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Introduction to Pathology Chapter 1 Heather Johnson, A.S., R.T. (R)
Good to know… <ul><li>you need to have a good understanding of normal anatomy in order to differentiate it from pathology ...
<ul><li>remember that medical terminology class way back in first semester? </li></ul>
Why take a pathology class? <ul><li>“We’re not supposed to read the x rays!” </li></ul><ul><li>A basic understanding of pa...
Why take a pathology class? <ul><li>better care for your patient – more careful positioning, alternative positioning, care...
Disease <ul><li>Pathology  is defined as: the study of disease that can cause abnormalities in body structure or function ...
<ul><li>iatrogenic  – pathology caused by a physician and their treatment </li></ul><ul><li>nosocomial infection  – hospit...
Inflammation <ul><li>swelling </li></ul><ul><li>body’s response to injury, can be anywhere in / on the body, but is often ...
<ul><li>process of inflammation: </li></ul><ul><li>increased blood flow and vascular permeability (capillaries allow for m...
<ul><li>some tissues cannot heal by regeneration – heart, damaged area replaced by scar </li></ul><ul><li>some partially h...
5 signs of inflammation <ul><li>rubor (redness) </li></ul><ul><li>calor (heat) </li></ul><ul><li>tumor (swelling) </li></u...
Edema <ul><li>accumulation of fluid in tissue or body cavities in abnormal amounts or for a prolonged amount of time </li>...
localized edema <ul><li>area of inury, area of blocked lymphatic drainage </li></ul><ul><li>filariasis – parasitic worm ca...
Elephantiasis (filariasis)
generalized edema <ul><li>fluid accumulation over entire body or regions </li></ul><ul><li>CHF, cirrhosis of the liver, re...
ischemia <ul><li>interference of an organ or tissue’s blood supply </li></ul><ul><li>caused by narrowing of arterial vesse...
 
infarct <ul><li>localized necrosis (death) of tissue or an organ due to venous or arterial ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>most...
hemorrhage <ul><li>rupture of a larger artery or vein </li></ul><ul><li>may be caused by trauma, atherosclerosis, or erosi...
 
<ul><li>facts: </li></ul><ul><li>a patient can lose up to 20% of their total blood supply with little clinical significanc...
alterations in cell growth <ul><li>atrophy - the reduction in size or number of cells in organ or tissue; results in decre...
Hyperplasia, cortical thickening
neoplasms / oncology <ul><li>neoplasia  – abnormal growth of cells (tumors) </li></ul><ul><li>benign tumors  – resemble ti...
<ul><li>carcinoma  – cancer of epithelial cells (mucous linings in body) </li></ul><ul><li>sarcoma  – cancer of bone, musc...
hereditary diseases <ul><li>abnormal DNA passed from one generation to another </li></ul><ul><li>mutations may occur by en...
Right foot image with seven metatarsals and eight digits demonstrating polydactyly
immunity disorders <ul><li>most immunity is acquired by exposure to antigens or artificial immunizations </li></ul><ul><li...
AIDS / HIV <ul><li>acquired immunodeficiency syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>most commonly affected homosexual men, IV drug use...
<ul><li>radiographically: </li></ul><ul><li>pneumocystis carinii – hazy infiltrates in lungs, consolidation resembling pne...
1-6 Kaposi’s sarcoma . Small bowel study shows multiple  intramural nodules  (predominantly involving the jejunum) that  d...
1-7 Pneumocystis carinii  pneumonia. Diffuse bilateral air-space  consolidation
<ul><li>treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>incurable </li></ul><ul><li>symptom management </li></ul><ul><li>lifestyle changes – ...
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Introduction To Pathology Slide 1 Introduction To Pathology Slide 2 Introduction To Pathology Slide 3 Introduction To Pathology Slide 4 Introduction To Pathology Slide 5 Introduction To Pathology Slide 6 Introduction To Pathology Slide 7 Introduction To Pathology Slide 8 Introduction To Pathology Slide 9 Introduction To Pathology Slide 10 Introduction To Pathology Slide 11 Introduction To Pathology Slide 12 Introduction To Pathology Slide 13 Introduction To Pathology Slide 14 Introduction To Pathology Slide 15 Introduction To Pathology Slide 16 Introduction To Pathology Slide 17 Introduction To Pathology Slide 18 Introduction To Pathology Slide 19 Introduction To Pathology Slide 20 Introduction To Pathology Slide 21 Introduction To Pathology Slide 22 Introduction To Pathology Slide 23 Introduction To Pathology Slide 24 Introduction To Pathology Slide 25 Introduction To Pathology Slide 26 Introduction To Pathology Slide 27 Introduction To Pathology Slide 28 Introduction To Pathology Slide 29 Introduction To Pathology Slide 30 Introduction To Pathology Slide 31 Introduction To Pathology Slide 32 Introduction To Pathology Slide 33
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Introduction To Pathology

  1. 1. Introduction to Pathology Chapter 1 Heather Johnson, A.S., R.T. (R)
  2. 2. Good to know… <ul><li>you need to have a good understanding of normal anatomy in order to differentiate it from pathology </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>remember that medical terminology class way back in first semester? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why take a pathology class? <ul><li>“We’re not supposed to read the x rays!” </li></ul><ul><li>A basic understanding of pathology helps you do your job better. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why take a pathology class? <ul><li>better care for your patient – more careful positioning, alternative positioning, care to protect immunocompromised patient, protect yourself, more understanding </li></ul><ul><li>change in routine projections to make a subtle pathology stand out </li></ul><ul><li>change in technique </li></ul>
  6. 6. Disease <ul><li>Pathology is defined as: the study of disease that can cause abnormalities in body structure or function </li></ul><ul><li>can be hereditary </li></ul><ul><li>can be the result of previous injury, infection, vascular or metabolic abnormality </li></ul><ul><li>presents as signs or symptoms </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>iatrogenic – pathology caused by a physician and their treatment </li></ul><ul><li>nosocomial infection – hospital-acquired </li></ul><ul><li>community acquired infection – acquired outside of a health care facility </li></ul><ul><li>idiopathic – cause is unknown </li></ul>
  8. 8. Inflammation <ul><li>swelling </li></ul><ul><li>body’s response to injury, can be anywhere in / on the body, but is often localized </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>process of inflammation: </li></ul><ul><li>increased blood flow and vascular permeability (capillaries allow for more permeation of exudate) </li></ul><ul><li>white blood cells migrate to injured tissue </li></ul><ul><li>injured (dead) cells are eaten (phagocytosis)…yuk </li></ul><ul><li>proliferation of normal parenchymal cells and granulation (scar) tissue </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>some tissues cannot heal by regeneration – heart, damaged area replaced by scar </li></ul><ul><li>some partially heal, partially scar – cirrhosis of liver, mix of regenerated cells and scar tissue </li></ul>
  11. 11. 5 signs of inflammation <ul><li>rubor (redness) </li></ul><ul><li>calor (heat) </li></ul><ul><li>tumor (swelling) </li></ul><ul><li>dolor (pain) </li></ul><ul><li>loss of function </li></ul>
  12. 12. Edema <ul><li>accumulation of fluid in tissue or body cavities in abnormal amounts or for a prolonged amount of time </li></ul><ul><li>can be localized (inflammatory reaction) or generalized (subcutaneous accumulation throughout the body) </li></ul>
  13. 13. localized edema <ul><li>area of inury, area of blocked lymphatic drainage </li></ul><ul><li>filariasis – parasitic worm causing lymphatic obstruction </li></ul>
  14. 14. Elephantiasis (filariasis)
  15. 15. generalized edema <ul><li>fluid accumulation over entire body or regions </li></ul><ul><li>CHF, cirrhosis of the liver, renal disease </li></ul><ul><li>ambulatory patients – accumulates in distal lower extremities </li></ul><ul><li>sedentary patients – accumulates in back and lungs </li></ul>
  16. 16. ischemia <ul><li>interference of an organ or tissue’s blood supply </li></ul><ul><li>caused by narrowing of arterial vessels, most often from atherosclerosis, thrombus/embolus; less often external force (post-traumatic swelling, unintentional mechanism) </li></ul><ul><li>less dangerous when occlusion is slow-growing and in a healthy patient </li></ul><ul><li>more dangerous when it occurs rapidly, or happens in patients with anemia </li></ul><ul><li>incidence increases after a patient has surgery </li></ul>
  17. 18. infarct <ul><li>localized necrosis (death) of tissue or an organ due to venous or arterial ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>most common form are myocardial and pulmonary </li></ul><ul><li>can also lead to gangrene </li></ul>
  18. 19. hemorrhage <ul><li>rupture of a larger artery or vein </li></ul><ul><li>may be caused by trauma, atherosclerosis, or erosion of a vessel wall (cancer) </li></ul><ul><li>accumulations of blood trapped within the body is called a hematoma </li></ul><ul><li>ecchymosis – subcutaneous hematoma (bruise) </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>facts: </li></ul><ul><li>a patient can lose up to 20% of their total blood supply with little clinical significance </li></ul><ul><li>urgency of hemorrhage depends on location in the body </li></ul>
  20. 22. alterations in cell growth <ul><li>atrophy - the reduction in size or number of cells in organ or tissue; results in decreased function; disuse or pathologic </li></ul><ul><li>hypertrophy – increase in size of cells due to increased use; ex. muscles </li></ul><ul><li>hyperplasia – increase number of cells; ex. granulation tissue </li></ul><ul><li>dysplasia – loss of cell uniformity due to irritation (premalignant) </li></ul>
  21. 23. Hyperplasia, cortical thickening
  22. 24. neoplasms / oncology <ul><li>neoplasia – abnormal growth of cells (tumors) </li></ul><ul><li>benign tumors – resemble tissue of origin, do not spread to other areas (do not metastasize); not as dangerous , but can still cause complications </li></ul><ul><li>malignant tumors (cancer) – invade and destroy tissue, spread (metastasize) </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>carcinoma – cancer of epithelial cells (mucous linings in body) </li></ul><ul><li>sarcoma – cancer of bone, muscle, and cartilage, highly malignant </li></ul><ul><li>metastases occur via the lymphatic or hematogenous systems </li></ul><ul><li>cancer grading – cell’s aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>cancer staging – extent of entire body involvement </li></ul>
  24. 26. hereditary diseases <ul><li>abnormal DNA passed from one generation to another </li></ul><ul><li>mutations may occur by enzyme mutation, radiation, chemicals, or viruses </li></ul>
  25. 27. Right foot image with seven metatarsals and eight digits demonstrating polydactyly
  26. 28. immunity disorders <ul><li>most immunity is acquired by exposure to antigens or artificial immunizations </li></ul><ul><li>vaccine – low dose of dead or deactivated viruses that stimulate the body to produce antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>active immunity – when a body forms antibodies due to exposure </li></ul><ul><li>passive immunity – a dose of preformed antibodies from an animal; acts quickly, but doesn’t stay in body </li></ul>
  27. 29. AIDS / HIV <ul><li>acquired immunodeficiency syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>most commonly affected homosexual men, IV drug users, but now rising in incidence among heterosexual partners, and third world countries </li></ul><ul><li>once epidemic amongst hemophiliacs </li></ul><ul><li>primarily affects the lungs, GI tract, and CNS </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>radiographically: </li></ul><ul><li>pneumocystis carinii – hazy infiltrates in lungs, consolidation resembling pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Kaposi’s sarcoma – nodules in small bowel that invade the lumen </li></ul>
  29. 31. 1-6 Kaposi’s sarcoma . Small bowel study shows multiple intramural nodules (predominantly involving the jejunum) that distort the mucosal pattern
  30. 32. 1-7 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Diffuse bilateral air-space consolidation
  31. 33. <ul><li>treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>incurable </li></ul><ul><li>symptom management </li></ul><ul><li>lifestyle changes – avoid stress, alcohol, drugs, infections </li></ul>
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