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Curriculum for Special Education

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  1. 1. RealismPhilosophical Foundations of Curriculum
  2. 2. Realism Realists asserts that there are more important, unchanging truths to be learned. These truths are to be found in the real world of things that exist apart from any intangible ideas about them. Realists view reality as essentially materialistic.
  3. 3. Realism Realists view the world in terms of objects and matter. Realists place a high priority on teaching young people to develop their thinking abilities. Realism was the name applied to the theory which advocated that education must be concerned with all of life’s realities.
  4. 4. The School of Realists This school is concerned with the world of ideas and things that are fixed within established subject matter and are generally accepted. Theory and principles tend to come first in the learning experience; application or practice follows.
  5. 5. The School of Realists They want curriculum specialists to identify school subjects that help student organize information and make judgments based on the careful consideration of evidence. Classrooms would be highly ordered and disciplined, like nature, and the students would be passive participants in the study of things.
  6. 6. The School of RealistsThe realists believes in the: Importance of practical education in the study of foreign language in the schools. In the role of the teacher in guiding the personality development of the children.
  7. 7. The School of Realists In the importance of arithmetic and physical science to total educational development In the value of games, free play, and physical activity.
  8. 8. The School of Realists Worthwhile knowledge is to be gathered, organized, and systematized in a rational form and then dispensed to the young may be truly educated and so that knowledge itself may be preserved. To realists, the curriculum is knowledge organized for delivery to the student’s mind.
  9. 9. The School of Realists The student’s mind is considered as a receptacle into which information is stored. Textbooks and Lectures prepared by experts, laboratories, films, testing and biographical studies are important instruction materials for helping children learn what they should learn.
  10. 10. Classical TraditionsAristotelian Realism Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E) He believed that people should be much involved in studying and understanding the reality of all things. Aristotle believed that everything had a purpose and that humans’ purpose is to think.
  11. 11. Classical TraditionsReligious Realism Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) His Philosophy combined with realism with Christian doctrine, developed and offshoot of reality called Thomism, in which much of contemporary Catholic education is rooted.
  12. 12. Modern Realism DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN REALISM Modern realism developed out of attempts to correct such errors, and these corrective attempts were at the heart of what today is called scientific revolution that swept Western culture.
  13. 13. Modern Realism Francis Bacon and John Locke was the two most outstanding realist thinkers. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) His famous work Novum Organum, in which he challenged Aristotelian logic. Bacon opposed Aristotelian logic primarily because he thought that it yielded many errors, particularly concerning material phenomena
  14. 14. Modern Realism John Locke (1632-1704) Locke was empiricist. He respected the concrete and practical but distrusted abstract idealisms; consequently, what we know is what we experience. People experience the qualities of objects. Whether these are material or ideational experiences.
  15. 15. Contemporary Realism Has tended to develop most strongly around concerns with science and scientific problems of a philosophical nature. Hilary Putnam (1926-) Attempted to construct a variant form of realism he called “internal realism”
  16. 16. Contemporary Realism John R. Searle (1932-) Accepts the traditional realist view that an external world exists independent of human consciousness and that the truth of statements about that world is dependent on how well those statements correspond to the external world.
  17. 17. Realism As A Philosophy ofEducation Realism is a complex philosophy because of its many varieties: classical realism, religious realism, scientific realism, and others. The primary confusion over realism could be between a religious realism and a secular or scientific realism.
  18. 18. Realism As A Philosophy ofEducation Religious realism would show how similar Aristotle’s philosophy is to that of Plato and Aquinas. Secular realism would relate Aristotle’s work Scientific philosophy through the works of Bacon, Locke and Rusell
  19. 19. SummaryReality Consisting of sensation and abstractionValues Absolute and eternal; based on nature’s lawsTeacher’s Role To cultivate rational thought; to be a moral and spiritual leader; to be an authorityEmphasis on Learning Exercising the mid; logical and abstract thinking are the highest formEmphasis on Curriculum Knowledge based; subject based; arts and sciences; hierarchy of subjects: humanistic and scientific subject