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Organic Chemistry Review

Review of Basic Organic Chemistry for Mid-term

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Organic Chemistry Review

  1. 1. AIM: What do you need to know about organic chemistry? ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Study of Substances containing Carbon; the Chemistry of Life!
  2. 2. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY <ul><li>All the Major Chemicals in Living things Contain Carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>The major organic chemicals are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Polymers <ul><li>Monomers Joined Together </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Joins ): Monomers together </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis: Breaks Monomers Apart </li></ul>
  4. 4. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Carbohydrates are sugars and </li></ul><ul><li>Identify sugars by their ending in –ose. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism is the break down of food into sugar for energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Basics sugars are called monosaccharides and are made of a single monomer of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>Linked sugars are polysaccharides and are found in starches and cellulose. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Carbohydrates, I <ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>√ CH2O formula </li></ul><ul><li>√ Used for cellular respiration; </li></ul>
  6. 6. Carbohydrates, II <ul><li>Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>√ 2 Monosaccharides, Joined by condensation reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose (table sugar) √ most common disaccharide </li></ul>
  7. 7. Carbohydrates, III <ul><li>Polysaccharides Storage of energy: </li></ul><ul><li>Starch~ glucose monomers </li></ul><ul><li>Animals: glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides Structural: Cellulose~ most abundant organic compound; </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lipids <ul><li>glycerol and fatty acid </li></ul><ul><li>Fats, phospholipids, steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic; H bonds in water exclude fats </li></ul><ul><li>3 Fatty Acids to 1 Glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated vs. unsaturated fats; single vs. double bonds </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lipids, II
  10. 10. Phospholipids <ul><li>2 fatty acids instead of 3 (phosphate group) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Tails’ hydrophobic; ‘heads’ hydrophilic </li></ul><ul><li>Bilayer (double layer); cell membranes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Proteins <ul><li>Importance: instrumental in nearly everything organisms do; 50% dry weight of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Monomer: amino acids (there are 20) ~ carboxyl (-COOH) group, amino group (NH 2 ), H atom, variable group (R)…. </li></ul><ul><li>Three-dimensional shape (conformation) </li></ul><ul><li>Polypeptides (dehydration reaction): peptide bonds join amino acids together </li></ul>
  12. 12. Carbohydrates (and beyond …) <ul><li>Glucose is the preferred energy source for the brain. Brain function drops off sharply if glucose is in short supply. </li></ul><ul><li>The breakdown of glucose for energy can be traced all the way through glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle and electron transport chain. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lipids <ul><li>Lipids include fats, waxes, and steroids. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids are non-polar and do not dissolve in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids store energy and are the basis for steroid hormone synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphoplipids make up all cell membranes. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lipids (and beyond …) <ul><li>Phospholipids make up all cell membranes and play a large role in determining what gets in and out of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions give phosopholipids their unique properties. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Proteins <ul><li>Proteins are the cell’s molecular machinery. </li></ul><ul><li>Most catalysts are made of protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are linked chains of amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are synthesized by the ribosome from a code made of RNA. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Proteins (and beyond …) <ul><li>Proteins gain their function from the way they fold. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins act as catalysts (ENZYMES) by lowering activation energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin transports oxygen to all tissues and is made of 4 dimers. </li></ul><ul><li>Many proteins use minerals such as calcium or iron to aid in their function. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic Acids are polymers consisting of many nucleotides monomers that serve as a blueprint for proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of nucleic acids: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acids (RNA). </li></ul><ul><li>DNA gains its function from its structure, the double helix. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>The helical backbone is made up of sugar and phosphates. </li></ul><ul><li>Each pair (in DNA) is made of one of the four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to maintain the integrity of the genome, each base can only pair with one other base through hydrogen bonding. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions by lowering the activation energy of reactions that would normally happen anyway. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify enzymes by the suffix –ase: helicase (splits DNA), lactase (breaks down lactose), polymerase (inhibits HIV). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Enzymes <ul><li>This reaction normally happens (black), but is catalyzed by the enzyme (red). Free energy change ( Δ G) is constant, but lowers activation energy (E A ). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes bind substrates (enzyme reactant) into active sites ( pocket or groove on enzyme). </li></ul><ul><li>While the enzyme and the substrate are joined, the enzyme catalyzes the reaction and converts the substrate to the product(s). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Enzymes <ul><li>The most classic example an enzymatic reaction is the hydrolysis of sucrose (table sugar) into glucose and fructose. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Enzymes <ul><li>Another look… </li></ul>
  24. 24. Amino Acids <ul><li>Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Only twenty amino acids account for the amazing variety of proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Each amino acid has a carboxyl end and an amino end </li></ul>