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Media Arch Slideshow

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Slides from student research in Jesse Drew's Media Archaeology.class at UC Davis

Publicada em: Educação, Tecnologia, Negócios
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Media Arch Slideshow

  1. 1. Media Archaeology TCS 005 Winter 2010
  2. 2. The Amazon Kindle The Amazon Kindle is an electronic reader created to replace paper- books with digital files. It was first sold at the end of 2007, amongst a culture of digitizing conventionally physical objects, and making all aspects of the American life condensed and portable. The Kindle service is structured to allow and necessitate the secure purchase of books online, which are then downloaded onto the Kindle and read like a conventional book. The book files are encrypted to put all control of the file’s distribution in the hands of Kindle, rather than the user. Newspapers, internet browsers and PDFs can be accessed and read through the Kindle as well. This is in response to other technology popular at the time, which had many different functions, often unrelated to the original use.
  3. 3. Webcam A webcam is a video capture device connected to a computer or computer network (often via USB or ethernet/Wi-Fi). It typically includes a lens, an image sensor, and some other support electronics. The main function of the webcam was originally to offer the sense of a video camera connected to a public web page, but have since become more commonly used as a videophone or video conference station. Webcams allow for inexpensive, real-time video chatting in messenger programs (such as skype, yahoo, ichat, oovoo, etc.), making it a great device to “call” your friends and family with. Another common use of the webcam is the recording of video files or still images. This allows you to record a video or capture a snapshot of yourself. This is found in many social networking sites, such as YouTube and Facebook, where people post videos of themselves singing a song or pictures of them riding a virtual roller coaster or posing with their faces in a swirl. Webcams have a built-in LED light to prevent hackers, and interestingly enough, have also been used as security cameras to record and save captured movement and sounds onto their computers. Webcams have also been used to assist sign language communication by providing Video Relay Services, where an interpreter relays information between the caller and the deaf receiver. Webcams have been used in both amateur and professional levels, from online dating to YouTube videos to news broadcasts to gaming to even class lectures, making it one of the most popular computer accessories/functions in today’s society.
  4. 4. Daguerreotype: Birth of Photography Developed by Louis Daguerre and available to the world on August 19th, 1839, the daguerreotype was a photographic process that built upon previous photographic techniques such as experimentation with silver nitrate and silver / chalk mixtures in the 13th century. In the early 18th century, Louis Daguerre partnered up with Nicéphore Niépce to expand upon those technologies. After Niépce’s death, Daguerre continued to explore possibilities of creating a still image, eventually focusing on recording images on a copper plate treated with iodized silver. The plate had to be used within an hour and the exposure time was from 10-20 minutes. After the picture was taken, the plate was developed with Mercury heated to seventy-five degrees Celsius. The image was then fixed to the plate in a warm solution of salts, and then rinsed in hot water. The standard size of a daguerreotype print was 8 ! by 6 !. The image on the plate has a milky white appearance and is incredibly detailed, which lead to the title of ‘the self operating process of fine art’. There were many drawbacks to the daguerreotype. First, the nature of the process was such that each picture could not be replicated and was, therefore, unique. Also, the image was extremely sensitive to touch, light and air and if not handled properly would disintegrate; daguerreotypes had to be mounted in an air- tight glass frame immediately. Other drawbacks to this technology include the highly toxic nature of the chemicals used, as well as the reversing of the image (could be corrected with a mirror). These factors made the daguerreotype almost impossible for non-science types to create, expensive and a hazard to human health. Thus, the transition to ambrotype and tintypes was a quick one, regardless of the beautiful, unique look the daguerreotype was able produce. Today, for a pretty penny, you can get a daguerreotype printed by a daguerreotype enthusiast. There are many online communities that advocate the technology. But don’t try it at home! 4
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
  6. 6. Sony Walkman The original Sony Walkman was marketed by Sony in Japan in the year 1979. The idea was to bring to people the new idea of carrying music around with you where ever you went. The engineer on the project was Nobutoshi Kihara, who originally never liked the name “walkman” but was forced to stick to it because a marketing campaign for the walkman had already started. The walkman opened doors for Sony to continue marketing portable music devices such as the “Discman,” which was the name for CD players. 6
  7. 7. The Turntable The turntable was developed after the original phonograph, a device used to play and record sound as early as the 1870’s. The modern table did not gain popularity until the early 1990’s where DJ’s began using the device to mix and match songs and beats. With this new manipulation of sound with the use of phonographs and a mixer came the term “turntablism”. The turntable has the ability to control the speed at which record is played, controlling pitch and beat count, allowing multiple songs to be played together and the same beat rate. The turntable was monumental in the progression of hip-hop and electronic culture. 7
  8. 8. Gameboy The Gameboy was developed by the Research and Development 1 group (lead by Gunpei Yokoi) from Nintendo and launched in Japan in 1989. It is a portable 8-bit game machine designed to provide entertainment. Some musicians also used Gameboys to create chiptune music. Since the debut of the Gameboy, this technology had “contributed to the decline of sales of LCD machines [portable single games].” Portable video game devices (such as the Gameboy) have raised parental concerns because there have been studies that suggested that portable video games caused children’s lack of concentration in school (and life). 8
  9. 9. The Record Player ! Influenced by Thomas Edison’s invention of the phonograph, the record player stands as one of the most popular sources of entertainment. A record is placed on the player’s motor-driven turntable. Rotating at a constant speed, the tone arm is picked up at one end of the player and placed onto the record. The tone arm then touches the groove of the record with its needle (also know as its stylus). As the record revolves on the player, the variations in its groove causes the stylus to vibrate. the stimulus also acts as a converter of the mechanical vibrations into electrical signals, which are increased in size by an amplifier. As the vibrations leave the amplifier, they are passed through a loudspeaker which translates the vibrations into sound. The record player proves to be one of the most influential inventions in history, it being the center of entertainment in restaurants, speakeasies, formal events, and even everyday households. Jenny Wang 9
  10. 10. Nintendo Virtual Boy The Nintendo Virtual boy, released in 1997, was the first 3d video game system to hit the market, and it took the form of a headset/goggles. The unit achieved its 3 dimensional graphics by borrowing from existing parallax technology, which uses one image for each eye, creating the illusion of three dimensions by slightly offsetting the point of view on the images. The system was incredibly innovative, and spawned series such as Mario Tennis and Warioland, but for several reasons, the system ended up as Nintendo’s only game console ever to be seen as a failure. Many people complained about the red screen, which was known to cause headaches after a mere half hour of play, and 3rd party support for the system was dismal. Ultimately Nintendo only shipped 800,000 units. Virtual boy system. A vintage Parallax image viewer. Mario tennis, on the systems red and black display. 10
  11. 11. Amplifier Amplifiers are an integral part of almost all electronic systems – they increase the amplitude of a voltage, current, or power of the input. The most common are Class D amplifiers, or audio amplifiers. Lee De Forest invented the first amplification device, the triode, in 1908. The triode is a vaccum tube with three elements: the filament, the grid, and the plate. Triodes are largely obsolete in modern consumer electronics, being replaced by the transistor, but they are still used in microphone preamplifiers and electric guitar amplifiers. Power capabilities of audio amplifiers vary, since they are used in headphones, televisions, stereos, and even commercial sound systems. The first sound amplifier that resembles what most think of when they think “amplifier” (the big black guitar amps made famous by Fender and Marshall) was invented in 1916 by Bernhard Fritzsch, interestingly enough, it seems as though his invention was completely ignored by the public as Clarence “Leo” Fender is commonly credited with inventing the guitar amp. The social impact of the amp is obvious: it revolutionized sound and music capabilities. Without amplifiers, guitars could not be heard in concerts or in music tracks that also have drums and other, louder instruments. Without amplifiers, things could only be heard as they are—headphones, stereos and all devices we rely on to listen to tunes would be obsolete.! !"#$"%&'()*+%&+,-.&/0(%*"12&03&3"#$"%4/0,& @&*%)0$".&/0(%*"12&03&A)B)-"$)+& !%)*51/671&10(#$&+,-8)3)"%.&/0(%*"12&03&6)1&9:&-+*"#*&;<==>>>?& 11
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
  13. 13. Trade Cards Trade cards originated five centuries ago. Derived from the calling cards of Chinese and later European elite, businesses began using cards to advertise their particular trades, hence the name trade cards. Before street addresses, these cards often depicted directions to the location, images of the actual building or maps. Later on they came to include addresses and attractive images. Eventually tobacco companies created cigarette cards to stiffen packs which came to feature baseball players. Color printing, along with the popularity of baseball led to the creation of baseball cards and other types of trading cards, with an emphasis on the actual trading of the object. Over time, trade cards have led to the modern use of business cards and trading cards. http://wheeling.weirton.lib.wv.us http://www.baseball-almanac.com http://doyle.lib.muohio.edu http://fulton.brooklynpubliclibrary.org Daniel Fink
  14. 14. Liquid Crystal Display The concept of the LCD TV was first envisioned by David Sarnoff in 1956 as a thin “TV-on-a- wall.” RCA did the initial research into LCD technology, but didn’t find it promising. Liquid crystal displays are based on crystalline liquids that align in such a way that they pass light through polarized materials, this phenomenon is known as the twisted nematic effect. When an energy field is applied the crystals scatter and block light. Liquid crystals were first seen by an Austrian botanist, and incidentally the plaque that will one day fill your arteries is made of naturally occurring liquid crystals. The twisted nematic effect was first discovered in 1911 by a French physicist. LCD technology was limited to digital clocks and simple monochromatic screens until the thin-film transistor (TFT ) technology was developed. TFT allowed precise and rapid control of LCD and ultimately allowed applications in phones, televisions, and portable video games.
  15. 15. Moog Synthesizer The Moog Synthesizer was one of the first electronic instruments to gain rapid popular acceptance and eventually became the standard for synthesized music. Invented by Dr. Robert Moog in the 1960’s, the first Moog synthesizer capitalized on transistor semiconductors instead of vacuum tubes to create more compact and efficient amplification system. Dr. Moog patented his device on October 10th 1966 but it wasn’t until three years later that the patent was issued. In this time the synthesizer was growing in popularity due to its wide range of synthetic sounds, size, accessibility, and use in soundtracks. In 1967 it was demonstrated at the Monterey International Pop Music Festival and garnered the attention of rock musicians. However, it wasn’t until Walter Carlos released Switched on Bach in the same year that synthesizers became known as a stand alone instrument. The Moog Synthesizer altered the music world by offering a device which could recreate a variety of sounds and frequencies using a familiar keyboard medium and to this day it remains a viable and highly utilized instrument across many genres.
  16. 16. 16
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  18. 18.   Time Line    Abacus   C1600 Napiers bones  1620 Slide Ruler  1622 Circular Slide Ruler  1623 First Mechanical Calc.  1642 Blaise Pascal Mech. Calc.  1673 Stepped Reckoner  1820 Charle Xavier Arithmometer  1851 Key Driven Machine  1853 The Scheutz Difference Engine:  Printing Calc.  1872 Printing Wheel Calculator   1874 Pin­wheel (Odhner) Calculator    1891 Burroughs’ commercial adding  Calc.  1893 Millionaire Calc.  1900 Steady development of Mechanical  Calc.  The Electronic Calculator   1948 Curta miniature hand­held  me­   chanical Calc.    The electronic calculator is one of the most important technological innovations  1961 first electronic desktop calculators  1962 ­ 1964 Development and commer­ invented. Compared to older calculating devices, such as mechanical calculators, the  cialization of transistorized desktop calc.  1965 development of hand­held elec­ evolution of the electronic calculator has become a small compact device. The elec­ tronic calc.  tronic calculator allows complicated mathematical problems to be rapidly calculated.  1969 first battery powered hand­held  electronic calc.  Mass production allowed calculators to become inexpensive compared to its expen­ 1970 Commercial handheld calc.  1972 development of cheaper calc.  sive predecessor.  The accessibility and the simplicity of an electronic calculator have  1973 Sharp COS Calc.   1974 Texas Instrument miniature calc.  broadened its market allowing a small child to accomplish simple arithmetic to an  1975 Mechanical Calc. production  adult figuring out his taxes.   stopped  18
  19. 19. C am recorder    The first cam recorders were used for television. Television show producers used large quad decks to record video onto 2­inch  wide videotape, as time went by these enormous machines evolved into smaller suitcase sized machines that used one inch or  ¾ inch videotape to record video. When someone wanted to do film they had to drive a truck with the equipment, the decks,  cameras, switching devices, tripods, cables, etc. To the location and set it up. As time went by the cam recorders evolved and  were released to the public and not only to big networks and corporations. The cam recorder has had a major impact in society;  with it people from all around the world are able to record important happenings. At schools we are able to watch videos of  important historic occurrences; we are able to see what goes on around the world. Families are able to record their most  treasured moments and filmmakers are able to transcend their ideologies to the world.  19
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
  21. 21. Musical Pick-up Today, the musical pick-up is primarily used in string musical instruments in order to further amplify it's sound. It can be seen in guitars and violins and even harps. Credit for the invention of it is given to both Leo Fender and Les Paul, who both claim its invention in the early 1950’s. Socially, the electric pick-up has dominated the music industry since the 1950's appearing in both rock and roll and R&B. Particularly in the 1960's and 1970's, with musicians such as Jimi Hendrix, the electric pick up has allowed musicians to further explore the wide region of music and sound. Along with the electrical amplification of a sound signal, guitar pedals and pedals have appeared to further modulate the sound “picked up” from the guitar. Today, the pick-up is still in wide use, more so than ever with the mass production of electric guitars. 21
  22. 22. iPod iPod is a portable media player made and released by Apple Inc. on October 23, 2001. Apple first saw that all the other similar products are either too large and heavy or too small and hard to use because of its unfriendly user interface. Thus, Apple decided to make its own product that revolutionizes the market. Although iPod's first existence receives numerous critiques, Apple still sold well. Its intuitive user interface, large capacity of storage, and association with iTunes, Apple's online music store, revolutionizes the way people enjoy the music. It can also be used as a hard drive. It later becomes an educational tool and military communication tool. Since iPod's existence, other companies in the same business also start to design similar devices. Apple later on released many new updated generations of iPod. A short paragraph describing what your subject is and some highlights in its use, history, social significance, economic impact, or other interesting factors. 22
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
  24. 24. Floppy Disk The floppy disk (aka “floppy disc” or “floppy diskette”) is a familiar form of magnetic data storage media for computers. Today, the 3.5” floppy disk, first introduced on Apple Macintosh computers in the early 1980’s, is still sometimes used but the larger 5.25” (1978) disk is generally considered to be obsolete; both evolved from a cumbersome-looking 8” disk introduced in 1971. Really an intermediate form of magnetic storage, the floppy was preceded by the reel-to-reel tape associated with early computers and is now succeeded by the hard disk, both of which operate on the same basic principle. In general, the magnetic media have a surface coated with a magnetic substance which can be polarized in discrete units along the length of its tracks. One state of polarization represents a 1 and the opposite state a 0, comprising a means for recording binary computer data. This data can then be re-read by the transducer or head. By arranging the tracks radially, (as opposed to lengthwise along a linear reel of tape), data can be read in a random-access manner by moving the head in or out from the center of the disc as it rotates. In comparison to tape or hard disks, the floppy disk is a more portable format. Modern portable media are the optical discs – CD’s and DVD’s – and flash drives, a circuit-based medium. These two media types have almost fully replaced floppy disks due to their small size and huge storage capacity ranging from hundreds to thousands of times greater than the standard 1.44 MB 3.5” floppy. Floppy disks made home-computing possible in the 1980’s by miniaturizing data storage. The term “drive”, as in flash drive, originates with the disk drive, the computer peripheral which contains the rotating mechanism and heads for reading and writing to the disk. 24
  25. 25.   25
  26. 26. 3D Film Andrew Duncan 3D Film is a filming technique that has become more prevalent in modern cinema. Through the use of special motion picture cameras influenced from previous stereoscopic photographic forms, 3D Film can effectively enhance the illusion of depth perception to the viewing audience. 3D Film is not a modern phenomenon, but rather has become significantly cheaper to produce over the last decade. It is for this reason that James Cameron was capable of making his Academy Award Nominated film “Avatar” which has also become the highest grossing film of all time (if we disregard inflation etc). The more frequent use of 3D could be cause for the film industry having its most profitable year, as 7 films released in 2009 found themselves on the top 50 list of highest grossing films. Many modern filmmakers are taking advantage of this IMAX 3D technology. Tim Burton is among them. His next film Alice in Wonderland, like Avatar, was produced to provide unique viewing experience for those who saw it specifically in IMAX 3D. This technology is even being utilized in television. ESPN announced that coming this summer a variety of sporting events are going to be broadcast in 3D. Other networks are following suit. There is without a doubt a new fascination with 3D media and with the great success of James Cameron’s Avatar, companies are more willing to invest in a newer form of media that is getting progressively cheaper to produce. 26
  27. 27. Roland TB-303 Bass Line Synthesizer The Roland TB-303 was released in 1982, marketed as a bass line sequencer to be used by guitarists looking to practice, but lacking a live bassist, or as a tool for creating rough-cut tracks which could later be performed by live musicians. Due to the device’s complicated interface, which made programming realistic sounding bass lines difficult, sales were poor, and Roland ceased production of the TB-303 in 1985. That same year, Earl “Spanky” Smith and Nathaniel Jones (who would later be known as DJ Pierre) began experimenting with a unit purchased from a second-hand shop, recording repetitive melodies while tweaking the various parameter knobs to their extremes, creating squealing and tweeting sounds. These sounds, combined with other, more conventional sounds, came to form the foundation of acid house music, and later became adopted into the mainstream musical consciousness. 27
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
  30. 30. Sound Film  The history of sound film is long and complicated. There was not just one machine which eventually allowed for the synchronization of sound and moving images. The quest to unite audio with motion pictures in the late 19th and early 20th century included three different types of sound recording—the mechanical, magnetic and the photographic. These processes also included alternative methods such as sound effects and ‘talker films’ which fooled the audience into thinking they were watching sound films when really they were sound tricks backstage. This ultimate transition from silent film to sound film had its advantages and its disadvantages. On the one hand, people could actually understand what characters were saying to one another and the music soundtracks added extra effects. On the other hand, however, the dialogue left little to the imagination and it may be argued that because of the new popularity of the sound, directors focused less on the art and special effects that the camera brought to the table. The Kinetescope The Vitaphone 30
  31. 31. T he Computer Mouse • Practical Use: – The purpose of the computer mouse is to provide a human to computer track and point interaction. It’s mainly defined as a control device for computers with a  graphical user interface (GUI). The mouse today has advanced to other purposes besides pointing and tracking. • History: – The first computer mouse prototype was invented by Doug Engelbart, an American inventor at the Stanford Research Institute in 1963. The mouse patent #3,541,541 was issued on 11/17/1970 for a X-Y position indicator for display systems or computer monitors. Later on came the “ball” mouse in 1972 evolving from the “track wheel”  mouse invented by Engelbart’s associate Bill English. • Social Significance: – With the invention of the mouse, more sophisticated computer games began to (F irst Engelbart Mouse) emerge, advocating entertainment within the household instead of traditional child play out in the playground. As computer programs begin to advance, more intensive mouse movements are required which may affect upon muscular or skeletal injuries within the hand. • Economic Impact: – The first commercial mouse was included in the first commercial Xerox computer and wasn’t sold separately. Apparently, the grip and appearance of the mouse became  a demand for customers as well. Companies took advantage of this, and started a whole new market selling mouse as separate accessories. Without the invention of the mouse, the computer market may not be as nourished as it is because of its lack of simplistic control techniques. (Apple Magic Mouse) 31
  32. 32. Video Games Video Games are common place today, and just considered another form of entertainment. Interestingly they originally came out of missile defense systems and later shifted to a form of entertainment, which became popular in the 1970s and 1980s. The first video games were simple games, like Pong and Pacman, which are primitive compared to today’s games that range from the realistic lifelike graphics of the Playstation 3 to the fully interactive games on Nintendo’s newest system, the Wii. Video games have sparked many controversies over violence and the ideas that they perpetuate stereotypes and negative body images. They have also been implicated as a factor relating to the problem of child obesity and the population of the United States becoming more sedentary in recent years. Conversely the new craze of “Exergaming” through the use of such games as “Dance Dance Revolution” and “Wii Sports” is helping the population of the USA, who are less inclined to take part in traditional exercise incorporate most physical activity into their lives. The video game industry has also had important effects on the economy, creating jobs in the technology industry, where competing video game companies, such as Sony and Nintendo, pour millions of dollars into developing the next new innovative system and getting in out to retailers first in order to dominate the market. Video games have impacted the environment as well, mostly negatively, as many unsold and unwanted games end up in landfills. However, environmental regulations have caused some companies, such as Sony after illegal levels of cadmium were found in its controllers, to adopt more environmentally sustainable practices. 32
  33. 33. Video Arcade Games Video arcade games have their roots in the early “arcade games” in the midways of amusement parks and fairs that had games such as shooting galleries, ball toss games, dart throwing, and early coin operated games that told fortunes or played music. In the 1930’s mechanical pinball machines were added to the list of arcaded games. Years down the road, the first coin operated video game was created at Stanford University in 1971, and was called Galaxy Game. It was a coin-operated version of the already existing game Spacewar. For years after that, video arcades began popping up as stand-alone businesses and as parts of restaurant, bars, and other businesses. They became social gathering places, where patrons could experience the latest and greatest in video games while competing with other enthusiasts. However, as their popularity wore off and console systems and home computers became more powerful, arcade games saw a decline. To make up for it, modern day console games now focus more on the skill and performance of the gamer, rather than game content. To compete with online console gaming, they also continue to promote their use as socially-oriented experiences, where gamers can meet and compete. Main Parts: ! A monitor ! Printed circuit boards (PCB) or arcade system boards ! A power supply ! A marquee ! A bezel ! A control panel ! Coin slots, coin returns and the coin box 33
  34. 34. V irtual Reality Virtual reality, or VR, is a technology which allows users to interact with a computer- simulated environment. Most virtual reality environment are primarily sensory information such as visual experiences, which either display on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic, or sound through speakers or headphones. Despite above, the experimental and advanced systems have included limited force feedback, or tactile sensory information. Users can interact with a virtual reality environment either through the use of standard input devices, such as mouse and keyboard, or through multimodal devices like electric wired gloved. VR is use for simulated the real world environment for both military training, like parachute training, and high technology games. In general, it is currently difficult to create high-definition virtual reality experience due to the technical limitations; however, those limitations are expected to be overcome as processor, image and data communication technology become more powerful over time. VR can be traced back to 1950s where Morton Heilig wrote in “Experience Theater” that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewers into the onscreen activity. The first prototype of VR was built in 1962, along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging multiple senses. As of now, VR has boosted the graphic displays to reach a point of near realism. It changed the perceptions of new media, such as movie, that will move into a new realm of three dimensional sound and images. The most significant example of experiencing VR is the movie, Avatar. It has revolute and improve the movie industries to a new level of 3-D images and brought $2,394,949,760 gross revenue to the economics of movie industry.  34
  35. 35. The Brownie Camera: “You push the button we do the rest” . Patent Number: 725,034 . Filed by Frank A. Brownell on July 25th, 1900 for the Kodak Company . Originally the Brownie was marketed as a child’s toy, with the camera being named after popular fairytale characters of the era: Brownies. They were Goblins or Fairies that could only be seen by humans gifted with second sight. . 150,000 cameras were shipped and sold in their first year of production surpassing expectations . Kodak had a Brownie Camera Club for children and an aggressive marketing plan in popular magazines rather than trade magazines to promote the Brownie . With the introduction of the Brownie camera anyone could take pictures when previously it had been designated to professionals . There have been over 125 different Brownie models since its first introduction in the market . 1900-2010 The Brownie Camera is 110 years old! . It was the first in home point and shoot affordable camera. Previously cameras were upwards of $20.00 and the Brownies $1.00 price made it accessible to more people. 35
  36. 36. THE GRAPHICS TABLET Originating from the Teleautograph (an apparatus, patented in 1888, that sends information via an attached pen, utilized to send an image or signature), the graphics tablet is a popular item for computer graphics artists. There are various categories of graphics tablets, however, the passive tablet is notably the most commonly and commercially utilized graphics tablet. The tablet functions through interaction between the pen and an electromagnetic field generated within the designated space of the pad. The user can input into the tablet with the pen and pad, which is then translated onto the computer screen as a replication of what is drawn or written on the tablet. Wacom typically manufactures the most widely distributed graphics tablets, ranging from small, three by five inch tablets, to large eighteen by twelve inch tablets (there are also direct screen tablets, allowing the user to directly input upon the screen). This technology has greatly increased the capacity for creative innovation in the field of computer graphics and graphic artistry, as the graphics tablet provides a much greater capacity of control in the form of pressure sensitivity, angular recognition, and greater control through the pen apparatus than that of a mouse. 36
  37. 37. TEAC Portastudio 144 The TEAC Portastudio was the first inexpensive four-track cassette tape recording device. It was released in 1979. The Portastudio was priced so that the hobbyist musician could afford it. It allowed amateur musicians the ability to experiment with multi-track recording and create music by themselves that they previously could not produce. This helped start the home recording phenomenon. The Portastudio led to a rise in affordable recording equipment. It was one of the factors that changed the dynamics of the music industry. Musicians no longer have to depend on a label to make an album because self-production is an affordable and viable option. This has led to an increase in the quantity and variety of recorded music created. 37
  38. 38. DVD Digital Versatile Disk/Digital Video Disk The DVD was developed to replace both the compact disc (CD-ROMS) and the VHS. It was created to store five to ten times the data as a CD, improve audio and visual quality, and increase convenience by allowing a person to simply put a DVD into a player and press play. In 1995, two competing DVD standards had been designed- Philips and Sony had created the Multimedia disk just as Toshiba, Time Warner, and many other companies had introduced the Super Density disk (SD). In order to avoid a repeat of the VHS/Beta debacle (in which the JCV VHS eventually became the standard VCR format, making Sony’s BETA format obsolete), many organizations, like the Computer Industry Technical Working group and the Hollywood Video Disc Advisory Group grouped together and came up with a compromise. They would not indorse either of the competing formats and created a new single standard in 1996, the DVD-ROM, that was a combination of both formats (however, more was taken from SD). Japan marketed the first DVD discs and players in 1996 and the U.S. followed in 1997. Below is a patent created by Reiji Fujikawa of the NEC Corporation in Tokyo, for a Digital Versatile Disk. In his abstract he states that his goal was to create an optical disk that would reproduce video disks without the need to be plugged into a computer. It included a computer connection signal line, a DVD drive to pull information from the disk, and DVD controller to control the DVD even when it is not connected with the computer.. 38
  39. 39. Pager Presentation During the 1990s and the early 2000s, pager devices were increasingly demanded by consumers. Pagers played a significant role in society’s developments in mobile communication and in transmitting information instantaneously, The pager is a noteworthy invention that preceded the cell phone. The pager is the foundation and framework that today’s cell phones evolved from. The typical beeper contains an FM receiver, a tone-decoding device, and an audio amplifier. More complex beepers have alphanumeric capability and are able to display names of and messages from callers. During its period of popularity, firms constantly searched for new capabilities that could be added to the pager such as entertainment and news updates. Pagers are still used in hospitals. 39
  40. 40. ATARI Company logo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tari VCS, later released as 2600. 40
  41. 41. iPhone first generation iPhone Apple iPhone first generation Form factor Candybar Dimension (H x W x D) 115 x 61 x 12 mm Display 3.5-inch (diagonal) widescreen Multi-Touch display Display resolution 480-by-320-pixel resolution at 163 ppi Available Colours Black Audio format supported AAC, Protected AAC, Mp3 VBR, Audible (formats 2,3, and 4) Video formats supported H.264 video, MPEG-4 video Memory 8GB Memory expansion No The first generation of iPhone was released on June 29, 2007 Headphone Stereo earphone with built-inch microphone Camera 2 mega pixels Connectivity Bluetooth Wi-Fi GSM frequencies 850,900, 1800,1900 It’s a revolutionary phone and a device that is changing our 3G No behavior and the expectations we have of mobile devices. Its beauty is in Voice recording Yes its details. There are no buttons on the face of the device -- dialing, typing, Video recording No and all user interface is controlled through the touchscreen. A lot of FM radio No Headphone socket 3.5mm customers are attracted its all-in-one: a camera, iPod, DS and phone. Messaging SMS, e-mail Battery life is supposedly 8 hours of talk and 24 hours of music playback. It Browser Safari has many interesting facts such as sensors to adjust the light of the screen Viewable document, image types JPEG, word, excel, and pdf based on the light of the surroundings. Ever since its release, every new External button controls Sleep/wake mobile data device is evaluated against the iPhone's specs. Since Apple Ring/silent signed a contract with Cingular, other companies such as Verizon, Sprint Volume up/down Home and Tmobile were dealing with meeting the intense demand for an Sensors Accelerometer alternative product. Therefore, phone companies that produce media Proximity Sensor phones and software developers are able to duplicate some of the iPhone’s Ambient light sensor fuctions. With that said, the iPhone of Apple had set the bar in the phone Battery Lithium ion battery industry. Other industry leaders such as Nokia, Motorola, Samsung and LG Battery Life 8hours of talk time, 24 hours of are going to spend years trying to create something that even comes close music and 7 hours of video play to competing with the functionality and design of the iPhone. back and 6 hours of internet usage with a standby period of just over 10 days. Operating System Apple OS X 41
  42. 42. VIDEO HOME SYSTEM  TAPE CASSETTE The VHS is video tape recording standard developed during  the 1970s. It provided an extended playing time, faster rewinding and  fast‐forwarding time, and also had a substantially simpler design. It  battled against Sony’s Betamax and emerged victorious. It was a  staple in everyone’s living room and the music industry used it for  music video singles. Many companies and industries also used the VHS  to produce tutorial videos for purchasers and stores.  People also used  it to record their own home videos. The system was dominant in the  1990s yet with new technologies being constantly developed, the  sales steadily dwindled with the gradual acceptance of the optical disc  format. Currently, the only VHS tapes being produced are blank ones.  42
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
  44. 44. Theremin The theremin, patented in 1928, was developed by Russian scientist Léon Theremin, and is considered one of the earliest electronic instruments. It is particularly significant in that it’s not played with physical contact with the instrument, but through the air, giving it an ethereal quality and challenging previously held notions about music and the connection between human movement and sound manipulation. The instrument, extremely difficult to master, is played by moving one’s hands near two antennas, one controlling pitch and the other volume. Its eerie sound made it popular for the soundtracks of many early horror and science fiction films. People felt it sounded futuristic, alien, mysterious, scary, exotic, and strange. It has been used in popular music (e.g., Bee Gees), rock, classical, avant-garde, electronic, dance, and psychedelic music, among others. As an essential part of electronic music history, the theremin influenced the development of many subsequent musical instruments, such as the Moog synthesizer. Leon Theremin saw applications for his research and the technology of the theremin—as a proximity sensor and signaling apparatus—not only in music, but in electrical science as well. He proposed similar technology for hidden alarm systems. Also important, is the theremin’s context within an increasingly electronic America, and the role of electronics in the development of communism in Russia.! ! 44
  45. 45. !"#$%%& !"#$%%&'$('#'()(*&+'*,#*'-#('.&/&%01&.'20"'*,&'3%$4.'50++64$*)'*0'"&#.'#4.'-"$*&7'8"&#*&.'$4'9:;9'3)'<06$('!"#$%%&'#*'*,&'#=&'02' *-&%/&>'&#5,'%&**&"'$('+#.&'61'02'#'(&"$&('02'($?'.$22&"&4*'.0*'10($*$04(7'@#5,'.0*'$('"#$(&.'$4'/#")$4='10($*$04('*0'50""&(104.'*0' *,&'%&**&"7'!"#$%%&'-#('3#(&.'04'#'50++64$5#*$04'*&5,4$A6&'5"&#*&.'3)'8,#"%&('!#"3$&"'20"'B#10%&047'C,$('50.&'6(&.'#'*-&%/&' .0*'()(*&+'#4.'-#('"&A6&(*&.'20"'*,&'(0%.$&"('*0'50++64$5#*&'-$*,'&#5,'0*,&"'#*'4$=,*'-$*,06*'%$=,*>',0-&/&"'!#"3$&"D('&220"*(' 2#$%&.7'E*'-#('.&*&"+$4&.'*0'3&'*00'50+1%$5#*&.'20"'*,&'+$%$*#")'#4.'-#('"&F&5*&.7'E4'9:;9'<06$('!"#$%%&'+&*'8,#"%&('!#"3$&">' #4.'.&*&"+$4&.'*,&'1"03%&+'-$*,'*,&'1"&/$06('()(*&+7'C,&'1"03%&+'-#('*,#*'*,&',6+#4'2$4=&"'506%.'40*'"&#.'(0'+#4)' ()+30%('(0'"#1$.%)>'#4.'*,6('<06$('!"#$%%&'"&.65&.'*,&'()(*&+'2"0+'*-&%/&'.0*('*0'($?7' 45
  46. 46. !"#$%&'(")"*"+) !"#$%!&'(#)#*#+),!-%#.%!$')'/0112!0331#'4!*+!*'1'5#4#+)! 0)6!5#6'+,!#4!6'(#)'6!72!*%/''!(0.*+/48!*%'!')%0).'6!/'4+19*#+),! *%'!4.0))#)$!424*':,!0)6!*%'!)9:7'/!+(!(/0:'4!3'/!4'.+)6!#)!0! 3#.*9/';!<+/!*'1'5#4#+),!0)01+$!4#$)014!3/'.'6'6!6#$#*01!0)6!%#$%! 6'(#)#*#+)!04!/06#+!-05'4!-'/'!.+)*#)90112!*/0)410*'6!#)*+! 3#.*9/'4!0)6!4+9)6;!=9//')*12,!*%'!>)#*'6!?*0*'4!#4!*/0)4#*#+)#)$! (/+:!0)01+$!*+!6#$#*01!*'1'5#4#+),!(9/*%'/!#)./'04#)$!*%'!6':0)6! (+/!%#$%!6'(#)#*#+);!&#$#*01!*'1'5#4#+),!-%#.%!#)!#*4'1(!%04!%#$%'/! @901#*2,!/'4+19*#+)!4933+/*,!0)6!70)6-#6*%!4933+/*!*%0)!0)01+$! *'1'5#4#+),!(+11+-4!4*0)60/64!4'*!72!*%'!A650).'6!B'1'5#4#+)! ?*0)60/64!=+::#**''!CAB?=D;!B%'4'!4*0)60/64!#).196'!*%'! ').+6#)$!0)6!*/0)4:#44#+)!+(!4+9)6!0)6!5#6'+,!-%#1'!*%'2!014+! 3/+5#6'!$9#6'1#)'4!(+/!@901#*2!1'5'14;!&#$#*01!*'1'5#4#+)!%04! %#$%'/!4*0)60/64!*%0)!0)01+$,!-%#1'!"&BE!/'3/'4')*4!*%'!*+3! 4*0)60/6!+(!6#$#*01; B%'!)'-!06+3*#+)!+(!6#$#*01!*'1'5#4#+)!0)6!%#$%! 6'(#)#*#+)!#4!.9//')*12!.094#)$!0!3/+71':!(+/!4+.#'*2;!F0)2! 9)G)+-)!*'.%)#.01!*'/:4!0/'!7'#)$!*%/+-)!0*!*%'!504*!)9:7'/4! +(!.+)49:'/4!-%+!#).+//'.*12!0449:'!*%0*!4-#*.%#)$!*+!6#$#*01! 09*+:0*#.0112!:'0)4!5#'-#)$!"&;!B%'/'!0/'!.'/*0#)!/'.'#5'/4,! .071'4,!0)6!'@9#3:')*!*%0*!0/'!)'.'440/2,!(9/*%'/!./'0*#)$!0)! '.+)+:#.!#:30.*!04!.+)49:'/4!:94*!43')6!'H*/0!:+)'2!+)!*+3! +(!*%'!0.*901!*'1'5#4#+)!4'*;! 46
  47. 47. H E A DPH O N ES The invention of the headphones is built upon the critical innovations of Edison, de Forest, and Armstrong. The audion tube and the amplifier made it possible for the first loudspeakers to be created. From here, it has been speculated that Nathaniel Baldwin created the very first radio headset in 1910. His invention only became famous however when the U.S. Navy bought 100 sets during World War I. Today, headphones can be found in every aspect of telecommunications, most prominently in the field of aviation. They are also used in a wide breadth of subjects, from classrooms, music production, speech recognition activities, even in scientific tests concerning schizophrenia. Its status as a trendsetter in communication places headphones as a critical link in today's technological advancements. With the invention of the portable music player, headphones have also became a necessity for one’s personal entertainment. 47
  48. 48. Blu-ray Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is an optical storage medium, much ray like CD and DVD. The major feature of Blu- -ray is its enormous storage capacity. Currently, the highest available storage on a Blu Blu-ray disc is 200 GB. Due to its massive storage capabili capabilities, the disc is used for high-definition video as well as for video games for storing rich definition media content. Blu-ray’s very existence came at quite a struggle. At ray’s one point, Blu-ray was in direct competition with a competing format ray called HD DVD. And that spurred a race to obtain support from major d film studios. Image source: http://blogofwishes.com/wp http://blogofwishes.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/08/_sony-bdrdl.jpg bdrdl.jpg 48
  49. 49. View-Master The View-Master has its roots clear back to the Victorian Era. It was called Stereovision: the art of viewing two nearly identical photographs simultane- ously, one for each eye, creating the illusion of binocular depth perception (3-D). Today’s View-Master is the product of William Gruber and Harold Graves: Portland, Oregon, 1930’s. It was originally designed as an alternative to a postcard, but was picked up by the US Military to help artillery and air- craft ID during WW2. Gruber’s idea was to use the stereoscope, the camera that took stereo-vision photographs, and the new Kodachrome color film to make the postcards. He teamed up with Graves, the president of Sawyer’s Photographic Services, and they presented their idea at the 1930 World’s Fair in New York City. Tru-Vue became their major rival, and in 1951 they pur- chased Tru-Vue gaining the rights to feature Disney characters on their reels. This gave them the golden opportunity to sell reels at the then brand new Dis- neyland amusement park in Los Angeles, as well as stills from Disney movies and TV programs. 49
  50. 50. Apple TV Apple TV is a streaming media device that allows its’ users to watch content from a PC or Mac (via wirelessly or through ethernet) on an HDTV screen (for maximum performance) by using the Apple Remote to scroll through content. On its’ initial release on March 21, 2007, the services available through Apple TV were the iTunes Store, Flickr, Youtube, and MobileMe. HDMI, video-component, and audio inputs are found on the back of the device, but the corresponding cables are not included (only the AC power cord). The first models designated 40 GB of space, but an update on May 31, 2007 (dubbed “Take Two”) announced the shipment of the 160 GB (phasing out the previous models) which allowed its’ users to save their purchases and media on the device itself. The preliminary appearance of Apple TV (nicknamed iTV at the time), was a culmination and evolution of their newly released iMac G5 series desktop and the Front Row media entertainment application that came along with the OS. Although Apple TV’s chief executive Tim Cook pronounced the device’s income to be three times more than their first quarter release, the still- brewing small audience that streams digital content has slowed down experimentation and production; Steve Jobs confirming this still new venture as a continuing “hobby” amongst their other product lineups. This said, the current uses of TiVo/DVR and streaming applications like Netflix are still fair levels of play in terms of being competition for Apple TV. 50
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. V irtual Reality Goggles/G lasses Virtual reality goggles are typically goggles or glasses which are designed to be used in a virtual reality experience. Scenes are displayed right there on the inside of the goggles so that the user feels as if they are actually there because everything appears so close and they cannot see anything other than what is being displayed so there are no distractions. Many of the virtual reality goggles are not actually goggles, but head mounted displays that wrap around the face. While the technology improves the goggles will probably evolve into something that resembles regular glasses. The goggles are also usually worn with a headset for the purpose of isolating sounds from the surrounding environment and providing a source of audio input. This is relatively new technology, so it does not have much of a history. The products that are being released right now will most likely not last very long because they will be outdated very quickly. It will take some time before this technology is near perfect to the point where every family will have a pair of these glasses or possibly a pair for every person in a household. Besides being used to simply watch videos, virtual reality goggles can be used for much more. They can be used for gamers to feel like they are actually the person playing and other objects, such as gloves could also be used to make the game more realistic. The goggles are also used for situations that may otherwise be unsafe. They are used in flight training so that there is no risk of the pilot in training messing up and crashing a real plane and injuring or killing themselves. Virtual reality goggles are also used for medical purposes, such as testing a person’s eyesight. The person being tested wears a different lens on each eye and then they use a mouse and point to where the object is. One may also find a pair of virtual reality goggles at a dentist so that the patient can have a more pleasant experience and escape from reality. This also makes it easier for the dentist to work. Virtual reality goggles have many uses, but the technology is not quite complete and they are not really bought for household use yet. 52
  53. 53. Polaroid Camera Edwin Land is credited with inventing the Polaroid instant camera and film in 1947, ten years after he founded the Polaroid Corporation. He was given the idea to create instant film after his daughter complained of how long it took to develop pictures. The first instant camera required the photographer to lay the negative of the picture over the positive in order for the image to develop. In later years, Land figured out a way to condense the process down to a single sheet, making it even easier and faster to take photographs. Professional photographers picked up the Polaroid cameras to take pictures before shooting with 35 mm film in order to catch mistakes early. Polaroids are also employed in different aspects of the modeling world. For example, modeling agencies take quick polaroids of potential models, and even at runway shows, polaroids are used to show how an outfit should look. In February 2008, the Polaroid company announced that it would discontinue production of its iconic instant film due to significant drops in sales since 2000. This cease in production resulted in the shutting down of three factories and 450 workers being laid off. However, a new company named “Impossible,” comprised of former Polaroid workers are venturing to give Polaroid’s instant film a rebirth. They have even bought all the machinery and equipment from Polaroid’s Dutch factory and production will start sometime this year. 53
  54. 54. The fax machine is a device that sends and receives printed pages or images over telephone lines by digitizing the material with an internal optical scanner and transmitting the information as electronic signals. Alexander Bain was the first to patent the fax machine in 1843. He devised an apparatus comprised of two pens connected to two pendulums, which in turn were joined to a wire, that was able to reproduce writing on an electrically conductive surface. In 1862, Giovanni Caselli built a machine that he called the Palentelegraph and it was based on Bain’s invention. The Palentelegraph sent a fax from Paris to London of a wanted man's picture which caused worldwide attention as the near instantaneous transmission of information was now possible. The fax machine was very large, expensive, and difficult to operate at first and it was mainly used by the government. By the 1980’s, fax machines were being designed to be much smaller, faster, and easier to  use. This greatly improved the use of the fax machine. It has been estimated that there were approximately fifty thousand fax machines in the USA in 1970. By the end of the 1980’s there were over four million fax machines in use. Today, the fax machine can be found in most offices and homes. There are expensive fax machines that have better resolution and speed and there are inexpensive fax machines that don’t have great speed or resolution. It has become a significant part of the workplace because it allows transmission of documents without having to do it in person. 54
  55. 55. Nintendo Wii The Nintendo Wii consol has been considered revolutionary in the gaming world. It bridges body movement with a virtual environment. The game system, released No- vember 2006, was the highest selling game system throughout the United States by selling more in a single month than any other gaming system1. The Nintnedo Wii, through engaging our bodies’ in a playful way, allows consumers to buy a sliver of youthfuleness. The Nintendo Wii is now seen in places once foreign to game systems. In retirement homes and rehabilitation centers the Nintendo Wii has become very popular amount the residents2. The “ease” of usablility brigns entertainment to a much broader audi- ence and taps a new source of revenue. The designers of this system promote “natural” and “intuitive” movement and motion. By associateing movements with the body, and actions of the game on the video screen, the notion how to play becomes easier to understand. Culturally we know what a game of basketball looks life. Therefore, when playing a basketball Wii game the player intuitively knows that they should attempt a shoot like on the court. Utilizing the body and movement allows players to learn and more impor- tantly, enjoy the game quicker. In the world of the Wii a seventy-year-old grandparents can easily box and beat their grandchild. Players have ability to display the speed of youth; users hit fastballs in home run derby, and dodge punches in Mike Tyson’s Punch-Out. The Wii, much like make-up, essentially sells a feeling of youthfuleness, and health. The lightheart- ed interactions with the Wii foster an association between technoloy and ageless- ness. 1. Purchese, Robert. “Wii and DS trash competition in US.” Eurogamer. Robert Purchese, 15 Jan. 2010. Web. 20 Jan 2010. <http://www.eurogamer/net/articles/wii-and-ds-thrash-competition-in-us>. 2. Wischnowsky, Dave. "Video games not just for grandkids Seniors at retirement community love Wii in their lounge just as much astheir young kin do." Chicago Tribune. Chicago Tribune, 17 Feb. 2007. Web. 19 Jan. 2010. <http://archives.chicagotribune.com/2007/feb/17/news/chi- 0702170205feb17>. 55
  56. 56. Sony Walkman The walkman, created in 1979, was the first personal headphone stereo system. Although not a huge technological breakthrough, the walkman revolutionized personal media. The original invention was created by combining a Sony Pressman (cassette recorder) and headphones. The final design, the TPS-L2 (pictured right), was then named and marketed based off of its portability. This new concept of having a personal, and highly portable, stereo device was extremely popular and inspired a large amount of competition from other companies. Consumers reaped the benefits of various companies competing to make their products smaller, cheaper, and better sounding. The Walkman revolutionized portable music, allowing people to listen to what they wanted, when they wanted, giving them personal musical freedom. The walkman, found on many people’s hips, grew popular rapidly and quickly became a cultural icon. As time progressed and new technologies were developed, the walkman evolved to include other formats. One such format was the MiniDisk, which used a type of compression created by Sony. This started a format war that eventually led to the demise of the MiniDisk in favor of other, more universally compatible, formats. This failure would eventually lead to Sony investing a large amount of money into Blu-ray, in order for their created format to survive another format war. 56
  57. 57. “The type writer was not a revolution but a revelation”(Our Own  Devices, p. 187). T he type writer at first was viewed by companies and consumers as impersonal. However, with the industrial revolution causing businesses to expand the type writer had gained acceptance by businesses because mass production of handwritten material wasn’t logical or timely. T he Q W E R T Y keyboard was designed to “slow down” typists and to prevent jams that keyboards prior to this design encountered. It was initially expensive the first type writer was $125 in modern money. T he military and businesses standardized the Q W E R T Y keyboard therefore, when other better inventions, such as the Dvorak keyboard were invented they didn’t  catch on because companies didn’t want to keep retraining typists.  INTERESTING FACT:  SALES MEN USED TO SHOW  THAT “TYPE WRITER” COULD BE WRITTEN ON ONE  ROW OF THE KEYBOARD. THIS IMPRESSED A LOT OF  CONSUMERS. 57
  58. 58. Photo Booths Meredith Sward ! Photo booths are an iconic photographing system. Before photo booths the most accessible way to get one!s picture taken was to go to a studio. Anatol Josepho perfected the design of the photo booth and made it easier and faster to use in the 1920!s. He made it to so that negative film was not necessary in the process. Once his design was created the photo booth became popularized they were found internationally. Photo booths revolutionized the way people took pictures. When people went to a studio to get a portrait they often had a very serious expression on their face. When photo booths first came out people continued with that look, but then in the 1930!s people warmed up to the idea of posing in different ways. With photo booths people were allowed more agency on how the photos turned out. The person in the photo booth was the photographer as well as the subject. Today variations on photo booths are everywhere. In the 1990!s digital photo booths became popular which allowed for the subject to change backgrounds and messages on the photo along with deleting pictures. There are applications now on computers that mimic the photo booth experience. 58
  59. 59. !! The Theremin The Theremin is an electronic instrument used in the composition of music. It is unique in that the player does not ever have physical contact with the instrument, but rather, two antennas on the device detect the frequency and the amplitude of signal to output depending on where the player’s hands are positioned. Theremins are connected to loudspeakers and have been used in various contemporary genres, from rock to movie soundtracks. The instrument was developed in 1919, patented in 1928 by Leon Theremin in Russia, and is considered the pre-cursor to the modern day synthesizer. Electronic music, a style that can be heard in almost every American genre of music today, is thought to have originated with the Theremin’s creation. In movies, it helped create the eerie sounds associated with the bizarre, alien, and supernatural in early cinema. Though its economic impact and spot in the public eye is relatively obscure, the Theremin has spawned a cult of followers, often avant-garde artists who use it in production or musical performances. From an evolutionary standpoint, the device can be seen as an initial catalyst of human technology controlled by motion. Motion-tracking, whether it be in the Nintendo Wii or in future computers and screens that let us control them by gesture alone, is a further endeavor into man’s ability to control the world with his hands alone, eliminating the bulky and overpopulated array of tools he has developed over the years. Arguably, the Theremin was man’s first venture into such a profound idea. ! 59
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  61. 61. ROM Cartridge The ROM Cartridge. Or the Read-Only Memory Cartridge. Or even a game pak. Chances are we’ve all run into it at one point in our lives. ROM cartridges allow instantaneous loading of information onto any home computer. This was advantageous for the development of video games for the very same reason, lack of load time. Until recently with the advent of CD’s and DVD’s, game cartridges were the most popular way of making games. Another advantage they had for video game development was their rather hardy design, which allow their plastic exteriors to resist damage. The game pak remained the most dominant storage medium for video game consoles until the advent of the Playstation and Sega Saturn. By this point most game consoles were shifting towards using CD’s, with Nintendo being the only remaining user of cartridges. This would cost them in the long run, however, as history shows us. Nintendo eventually abandons the ROM cartridge in favor of DVD’s as well, attributing the change to improved load times for disc-based games. 61
  62. 62. V C R (V ideocassette Recorder) Ampex’s VRC-1000 (first Commercial Videotape Recorder) JVC’s HR-3300 (first VHS VCR) The arrival of videotape/videocassette recorders made it easier for consumers to record their favorite shows, movies and other programs on television with the ability to watch it time and time again. Different companies created models that were eventually affordable to the general public, although it led to a lawsuit between Sony and Universal Studios due to copyright violations of consumers. A VCR is a type of VTR (videotape recorder) that is used to record audio and video images of a television broadcast using removable videotape cassettes. The first “VCR” was created by Ampex Corporation in 1956 but was originally called a VTR in that it saves images and sounds by converting the images into electrical impulses to be saved onto magnetic tape. Ampex’s model was bought only by television companies due to its price of $50,000 per machine. Several years after, both Sony and Philips introduced their version of a VTR to the general public but just like Ampex, these models were still too expensive for consumers. In 1965, Sony remodeled their original reel-to-reel VTR (used magnetic tape that was held by a reel instead of a cassette) and intended it for home use. The first VHS VCR that we still see today wasn’t introduced until 1977 by Japan Victor Co. (JVC), thus starting the videotape format war between VHS and Betamax. Even though VCRs had its success, the decline of VHS tapes occurred when DVDs were first introduced in 1997. Today, both VHS tapes and VCRs are both practically obsolete due to sale of DVD players and DVD/VCR combos. In the past 5 years, VHS tapes are no longer sold in stores like Best Buy and other video stores. With the improvement of technology, VCRs will once again take on a new form of recording and playing images through DVD players. 62
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
  64. 64. DSLR – Digital Single Lens Reflex Analog Photography goes Digital as Film images become digital 1 and 0’s. Cost of entry was initially high for digital and only reserved for professionals in News Media and Fine art, but has come down to affordable prices that the average consumer can now afford. Changed society from traditional scrap booking to Myspace/facebook to satisfy the need to document our own lives. Digital files mean that individuals can now take many more pictures than film at lower cost since there is no more need to develop film. Also introduces the issue of copyright and privacy on the internet, ranging from celebrity scandals to photographers stealing images from other photographers. Spawned new sub-culture of amateur photographers whom now are competing against seasoned professionals for clients, driving down prices and forcing professionals to come up with new ways of retaining customers. However, while photography as whole has shifted to Digital there are still hold-outs whom refuse to use digital, only shooting film and developing themselves as to ‘preserve’ the art. Fun Facts. First Digital Cameras used floppy disks for storage! Image courtesy: pimall.com Image courtesy: dpreview.com 64