Designs for carrying out a particular
language program. Features include a
primary concern with the specification of
linguistic and subject-matter objectives,
sequencing, and materials to meet the
needs of a designated group of learners
in a defined context.
Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices
used in the language classroom for realizing lesson
Latin was used as a lingua franca in western Europe
Main focus was on anaylsis
Development of European vernaculars
Shift back in language study to utility
7. Jan Comenius
Published his books on teaching techniques between 1631-
Some of the techniques which he used and espoused were
Use imitation instead of rules to teach a
Have your students repeat after you.
Use a limited vocabulary initially.
Help your students practice reading and
Teach language through pictures to make it
8. Grammar-Translation Method (early
Systematic study of the prescribed grammar of
classical Latin and classical texts.
Instruction given in mother tongue.
Little use (of language) for communication in
Teacher does not have to be able to speak
Focus on appreciating literature of target
language and translation.
9. SOME PRINCIPLES
Literary languare is superior to
If students are able to translate from
L2 to L1 they are considered
successful language learners.
Ability to communicate in the foreign
lanuage is not a goal for teaching.
Reading are writing are the skills
Classes are teacher centered
10. SOME PRINCIPLES
Native language equivalents are found
for ALL target words.
Learning is emphasized through
similarities between L1and L2.
Studentslearn about the form (grammar
)of the target language
Deductive pedagogical technique is
applied for grammar rules.
LL provides good mental exercise ( use
of memory is promoted)
11. Direct Approach
1886 Phonetics becomes an issue in language teaching.
First true scientific contributions to language learning
Reaction to the Grammar Translation Method
12. Direct Approach
Everyday spoken language.
Culture, history, geography, everyday life of
Target L anguage speakers.
Associate meaning with TL directly
No use of mother tongue allowed
Lesson begins with dialogues and conversations
Grammar rules learned inductively
Teacher must speak the target language
13. Reading Approach
Reaction to the Direct Approach
Reading is viewed as the most
appropriate skill to have in a foreign
language since many people did not
travel abroad (from U.S.)
Not enough teachers could speak
target language well enough to use it
Only grammar is useful for teaching
Emphasis on translation
14. AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH
WWII (1939-1945 )breaks out and U.S. military requires
people to speak and understand foreign languages.
The U.S. government hires linguists to help teach and
15. AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH
• Linguistic and Psychology.Charles Fries (1945) led the way in
applying principles from sturctural linguistics in developing this
• In 1957 principles from behavioral psychology (Skinner) were
16. AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH
• Sentence and sound patterns
• Overcoming native language habits; form new target
• Conduct oral/aural drills and pattern practice.
17. SILENT WAY
1960 Chomsky argued the language acquisition could not
take place through habit formation, but rather a rule
This method shares certain principles with the Cognitive
Unique since it is the expression of a particular group of
• Develop inner criteria for corrections by becoming aware of
how TL works.
• Remain silent in order to subordinate teaching to learning.
Focus student attention; provide meaningful practice.
18. Affective - Humanistic Approach
Language is a process of communication and
the factors which influence the linguistic
Meaningful texts, vocabulary emphasized.
Overcome psychological barriers to learning.
Class atmosphere is viewed as more important
than materials or methods.
Teacher is viewed as counselor or facilitator.
Translation may be used in the heavily in the
initial stages to help students.
19. NATURAL APPROACH
An outgrowth of second language
acquisition research, especially by
Krashen (1981) and Terrell(1977).
This approach assumes that L2 is very
similar to L1.
• Listening recognized as a very important skill
• Listen and respond non-verbally
• Learners should not speak until they feel ready to do so.
• Learners progress by being exposed to meaningful input
just one step beyond their level of competence
20. NATURAL APPROACH
• Vehicle for communicating meaning; vocabulary
• Listen; associate meaning with target language directly.
21. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
In the 60’s and 70’s research gave rise to the
hypothesis that language Learning should start first with
understanding and later proceed to production. (Winitz
The oral modality is primary. Culture is the lifestyle of
people who speak the language natively.
Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized
22. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
TPR is usually introduced in the student’s native
Meaning is made clear through body movements
Main aim is to reduce the stress.
Students speak when they are ready.
23. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
Initially the teacher is the director of all the students
In the second phase sts demonstrate they can
understand the commands by performing them alone.
After learning to respond to oral commands the sts learn
to read and write
24. Communicative approach
This approach grew out of the work anthropological
linguists and Firthian linguist who view language first
As a system of communication.
• It is assumed that the goal of language teaching is
learner ability to communicate in the target language.
• It is assumed that the content of a language course will
include semantic notions and social functions, not just
linguistics structures .
• Students regularly work in groups or pairs.
• Classroom materials and activities are often authentic
to reflect real-life situations and demands.
• Skills are integrated
• The teacher role is primarily to facilitate communication
and secondarily to correct errors. Teachers must be
25. Communicative Approach 2
• Students regularly work in groups or pairs.
• Classroom materials and activities are often
authentic to reflect real-life situations and
• Skills are integrated
• The teacher role is primarily to facilitate
communication and secondarily to correct
errors. Teachers must be fluent
26. Syllabus Type 1
Historically an approach or methods also tends to be
used in conjunction with a syllabus, which is an inventory
of things the learner should master; this inventory is
sometimes presented in a recommended sequence and
is used to design courses and teaching materials.
27. Syllabus Type 2
What sort of syllabuses have been used with the
approaches discussed above?
Most of the above approaches used –implicitly or
explicitly – a structural syllabus which consists of a list
of grammatical inflections and constructions that the
teacher is expected to teach and the learner is
expected to master.
28. Syllabus Type 3
In contrast to the structural approach syllabus the
Reading Approach is text based and this kind of
language course is organized around texts and
vocabulary items with only minor consideration given to
29. Syllabus Type 4
In the Communicative Approach, one type of syllabus is
organized around notions (spatial location, age, degree)
and functions (social transaction and interactions such
as asking for information or complimenting someone).
In this syllabus format grammar and vocabulary are
quite secondary, being taught not in and for
themselves, but only insofar as they help express the
notions and functions that are in focus.
30. Syllabus Type 5
Some adherents of the Communicative Approach,
however, reject any sort of atomistic syllabus, whether
structural or notional-functional. They advocate instead
a communicative syllabus (i.e. a process-based or task-
based syllabus) in which real world and materials are
used to design language courses.
31. What to do ?
What is the solution for the ESL/EFL teacher given the
abundance of current and future approaches?
Read more, more, more …….
32. 4 Considerations
1. asses students needs: why should they be learning
English? For what purpose?
2. Examine instructional constraints; time (hours per
week); class size ( nature of enrolment); materials (set
syllabus and text- or completely open to teacher);
physical factors ( classroom size)
3. Determine needs, attitudes, and aptitudes of
individual students to the extent that this is possible.