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Terrorism

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Terrorism

  1. 1. TERRORISMTERRORISM
  2. 2. What is terrorism?What is terrorism?  the use of terror and violence tothe use of terror and violence to intimidate (Webster’s Dictionary)intimidate (Webster’s Dictionary)  is defined as the use of fear to pressureis defined as the use of fear to pressure a person or a community to acta person or a community to act contrary to reason (Current Issuescontrary to reason (Current Issues Third Edition)Third Edition)
  3. 3. PHILIPPINE ISLAMICPHILIPPINE ISLAMIC MILITANT GROUPSMILITANT GROUPS  Abu SayyafAbu Sayyaf  Moro National Liberation FrontMoro National Liberation Front  Moro Islamic Liberation FrontMoro Islamic Liberation Front
  4. 4. MORO NATIONAL LIBERATIONMORO NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONTFRONT More immediate causes of insurgencyMore immediate causes of insurgency rose out of the increasing lawlessness inrose out of the increasing lawlessness in the southern Philippines during the latethe southern Philippines during the late 1960’s when violence associated with1960’s when violence associated with political disputes, personal feuds andpolitical disputes, personal feuds and armed gangs proliferated.armed gangs proliferated.
  5. 5. Already in competition over land,Already in competition over land, economic resources and political power,economic resources and political power, the Moros became increasingly alarmedthe Moros became increasingly alarmed by the immigration of Christians fromby the immigration of Christians from the north who were making Moros athe north who were making Moros a minority in what they felt was their ownminority in what they felt was their own land.land.
  6. 6. MORO NATIONAL LIBERATIONMORO NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONTFRONT  September 21, 1972 - Martial Law wasSeptember 21, 1972 - Martial Law was declared in the Philippinesdeclared in the Philippines - the government- the government attempted to disarm the Muslimsattempted to disarm the Muslims which provoked an open rebellionwhich provoked an open rebellion
  7. 7. Nur MisuaryNur Misuary -- guided the MNLF as the chairmanguided the MNLF as the chairman - believed that the Moro- believed that the Moro constituted a separate people whichconstituted a separate people which was thewas the BangsaMoroBangsaMoro - claimed that the Muslims can only- claimed that the Muslims can only free themselves from corrupt leadersfree themselves from corrupt leaders and implement institutions in anand implement institutions in an independent stateindependent state
  8. 8. Moro NationalMoro National Liberation FrontLiberation Front receivedreceived support from Muslimsupport from Muslim backers in Libya andbackers in Libya and Malaysia.Malaysia.
  9. 9. EMERGENCE OF THE ABUEMERGENCE OF THE ABU SAYYAFSAYYAF  1991 - a radical group which disagreed1991 - a radical group which disagreed with the peace process between thewith the peace process between the Muslims and the State left MNLF andMuslims and the State left MNLF and formed the Abu Sayyaf (ASG)formed the Abu Sayyaf (ASG)  Abu Sayyaf means “bearer of theAbu Sayyaf means “bearer of the sword” in Arabicsword” in Arabic
  10. 10. Main Goal:Main Goal:  To establish an Iranian style ofTo establish an Iranian style of Islamic state based on the IslamicIslamic state based on the Islamic law in Mindanaolaw in Mindanao
  11. 11. Who are the Abu Sayyaf Group?Who are the Abu Sayyaf Group?  Is based mainly in southernIs based mainly in southern Philippines (Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Philippines (Basilan, Sulu and Tawi- tawi) but has ties to a number oftawi) but has ties to a number of Islamic fundamentalist organizationsIslamic fundamentalist organizations around the world including Osama Binaround the world including Osama Bin Laden’s Al Qaida and Ramzi YousefLaden’s Al Qaida and Ramzi Yousef
  12. 12. Abduragak Abubakar JanjalaniAbduragak Abubakar Janjalani -- founder and leader of the Abu Sayyaffounder and leader of the Abu Sayyaf - was a veteran of the war in- was a veteran of the war in AfghanistanAfghanistan - was killed in December 1998 in a- was killed in December 1998 in a firefight with police in the village offirefight with police in the village of Lamitan, Basilan IslandLamitan, Basilan Island - Khadafy Janjalani took over as the- Khadafy Janjalani took over as the new leader of the groupnew leader of the group
  13. 13. Abu Sayyaf finances its operationAbu Sayyaf finances its operation through the following:through the following:  robberyrobbery  piracypiracy  kidnappings for ransomkidnappings for ransom  funding from the internationalfunding from the international terrorist network of Osama Bin Ladenterrorist network of Osama Bin Laden
  14. 14. Abu Sayyaf activities include:Abu Sayyaf activities include:  bombingsbombings  assassinations and extortions fromassassinations and extortions from companies and wealthycompanies and wealthy businessmenbusinessmen
  15. 15. CHRONOLOGY OF ABUCHRONOLOGY OF ABU SAYYAF’S TERRORISMSAYYAF’S TERRORISM ACTIVITIESACTIVITIES 19911991: Libyan-trained Islamic preacher,: Libyan-trained Islamic preacher, Abdurajak Janjalani formed ASGAbdurajak Janjalani formed ASG attracting young Muslimsattracting young Muslims First recorded atrocity was theFirst recorded atrocity was the attack of the military checkpoint inattack of the military checkpoint in Sumagdan on the outskirts of Isabela,Sumagdan on the outskirts of Isabela, BasilanBasilan
  16. 16. 19921992: Bomb attacks in Zamboanga and: Bomb attacks in Zamboanga and Davao City; Abducted a businesswomen inDavao City; Abducted a businesswomen in Davao and was released after payment ofDavao and was released after payment of ransomransom 19931993: Kidnapped Luis Ton-Ton Biel (5 yrs.: Kidnapped Luis Ton-Ton Biel (5 yrs. old) with his grandfather who was an ownerold) with his grandfather who was an owner of a bus company in Basilanof a bus company in Basilan
  17. 17. 1994:1994: Kidnapped Charles Walton, anKidnapped Charles Walton, an American language scholar who was doingAmerican language scholar who was doing research in Basilan but was released withoutresearch in Basilan but was released without ransom through the intercession of the Libyanransom through the intercession of the Libyan ambassador to the Philippinesambassador to the Philippines December 1994:December 1994: ASG claimed responsibilityASG claimed responsibility for an explosion aboard a Philippine Air Linefor an explosion aboard a Philippine Air Line (one Japanese was killed and 10 were injured)(one Japanese was killed and 10 were injured)
  18. 18. January 12, 1995:January 12, 1995: Linked to the plot toLinked to the plot to assassinate Pope John Paul II who wasassassinate Pope John Paul II who was visiting Manilavisiting Manila April 14, 1995:April 14, 1995: Attacked the town of Ipil,Attacked the town of Ipil, robbed banks, shut the people and set therobbed banks, shut the people and set the town on fire before leaving with severaltown on fire before leaving with several hostages (54 were dead and hundreds werehostages (54 were dead and hundreds were wounded)wounded)
  19. 19. September 9, 1997:September 9, 1997: Kidnapped a GermanKidnapped a German business executive in Zamboanga City and wasbusiness executive in Zamboanga City and was released on December 26, 1997released on December 26, 1997 March 26, 1998:March 26, 1998: Abu Sayyaf rebels threatenedAbu Sayyaf rebels threatened to kill abducted Filipinosto kill abducted Filipinos December 18, 1998:December 18, 1998: Abdujarak Janjalani wasAbdujarak Janjalani was killed in a firefight with security forces inkilled in a firefight with security forces in BasilanBasilan
  20. 20. January 3, 1999:January 3, 1999: A grenade was lobbed intoA grenade was lobbed into a crowd watching firefighters putting out aa crowd watching firefighters putting out a blaze in a neighborhood supermarket (10blaze in a neighborhood supermarket (10 were killed and 74 were injured)were killed and 74 were injured) March 20, 2000:March 20, 2000: 55 hostages which55 hostages which Includes 22 school children, 5 teachers andIncludes 22 school children, 5 teachers and a priest were seized from two schoolsa priest were seized from two schools
  21. 21. April 23, 2000:April 23, 2000: Raided the Malaysian divingRaided the Malaysian diving resort and fled across the sea border to Joloresort and fled across the sea border to Jolo with 21 tourists and resort workerswith 21 tourists and resort workers July 26, 2000:July 26, 2000: 18 injured in Jolo Island from18 injured in Jolo Island from grenade attackgrenade attack August 28, 2000:August 28, 2000: American Jeffrey SchillingAmerican Jeffrey Schilling was held hostage during a visit to Janjalaniwas held hostage during a visit to Janjalani campcamp
  22. 22. September 10, 2000:September 10, 2000: Kidnapped 3 peopleKidnapped 3 people from Pandanan Island diving resort and werefrom Pandanan Island diving resort and were brought to Sulu Islandbrought to Sulu Island April 12, 2001:April 12, 2001: Hostage Jeffrey Schilling wasHostage Jeffrey Schilling was rescuedrescued May 27, 2001:May 27, 2001: Raided Dos Palmas Resort ofRaided Dos Palmas Resort of Palawan and seized 20 people including 3Palawan and seized 20 people including 3 Americans (a Christian missionary couple,Americans (a Christian missionary couple, Martin and Gracia Burnham and GuillermoMartin and Gracia Burnham and Guillermo Sobero)Sobero)
  23. 23. June 1, 2001:June 1, 2001: Clashes between theClashes between the government troops and the kidnappers ingovernment troops and the kidnappers in Tuburan, BasilanTuburan, Basilan June 2, 2001:June 2, 2001: ASG “Suicide Squad” tookASG “Suicide Squad” took over a hospital and the church in Lamitan,over a hospital and the church in Lamitan, Basilan and captured over 200 people asBasilan and captured over 200 people as hostage but 4 of them were able to escapehostage but 4 of them were able to escape
  24. 24. June 7, 2001:June 7, 2001: Abu Sabaya, spokeman of ASGAbu Sabaya, spokeman of ASG gave Manila a 72-hour deadline to bring formergave Manila a 72-hour deadline to bring former Malaysian senator Sairin Horno andMalaysian senator Sairin Horno and businessman Yusuf as negotiators andbusinessman Yusuf as negotiators and suspension of military operations against them;suspension of military operations against them; ASG threatened to behead the AmericanASG threatened to behead the American hostages for failure to comply but former Pres.hostages for failure to comply but former Pres. Arroyo rejected the demandArroyo rejected the demand
  25. 25. Jume 11, 2001:Jume 11, 2001: Former Pres. Arroyo gaveFormer Pres. Arroyo gave in to the rebel’s demand for two Malaysianin to the rebel’s demand for two Malaysian negotiators when Abu Sabaya issued a finalnegotiators when Abu Sabaya issued a final 2-hour deadline to behead the American2-hour deadline to behead the American hostages. However, the governmenthostages. However, the government continued offensive as the group seized 15continued offensive as the group seized 15 more Filipinos in Basilan as amore Filipinos in Basilan as a “diversionary” strategy“diversionary” strategy
  26. 26. June 12, 2001:June 12, 2001: ASG claimed the beheading ofASG claimed the beheading of American hostage, Guillermo Sobero, as anAmerican hostage, Guillermo Sobero, as an Independednce Day gift to Pres. Arroyo.Independednce Day gift to Pres. Arroyo. Government troops found 3 bodies including 2Government troops found 3 bodies including 2 headless corpses identified as Filipinosheadless corpses identified as Filipinos June 16, 2001:June 16, 2001: The rebels freed Kimberly JaoThe rebels freed Kimberly Jao Uy and Francis Ong to the Islamic preacher atUy and Francis Ong to the Islamic preacher at Isabela, Basilan in exchange of 5 million pesosIsabela, Basilan in exchange of 5 million pesos
  27. 27. January 19, 2002:January 19, 2002: The military rescued 2The military rescued 2 coconut farmers kidnapped by a factioncoconut farmers kidnapped by a faction of ASG but 2 navy men were woundedof ASG but 2 navy men were wounded in a firefight with a bigger groupin a firefight with a bigger group January 24, 2002:January 24, 2002: Firefight brokeFirefight broke between Philippine troops and ASG.between Philippine troops and ASG. Eight of the ASG were killed and twoEight of the ASG were killed and two soldiers were woundedsoldiers were wounded
  28. 28. BALIKATAN 02.1BALIKATAN 02.1  is the code name for the joint US-RP militaryis the code name for the joint US-RP military training exercises in southern Mindanao andtraining exercises in southern Mindanao and Balanced Piston in northern Luzon under theBalanced Piston in northern Luzon under the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA)Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA)  is intended to make the exercises trainingis intended to make the exercises training scenarios more realistic and relevant to thescenarios more realistic and relevant to the actual perceived threats to both countries thatactual perceived threats to both countries that is, the worldwide threat of terrorism underis, the worldwide threat of terrorism under the VFAthe VFA
  29. 29. MORO ISLAMIC LIBERATIONMORO ISLAMIC LIBERATION FRONTFRONT  is most active in Sulu archipelago,is most active in Sulu archipelago, Palawan, Basilan and other neighboringPalawan, Basilan and other neighboring islandsislands  was established in 1981 when Salamatwas established in 1981 when Salamat Hashim and his followers split from theHashim and his followers split from the MNLF due to the MNLF's reluctance toMNLF due to the MNLF's reluctance to launch an insurgency against thelaunch an insurgency against the Philippine government and its supportersPhilippine government and its supporters
  30. 30. HISTORYHISTORY In January 1987, the MNLF acceptedIn January 1987, the MNLF accepted the Philippine government's offer of semi-the Philippine government's offer of semi- autonomy of the regions in dispute,autonomy of the regions in dispute, subsequently leading to the establishmentsubsequently leading to the establishment of theof the Autonomous Region of Muslim MindanaoAutonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). The MILF, however, refused to(ARMM). The MILF, however, refused to accept this offer and continued theiraccept this offer and continued their insurgency operations.insurgency operations.
  31. 31. A general cessation of hostilities betweenA general cessation of hostilities between the government in Manila and the MILF wasthe government in Manila and the MILF was signed in July 1997 but this agreement wassigned in July 1997 but this agreement was abolished in 2000 by the Philippine Army underabolished in 2000 by the Philippine Army under the administration of Philippine Presidentthe administration of Philippine President JosephJoseph EstradaEstrada. In response, the MILF declared a. In response, the MILF declared a jihadjihad against the government, its citizens andagainst the government, its citizens and supporters. Under Presidentsupporters. Under President Gloria ArroyoGloria Arroyo, the, the government entered into a cease-fire agreementgovernment entered into a cease-fire agreement with the MILF and resumed peace talks.with the MILF and resumed peace talks.
  32. 32. Despite peace negotiations and theDespite peace negotiations and the cease fire agreement, the MILF attackedcease fire agreement, the MILF attacked Government troops in MaguindanaoGovernment troops in Maguindanao resulting in at least twenty-three deaths inresulting in at least twenty-three deaths in January 2005. The combined armies of theJanuary 2005. The combined armies of the MILF and Abu Sayyaf were involved in daysMILF and Abu Sayyaf were involved in days of fighting which necessitated governmentof fighting which necessitated government troops using heavy artillery to engage rebeltroops using heavy artillery to engage rebel forces.forces.
  33. 33. The bombing incident inThe bombing incident in DavaoDavao airport inairport in 2003 which the Philippine government blamed2003 which the Philippine government blamed on MILF members, raised speculation that theon MILF members, raised speculation that the peace negotiations might be ineffectual inpeace negotiations might be ineffectual in bringing peace to Mindanao if the MILF isbringing peace to Mindanao if the MILF is unable to control its operatives. The MILFunable to control its operatives. The MILF denies ties with terrorist groupdenies ties with terrorist group JemaahJemaah IslamiyahIslamiyah, although Jemaah Islamiyah is, although Jemaah Islamiyah is considered to have provided them with trainingconsidered to have provided them with training facilities in areas they control.facilities in areas they control.
  34. 34. The MILF also continues to denyThe MILF also continues to deny connections with Al-Qaeda, though it hasconnections with Al-Qaeda, though it has admitted to sending around 600 volunteersadmitted to sending around 600 volunteers to Al Qaeda training camps into Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan and thatAfghanistan and that Osama Bin LadenOsama Bin Laden sent money to the Philippines, though thesent money to the Philippines, though the group denies directly receiving anygroup denies directly receiving any payment.payment.
  35. 35. Peace Agreement:Peace Agreement: Tripoli AgreementTripoli Agreement - a peace talk which led to an- a peace talk which led to an agreement between the Philippineagreement between the Philippine government and the MNLF providinggovernment and the MNLF providing for Moro autonomy in the southernfor Moro autonomy in the southern Philippines and for a cease-firePhilippines and for a cease-fire
  36. 36. HOBBES POLITICAL ANDHOBBES POLITICAL AND SOCIAL PHILOSOPHYSOCIAL PHILOSOPHY Thomas HobbesThomas Hobbes - is an English philosopher who preferred- is an English philosopher who preferred the evils of absolute power than to thethe evils of absolute power than to the evils of life in a society, which did notevils of life in a society, which did not contain an authoritycontain an authority - believes that “a sovereign without- believes that “a sovereign without absolute power to enforce laws is noabsolute power to enforce laws is no sovereign at all”sovereign at all”
  37. 37. He was asked with aHe was asked with a question: “Why should aquestion: “Why should a society without an absolutesociety without an absolute authority necessary beauthority necessary be chaotic?”chaotic?”
  38. 38. He answered that it depends upon aHe answered that it depends upon a psychological theory about the naturepsychological theory about the nature of man. His view is that man by natureof man. His view is that man by nature is selfish and egoistic. He is motivatedis selfish and egoistic. He is motivated by selfish desires, which requireby selfish desires, which require satisfaction, if man is also, by nature,satisfaction, if man is also, by nature, belligerent. He has the inclination tobelligerent. He has the inclination to be warlike, hostile and combative.be warlike, hostile and combative.
  39. 39. According to him, psychologicalAccording to him, psychological constitution of man is dominated byconstitution of man is dominated by three major desires:three major desires:  CompetitionCompetition  Diffidence or distrust of one’s ownDiffidence or distrust of one’s own ability or worthability or worth  Glory or the desire of fame, honor andGlory or the desire of fame, honor and superioritysuperiority
  40. 40. On the form of government, he preferred aOn the form of government, he preferred a monarchial type because of the followingmonarchial type because of the following reasons:reasons:  With the monarch as the sovereign ruler,With the monarch as the sovereign ruler, decisions and enforcing laws rest only on onedecisions and enforcing laws rest only on one personperson  A single ruler has more secrecy of counsel than aA single ruler has more secrecy of counsel than a sovereign group composed of individuals whosovereign group composed of individuals who have different political and social orientationhave different political and social orientation  The monarch’s decisions are “only as inconstantThe monarch’s decisions are “only as inconstant as human nature, but a group has that plus theas human nature, but a group has that plus the inconstancy of number”inconstancy of number”
  41. 41. MILL’S POLITICAL ANDMILL’S POLITICAL AND PHILOSOPHYPHILOSOPHY John Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill - is an English philosopher and- is an English philosopher and economist author of the classic essay,economist author of the classic essay, “On Liberty”, which emphasized civil“On Liberty”, which emphasized civil libertyliberty
  42. 42. Political thinkers believe that somePolitical thinkers believe that some dangers to freedom are moredangers to freedom are more insidious which come from withinsidious which come from with democracy itselfdemocracy itself example: POWERexample: POWER
  43. 43. With the development of democraticWith the development of democratic societies, political theorists refused to acceptsocieties, political theorists refused to accept the position that the ruler’s interest wasthe position that the ruler’s interest was opposed to that of the people. The ruler, inopposed to that of the people. The ruler, in their view, was a representative of the peopletheir view, was a representative of the people and his authority was revocable at theirand his authority was revocable at their pleasure. Since the rulers are delegates of thepleasure. Since the rulers are delegates of the ruled, it is not important to limit their power.ruled, it is not important to limit their power. To do so,To do so, is limiting the power of theis limiting the power of the people themselves.people themselves.
  44. 44. Mill’s stressed that the people whoMill’s stressed that the people who exercise power are not the same as thoseexercise power are not the same as those on whom it is exercised. They not onlyon whom it is exercised. They not only develop their own interests but they alsodevelop their own interests but they also are frequently influenced by variousare frequently influenced by various pressure groups to work their welfare,pressure groups to work their welfare, which is contrary to the welfare of thewhich is contrary to the welfare of the people.people.
  45. 45. Mills argues that publicMills argues that public opinion is notoriouslyopinion is notoriously susceptible to error becausesusceptible to error because it may reflect prejudices andit may reflect prejudices and be dominated bybe dominated by superstitions and traditions.superstitions and traditions.
  46. 46. 3 reasons why it would be wrong3 reasons why it would be wrong to suppress any opinion:to suppress any opinion:  It is wrong to suppress an opinion which theIt is wrong to suppress an opinion which the majority does not approve of because themajority does not approve of because the suppressed opinion may be true.suppressed opinion may be true.  To deny others the right to express opinion isTo deny others the right to express opinion is to assume one’s infallibility.to assume one’s infallibility.  Hearing the opposite opinion even if it isHearing the opposite opinion even if it is neither wholly true nor wholly false is goodneither wholly true nor wholly false is good for it may contain elements of the truth.for it may contain elements of the truth.

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