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A. NEO-CLASSICISM – consequence of strong reaction to Mannerist and Rococo styles of painting Neo-Classical school – represented by Jacques Louis David. -advocated a return to classical antiquity, a revival of the principles of ancient statuary and painting. PAINTERS (Neo-Classicists) -believed that in the representation of man and his world in the canvas, all elements of the picture must be submitted to a hierarchy dictated by the intellect. -disliked shadows because they destroy the flat surface of the painting. -scorned color for interfering with the severe and imposing lines of their nobly inspired world. -produced stillness of form (motion seems to be drained out of the canvas) as the figure calmly asserts itself in an almost pulseless world.
JACQUES LOUIS DAVID – one of the greatest portraitists of the French School. (because of objectiveness and noble conception of the human form) - his paintings are characterized by the superiority of line and volume over color and of thought over sensation. - uses cold tones without any modulation of color scale to stress the statuesque effect of his human forms. Important works: The Oath of Horatii, The Sabines, Portrait of Madame Recamier, Napoleon Crossing the Alps
JEAN AUSGUSTE DOMINIQUE INGRESS – achieves harmony of composition by making a laborious selection of features provided by his model. - stressed stillness of forms drained of all motions in the flat surface of his canvas. Outstanding works: Recumbent Odalisque Mademoiselle Riviere Turkish Bath
B. ROMANTICISM – contemporary of Neo-Classicism. - emotion and color are the new objectives. PAINTERS - stressed the heroic element often based on the Romantic poets. - showed preference to dramatic action than to absolute beauty. main elements: mysterious, fantastic, morbid, pathos and tragedy chief devices: brush works and effects of light and shade (led to painting out-of-doors)
FRENCH REPRESENTATIVES a) Eugene Delacroix – excelled equally in historical pieces, still life, landscapes and animal painting. - sought the principle of expression through use of all resources of color, based on vibration of shadows. Main works: Liberty Leading the People, The Lion Hunt, Women of Algiers b) Theodore Gericault – works are filled with suffering and death. The Raft of the Medusa – expressed his rebellion against Classicism and set off the Romantic revolution.
Liberty Leading the People Women of AlgiersThe Raft of the Medusa The Lion Hunt
c) Honore Daumier – caricaturist who satirizedsocial classes rather than individuals. - his paintings showed animpressionistic, linear, and dramatic style andability to convey character through facialexpression and gesture. The Legislative Belly. Perspective Pelagie. (Souvenir Remembrances of St. View of the Ministers Seats of 1834. de ste Pélagie) 1834. Joliv). 1833. Mr. Joliv (Adolphe
SPANISH REPRESENTATIVE Francisco Goya – expressed all the horrors of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain. - used a varying scheme of colors (slate blue, white, and red) for dramatic effect. The Execution of May 21, 1808 La Maja Desnuda La Maja Vestida
ENGLISH REPRESENTATIVES a) John Constable – founder of modern landscape painting in England. - concentrated on the native English landscape. - his art showed a fusion of ground foliage and sky into a unit through the use of large brush marks. The Haywain Park Wivenhoe – 1821 Weymouth Bay
b) Joseph Turner – subject matter:light, space, and atmosphere - master of form anddiffused light Rain, Steam and Speed – solidity ofform is lost in a colored mist that obscurethe sun The Slave Ship
C. REALISM or NATURALISM – true to unglamorized life. - founded on the conviction that the idealized scenes of classical and neo-classical painters are not true to life.OUTSTANDING REALISTS a) Gustave Courbet – spearheaded this movement - represented simple people in an unidealized attitude through his arts. b) Camille Corot – represented landscape art of the nineteenth century (Mother Nature) c) Edouard Manet – freed painting from all irrelevant rational and literary elements - concentrated on scenes of the everyday life of his own time. - created impressionism
In an artist’s studio, Courbet Edouard Manet A Girl at the Folies Bergere Beautiful Irish The Luncheon on the Grass Woman, Courbet OlympeThe Alarm, Courbet Girl Combing her Hair, Corot
D. IMPRESSIONISM – revolutionary aesthetic movement; painters began painting out-of-door instead of solely in the artificial atmosphere of the studio. - important break away from the classical painting which still dominated the academic then.OUTSTANDING PAINTERS a) Claude Monet – Father of Impressionism outstanding works: Poppies, Water lilies, Impression, Sunrise b) Edgar Degas – (art) faithful portrayal of reality and by an exteriorization of his own virile personality and individual will. outstanding works: Rehearsals of the Ballet on the Stage, The Dancing Class, Absinthe, The Ballet Girl Fixing Her Slippers.
The Rehearsal of the Ballet Girl Fixing her Slippers Ballet Onstage, probably 1874 Edgar Degas (French, 1834– 1917)Absinthe The Dancing Class, ca. 1870 Edgar Degas (French, 1834–1917) Waterlilies, Monet
c) Augusto Renoir – essentially a figure painter. - (paintings) show nude reflectinga warm glow mingled with pearly iridescence in the pinksivories, and bluish tint of flesh to heighten the richness oftexture and to give figures of joy of life.OUTSTANDING WORKS The Girl with a Watering Can, Nursemaid and Childd) Paul Cezanne – Father of Modern Art - showed well-balanced compositionswhere he showed all details perfectly related to oneanother. - said to have foreshadowed Cubisticstyle of painting & belonged to the post-impressionistperiod.OUTSTANDING WORKS Landscape at Viaduct, The Card Players, Still life
The Girl with a Watering Nursemaid andCan, Renoir 1876 Child, Renoir, 1895 Landscape at Viaduct, Cezanne, TheStill life, Cezanne,1883-87 Card Players, Cezanne,1890-92
e) Paul Gaugin – belonged to the post-impressionistperiod. - (art) flattening of figures oncanvas, use of colors (vividness) and expression ofsome inner vision of life.WELL-KNOWN WORKS I Raro Ti Oviri (Under the Pandamus Tree), 1891 La Orana Maria Yellow Christ
E. EXPRESSIONISM – painters rejected the idealized and the beautiful as subject of art. - sought to represent the agony, suffering, and excitement of the human conditions. (highly emotional & tend to rouse strong feelings [pity & horror] ) - colors and compositions are used in order to give expression to an emotional state.PAINTERS a) Vincent Van Gogh – spiritual father of expressionism - evoked feelings of terror, anguish, and turmoil.OUTSTANDING WORKS Landscape at Arles, Sunflowers, Starry Night, Cypress Tree
Starry Night Cypress TreesLandscape at Arles Sunflowers
b) Henri Matisse – leader of Fauvists (group of expressionists painters who made use of wild color and uncouth design in their pictorial color. - emphasized on color, design, and pattern.OUTSTANDING WORKS Lady in Blue – bold, curvilinear rhythms Odalisque - compactness and spatial relations Hindo Pose of a Woman
F. Cubism (1906-1914) – made use of arrangements of geometrical forms to represent what is seen. - concerned with dercribing the structure of objects. - intellectual movement basic principle: revolt against the traditional idea that representation ought to conform to what the eye sees at one particular moment.PAINTERS: a) Fernand Leger – showed clear arrangement of solid geometric basic forms b) George Braque – first to experiment in Cubistic art
Violin and Pipe: "Le Quotidien"Woman Reading The Portuguese, 1911 (Basel)December 20, 1913 Paris, after Serigraph Contrast of Forms, Leger
c) Pablo Picasso – most outstanding exponentof Cubistic art - characterized distortion ofhuman forms by wild use of color intended toheighten emotionsOUTSTANDING WORKS Night Fishing at Antibes, Les Demoiselleds D’ Avigon Guernica (masterpiece), The Musicians, 1921 Spanish, 1881-1973 (Spanish, 1881-1973)
G. ABRSTRACT ART / NON-OBJECTIVE ART (1910) - reaction against naturalistic art - DE STIJL- chief initiator - object doesn’t recall or evoke reality - developed into Surrealism, Futurism, Non- Objectivism, Symbolism, etc.PAINTERS a) Wassily Kandisky – main exponent of Non- objectivism. - works show complete elimination of all semblance of natural objects b) Paul Klee – Non-objectivism painter - painted in form of drawing/water color (that of a child’s) work: Abstractions
All Saints’ Day, Kandinsky, 1911The Red Spot, Kandinsky, 1921 Deluge, Kandinsky, 1912
c) Piet Mondrian – showed preference for thesimplest form of rectangle coordinated with the purestcolor to build up large architectural patterns related tothe functions of the wall. works: Composition in Red, Yellow, Blue, Composition 2, 1922.d) Jackson Pollock – originator of AbstractExpressionism (aka action paintings) - created decorative schemes wherehe used not only his hands, but his whole body also ashe sprawled his canvas on the floor and applied thepaint as he moved over the canvas works: Ocean Greyness, Number 12, 1952e) Amadeo Modiglaiani – representative of Futurism - reveals large flat figures oftaut and simplified arabesque forms. works: The Apprentice, MME. Hebuterne
f) Marc Chagall – painter of the literary andfantastic pictorial art. works: The Village and I, Three Candlesg) Juan Gris – showed Cubistic influence - created measured surface patternsand broad simplified designs in an architectonicmanner. works: Fruit Bowl on a Checkered Cloth, Still Life withPearsh) Max Ernst – exponent of Surrealism work: The Elephant of the Celebesi) Antoine Pevsner – representative ofConstructivism (work: Gray Scale)j) Frank Kupska – made Discs