themucous
♦ Thepropertiesof current adhesivesdependson a
combination of both physical and chemical forces.
♦ Saliva increases the viscosity of theadhesivethereby
increasing theforcerequired to separatetheprosthesisfrom
♦ Voidsbetween thedenturebaseand bearing tissuesare
♦ Prior to theearly 1960's,werebased on vegetablegums--such
askaraya, tragacanth, xanthan, and acacia--that display modest,
non-ionic adhesion to both dentureand mucosa, and possessed
♦ Gum-based adhesives(still commercially available) are highly
water so luble, particularly in hot liquidssuch ascoffee, tea, and
soups, and wash out readily from beneath dentures.
♦ Allergic reactionshavebeen reported to karaya(and to the
paraben preservativethat thevegetablederivativesrequire), and
formulationswith karayaimpart amarked odor reminiscent of
acetic acid. Overall, theadhesiveperformanceof thevegetable
gum-based materialsissho rt-lived and relatively unsatisfacto ry
♦ Thecomposition of most modern dentureadhesivesincludes
constituentsthat promotebioadhesionviacarboxyl groupsonce
♦ Two commonly employed active ingredients in denture
adhesives are poly [vinyl methyl ether maleate ]and
♦ Mixturesof thesaltsof short-acting (carboxymethylcelluloseor
"CMC") and long-acting (poly[vinyl methyl ether maleate], or
♦ In thepresenceof water, CMC hydratesand displaysquick-
onset ionic adherenceto both denturesand mucousepithelium.
♦ Theoriginal fluid increasesitsviscosity and CMC increasesin
volume, thereby eliminating voidsbetween prosthesisand basal
♦ Thesetwo actionsmarkedly enhancetheinterfacial forcesacting
♦ Polyvinylpyrrolidone("Po vido ne") isanother, less-commonly
used agent that behaveslikeCMC. Over amoreprotracted time
coursethan necessary for theonset of hydration of CMC,
gantrez saltshydrateand increaseadherenceand viscosity.
♦ The"long-acting" (i.e, lesssoluble) gantrez saltsalso display
molecular cross-linking, resulting in ameasurableincreasein
♦ Thiseffect issignificantly morepronounced and longer lived in
calcium-zinc gantrez formulationsthan in calcium-sodium
♦ Eventually all thepolymersbecomefully solubilized and
washed out by saliva; thiselimination ishastened by the
presenceof hot liquid.
♦ Other componentsof dentureadhesiveproductsimpart particular
physical attributesto theformulations. Petrolatum, mineraloil,
and polyethyleneoxideareincluded in creamsto bind the
materialsand to maketheir placement easier
♦ Siliconedioxideand CalciumStearateareused in powdersto
♦ Mentholand PeppermintOils areused for flavoring, reddyefor
color, and sodiumborateand methyl- orpoly-parabenas
Carboxy methylcellulose 27 %
Light Mineral Oil 20%
♦ Contributesto reduceddenturemovementand improves
♦ Improvement in oral hygienefor denturepatientsby reducing or
♦ Theuseof dentureadhesivein conjunction with routinedenture
cleaning inhibits stain accumulation.
♦ Increasedmaximumbitingforce, retention, stabilityand
stabilizesmasticatory rhythm of completedenturewearerswith
both good and poor denturebearing tissues.
♦ Reducemucosal irritation, reducefood impaction beneath the
♦ Increasebiteforce,improvefunctional load distribution across
♦ Facilitatethepsychological well-being of thepatient.www.indiandentalacademy.com
♦ Patientswith xerostomia,theuseof awell-
- A cushioning or lubricating effect,reducing
frictional irritation of thesupporting soft tissues,
preventing further tissuedehydration.
Application of Denture
Adhesive♦ Cream /Powder
♦ Powder formulationsdo not confer thesamedegreeof "hold",
nor do their effectslast aslong, in comparison to comparable
cream formulations. However powderscan beused in smaller
quantities, are easier to clean out of denturesand off tissues,
and arenot perceived as"messy" by patients.
♦ Theinitial "hold" for powdersisachieved sooner than it iswith
♦ Theleast amount of material that iseffectiveshould beused.
approximately 0.5to1.5gperdentureunit(morefor larger
alveolar ridges, lessfor smaller ones). The use of small
amounts of hydrated paste adhesives works well due to
favorable adhesive,cohesive,and viscosity
♦ For powders, theclean prosthesisshould be moistenedand then
athin, even coating of theadhesivesprayed onto thetissue
surfaceof thedenture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
♦ Theexcessisshaken off, and theprosthesisinserted and seated
♦ If thepatient suffersfrom inadequateor absent saliva, the
sprayed dentureshould bemoistened lightly with water before
Prepareyour denturesby washing
thoroughly with warm water. Be
surethat thedenturesarestill wet
themucosawith thin even layer
of powder and shakeoff the
Application of paste
• A small amount of thepasteshould bedispensed onto theclean
and dry intaglio surfaceof thedenture
• Theuseof excessiveadhesivewill likely interferewith proper
placement of thedentureon thebearing tissues.
• For themaxillary denture,adhesiveshould bedispensed in the
midpalatal region whilefor themandibular denturevery small
amountscan beplaced in two o r three lo catio ns alo ng the ridge
crest even layer of adhesive.www.indiandentalacademy.com
Evenly disperse the paste overthe
entire intaglio surface of the
prosthesis with a clean,dry fingerThis
will result in a thin, even layerof
The denture is submersed in a
containerof cool waterto
maximally hydrate the adhesive
The denture should remain
submersed in waterfor
approximately 20 to 30 seconds.
The denture is placed in the mouth
and firmly seated with fingerpressure
forapproximately 10 seconds
.Maintenance of seating pressure will
cause the adhesive to flow throughout
the interfacial space between the
denture base and denture bearing softwww.indiandentalacademy.com
Technique for Adhesive
♦ Patientsmust beinstructed that daily removal of adhesive
product from thetissuesurfacesof thedentureisan
essential requirement for theuseof thematerial.
♦ DentureAdhesiveabsorbsexcesswater, thehold will
loosen. Several techniquesmay help you break theseal
between theadhesiveand thegum tissue:
- For denturesof any type, swish mouth with warm water or
- For theLowerdenture, pull gently whileapplying a
- For theUpperdenture, removal may bemoredifficult due
to moresurfacearea. Placethumb against thefront teeth,
•Removal isfacilitated by letting theprosthesissoak in water
or soaking solution overnight, during which theproduct will be
fully solubilized and can then bereadily rinsed off.
•If soaking isnot possiblebeforenew adhesivematerial needs
to beplaced, removal isfacilitated by running hot water over
thetissuesurfaceof thedenturewhilescrubbing with a
•Adhesivethat isadherent to thealveolar ridgesand palateis
best removed by rinsing with warm or hot water, and then
firmly wiping theareawith gauzeor awashcloth saturated with
Initial scrubbing will loosen
Denture is then held submerged in a containerof warm water
and simultaneously scrubbed using the electric toothbrush .
Firm pressure should be applied to the brush in orderto
eliminate adhesive from the denture surface.
Particles orclumps of adhesive material will be seen rising to
the surface of the waterThis procedure is continued until the
entire denture surface is free of residual adhesive
To removeadhesiveresiduefrom mouth, gums, tongue, and
palate, brush theroof of mouth and gumswith asoft-
bristled toothbrush, toothpaste, and comfortably hot water.
♦ It ismandatory that dentistseducatedenturepatientsabout
dentureadhesives--their use, abuse, advantages, disadvantages,
♦ Themajor information resourcefor apatient should bethe
♦ Patientsneed to beeducated about thelimitationsof denture
♦ Discomfort will not beresolved by placing a"cushioning layer"
of adhesiveunder thedenture.
♦ Pain /sorenesssignalsaneed for professional management.
♦ Gradual increasein thequantity of adhesiverequired for
acceptablefit of thedentureisalso aclear signal to seek
♦ In all cases, denturepatientsneed to berecalled annually for oral
mucosal evaluation and prosthesisassessment.
♦ Dentureadhesiveproductsimprovepatient acceptanceof
comfort and function with dentures
♦ Dentureadhesivesare notcapableo f exerting fo rces that
wo uld accelerate ridge reso rptio n
♦ They reducetheamount of lateralmovements of the
dentures, even ill fitting dentures.
♦ Contributesto reduced denturemovement and improves
♦ Improvement in oral hygienefor denturepatientsby
reducing or preventing dentureplaque.
♦ Theuseof dentureadhesivein conjunction with routine
denturecleaning inhibitsstain accumulation.
♦ Increased maximum biting force, retention, stability and
stabilizesmasticatory rhythm of completedenturewearers
with both good and poor denturebearing tissues.
♦ Reducemucosal irritation, reducefood impaction beneath
♦ increasebiteforce,improvefunctional load distribution
♦ Facilitatethepsychological well-being of thepatient
♦ patientswith xerostomia,theuseof awell-hydrated denture
adhesiveprovidesacushioning or lubricating
effect,reducing frictional irritation of thesupporting soft
tissues, preventing further tissuedehydration.
♦ Anatomic,physiologic,and mechanical factorsassociated
with thestability and retention of completedenturesare
important for achieving optimal therapeutic results.
♦ Theproper useof dentureadhesiveto supplement sound
completedenturetherapy should becarefully presented
to patientsprior to delivery of theprostheses.
♦ Dentureadhesivescan effectively augment denture
stability and retention to improveoverall denture
performance,and patient comfort and satisfaction.
♦ An essential component of completedentureservice
♦ Careof denturesand themucosal tissuesof the
edentulousmouth isimportant for overall
health,especially in older persons.
♦ Maintenanceof adequatedenturehygienethrough
mechanical or chemical methodsor both isessential
to minimizeand preferably eliminateadversetissue
♦ It must bean integralcomponentof postinsertion
♦ Every surfacein theoral cavity,natural or synthetic becomes
covered within about 30 minuteswith a0.5-1.5 µ-thick
precipitateof salivary glycoprotein and immunoglobulin that is
termed “ Pellicle.”
♦ Thepelliclein turn providesasubstrateto which oral debris
(such asmucin,food particlesand desqua-mated epithelial
cells)and microorganisms(bacteriaand fungi)readily adhere.
♦ The adherent bacteriaand fungi convert materialssuch as
sucroseand glucosein theoral environment into aprotective
plaquecovering under which they can thriveand proliferate
♦ Thisprocessisfavored when salivary flow isimpaired by
diseaseor,morecommonly,asasideeffect of medications.
♦ In theabsenceof an adequateamount of saliva,lessantimicrobial
action will beavailableto counter theactivity and proliferation
of microorganisms. www.indiandentalacademy.com
♦ Presenceof depositsand accumulation isdirectly related to
- protein rich saliva
- micro porousnatureof polymeric basethat facilitatesplaque
♦ Surfaceirregularitiesprovidean increasein surfaceareaand an
expansion in thenumber of nichesnot readily cleansed by
actionsof thetongueor other orofacial musculature.
♦ Thisisaparticular concern in thecaseof oral appliances
fabricated out of methacrylateresin.
♦ Despitean outwardly smooth appearance,theseapplianceshave
apockmarked surfacewhen viewed under microscopic
♦ Thisisdueto bubbleformation from unpolymerized monomer
in thecourseof dentureprocessing
♦ Increased tendency for undesirabledepositsissimilarly
observed when achemically polymerized and rather porous
chair siderelinematerial hasbeen applied to adenturesurface.
♦ Multipleinnocuousand pathogenic bacterial varietieshavebeen
identified in dentureplaque,- S. aureus,P. aeruginosa, E.coli,
K.pneumoniae, alphastrep., beta-strep., GroupD strep.,and
♦ Speciesof Fusobacteria,which excretevolatilesulfur
compoundsassociated with halitosis,havebeen identified as
♦ Thefungal organismsmost commonly associated with denture
♦ Theyeastsarepresent in thesalivaof amajority of denture
wearersand display an affinity for adherenceto methacrylate
♦ Effectiveat populating the“craters”formed by an intersection of
amonomer bubblewith thepolished surfaceof theacrylic resin
from which they aredifficult to eradicate.www.indiandentalacademy.com
Chronic Atrophic Candiasis
associated with denture wearing in
Denture induced hyperplasia
due to fungal overgrowth.
Theoral depositsand microorganismsthat adhereto adental
appliancebring about several undesirableeffects.
♦ Unaesthetic in appearanceand unpleasant odor/taste
♦ Impairment in tasteand smell perception of external stimuli
under circumstancesof poor denturehygiene.
♦ Dentureplaqueservesassourceof infectiousoral material
availablefor aspiration,particularly in personswith limited
♦ Metabolic by-productsand exotoxinsin thedepositscan be
irritating to oral tissues.
♦ Plaque, can also becomecalcified if not removed thoroughly and
♦ Thesurfaceof themineralized calculusprovidesa hospitable
surfacefor further plaqueaccretion
♦ Calculusisalso readily stained by tobacco, tea,coffee,certain
medications(particularly iron supplements)
Requirements of an ideal cleanser
2. Easy to remove
3. Harmlessto patient if accidentally spilled/splashed
4. Harmlessto denturebasematerials,dentureteeth and soft liners
5. Ableto dissolveall thedenturedepositssuch ascalculus
6. Bactericidal and fungicidal
7. Long shelf lifeand cheap
• Light brushing with soft denturebrush or multifluted soft
nylon brush with round endsand soap& water.
• Removesthedebriswithout abrading denturebaseand teeth
• Cannot disinfect
• Pasteswith gentleabrasives–sodium bicarbonate/acrylic
Dentures and partial dentures
should be rinsed thoroughly
aftereach meal to remove food
Dentures should be removed from
the mouth before bedtime and
brushed thoroughly. Brush the
denture overa sink filled with
waterto prevent breakage if the
denture is accidentally dropped.
A toothbrush will remove plaque and
food particles effectively from dentures,
natural teeth and the soft lining of the
The gums underthe denture should be
massaged daily with a soft toothbrush.www.indiandentalacademy.com
♦ A lesscommon but incomparably moreeffectivemechanical
approach to denturecleaning isthrough theuseof atable-top
♦ Thesecleanersaremin bathtub-likedevicesthat contain a
cleaning solution. Thedentureisimmersed in thetub and then
sound wavescreateawavemotion that dislodgestheundesirable
♦ Useof an ultrasonic cleaner, however, doesnot replacea
thorough daily brushing. In between brushings, rinsedenture
after every meal.
• Abrasion /scratchesdueto hard bristles,forceful brushing or
• Irregular surfacespromotedeposits/staining
Most commonly useimmersion techniques.
Advantages- accessibility to all areasof dentures.
- minimum damagedueto mishandling
- minimum abrasion of denturebases
- simple technique
♦ Alkalineperoxides- powder & tablets
♦ Contents– alkalinecompounds
- sodium perborate
- flavouring agents
♦ Mixed with water-sodium perboratedecomposes
releasing peroxideswhich decomposesreleasing oxygenwww.indiandentalacademy.com
♦ Cleaning isresult of oxidizingabilityof peroxide
decomposition and effervescentactionof theoxygen
♦ Effectively breaksdown, dissolves, floatsaway organic
♦ Not effective in removing heavy calculus deposits
♦ Somenot compatiblewith soft liners
♦ techniqueisthat thepowder (or tablet) isdissolved in water
and thedenturessoaked overnight. They arebrushed and
rinsed well beforeuse, hence:
♦ Overnight immersion in alkalineperoxidesolution issafe,
effectivemethod of cleaning and sterilization esp.
♦ Diluted household bleaches(sodium hypochlorite)
♦ removeplaque,light stains,kill adherent organisms
Technique-immersion of denturesin 5 % sod.hypochlorite
in 3 partswater(1:3) followed by light brushing
♦ Or ,solution of 1tsp hypochlorite(Clorox) and 2 tsp glassy
phosphate(Calgon) in !/2 glasswater-controlscalculus&
♦ Not recommended for denturefabricated from cast base
♦ Corrosion and darkening of themetal
♦ Conc. Solution should not beused-causealter colour of
♦ discolour soft linersesp.silicones
♦ Citric acid, isopropyl alcohol, HCl, plain vinegar
♦ Swabbed with abrush onto denturesurface
♦ Material attacksinorganic phosphateportion of denture
deposits, reducing thecalculus
♦ Vinegar lesseffectivethan bleaching solutions
♦ Denturerinsed thoroughly to avoid contact with mucosa
♦ Corrosion of alloys
Enzyme containing materials
♦ Mutaneseand protease
♦ Reduceplaquesignificantly after 15 min. soak,esp.when
combined with mechanical brushing
♦ Their efficacy against Candidawasinferior to theaction of
- Provideprotectivecoating that interfereswith bacterial
adherenceuntil next application
- Floatson thesurfaceof thedenturebath,and when dentureis
removed from thesolution,athin layer constituting 0.1-0.8 mg of
thematerial coatssurfacesof theprosthesis.Thematerial will not
rinseor rub off but isslowly lost over theday.
♦ Microwave radiation–
- To disinfect and clean resin bases.
- Significantly reducesthenumber of cultivableorganismson
thedentures,but non-viableorganismsand their by-productsstill
present after exposureto theradiation will still ableto elicit an
unwanted host response.
- Theuseof amicrowaveshould bepreceded by somemethod of
debridement such asultrasonication or thorough brushing.
♦ Overnight airdrying –
- effectively kill yeastsand many bacterial species,
through exposureof theorganismsto oxygen tension
levelsgreater than oxygen tension levelsin themouth
- Air-drying doesnot havewidespread acceptanceasa
denturecleaning techniquefor two reasons.
♦ First, merely drying an unclean denturewill makethe
adherent material stick ever moretightly even asit fails
to removemicrobial surfaceantigensand
exotoxins.Therefore,must bepreceded by mechanical
debridement of thedenturesurface.
♦ Second,dentistshavehistorically been told that air
drying an acrylic denturewill distort itscontours.
Disadvantages of various cleansers
cleanser constituent Dis-adv
Alkaline perborate Ineffective for heavy
harmful to soft liners
Bleach resin bases ;
Discolour soft liners;
Corrosion of base alloys
Dilute acids HCl;citric acid; Corrosion;
Abrasive agents Abrasion of denture
♦ Denturecleansersarenot intended for internal use,
♦ Somedenturecleanserscontain ingredientsassociated with
allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Other ingredients
may irritatemucosaand may betoxic if ingested.
♦ Carefully monitor patientsuseof denturecleansers, especially
thosepatientswho may havedifficulty reading or
understanding label warningsand cautions, aswell aspatients
who areconfused or haveAlzheimer'sDisease.
♦ Warn them never to chew,swallow, orgargle with denture
♦ Remind them to thoroughly rinsedenturesand other dental
appliancesbeforeplacing them into themouth.
♦ Remind patientsthat improper useof denturecleanersmay
♦ Unclean denturesrepresent both an esthetic and ahealth
concern for theperson using them.
♦ Dental professionalsneed to haveaworking knowledgeof
therangeof techniquesand materialsthat areavailablefor
cleaning denturesand keeping them in ahygienic stateso
that they areableto instruct patientsappropriately.
♦ Brushing alone,with or without adentifrice,isan inadequate
approach for controlling dentureplaque.
♦ Lessthan onehour soaking in adilutebleach solution or
oneof thecommercial effervescent productsareboth
effectivemeansfor cleaning dentures.
♦ Ultrasonication iseffectivebut not broadly
used.Microwavetreatment and air drying
effectively kill organismsbut may not eradicate
♦ Interferencewith bacterial adherencethrough
daily application of asiliconepolymer to the
surfaceof thedentureisapromising recent
development in denturecleansing technology.
♦ Zarb-Bolender:Prsthodontic treatment foredentulous patients
♦ Joseph J.Massad,William J.Davis,Richard June,William
A.Joseph Thornton,David R:Rationale forAdhesives in
Complete Denture Therapy ,P&G Dental Resource net.
♦ Use of dental adhesives:P&G Dental resource Net
♦ Fujimori takuto,Hirano:Effect of denture adhesive of
masticatory functions of complete denture wearers.JMed Dent
• Grasso J, Gay T, Rendell J, BakerR,:Effect of denture
adhesive on retention of the mandibularand maxillary
dentures during function. JClin Dent. 2000;11(4):98-103.
• Hasegawa, Sekita, Hayakawa :Effect of denture adhesive
on stability of complete dentures and the masticatory
function. JMed Dent Sci.2003;50:239-247.
• A. Kneipp, X. Zhou:Inhibition of Denture Stain with
Denture Adhesive Use:P&G
• J. Rajaiah, N. Ramji, J.E. Barnes, A.M. Kneipp,In vitro
Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by Denture
• Rendell JK, Gay T. The effect of denture adhesive on
mandibularmovement during chewing. JAm Dent Assoc.
• Sabita Mram.Denture Adhesives:Theirpalce in clinical
• Kenneth Shay:Dental hygiene ;review and update.Journa
of conteporary dental practice 2000,vol1,No2
• Skinnerand philips:dental material science,11th
• Kazazo_lu E1 ., Kulak Y 1 . and KadirT2 .An effect of
mouth spray on denture microorganisms; An in vitro and
• NikawaH, Yamamoto T. Commercial denture
cleansers--cleansing efficacy against Candidaalbicans
biofilm and compatibility wit soft denture-lining
materials. Int JProsthodont. 1995 Sep-Oct;8(5):434-
• NikawaH, HamadaT, A review of in vitro and in
vivo methodsto evaluatetheefficacy of denture
cleansers.Int JProsthodont. 1999 Mar-Apr;12(2):153-
• MooreTC, Smith DE, Kenny GE. Sanitization of
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