Introduction to Research Methods in the Social Services 08

12 de Sep de 2017

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Introduction to Research Methods in the Social Services 08

  1. AS6230: Introduction to Research 8
  2. Qualitative methods and analysis
  3. Qualitative Research: What is it?  Understanding the world we live in by answering questions like:  How opinions and attitudes are formed?  How people are affected by the events that go on around them?  How and why cultures have developed in the way they have?  What are the differences between groups?
  4. The Reseacher’s Role “Being There”, “Getting Nosy” and “Looking Over Others’ Shoulders” (Wolcott, 1995)
  5. The Four Main Types  Phenomenology: describing events, situations, experiences or concepts.  Ethnography: studying peoples and cultures  Grounded theory : developing new theory  Case study: studying a specific case or set of cases
  6. The Researcher's Role Being a learner ‘Sucking in’ the atmosphere of the field Reflecting on your own experiences
  7. The Researcher's Role the Emic Verses the Etic Emic (Insider) verses Etic (Outsider) diliemmas
  8. Sampling in Qualitative (and some Mixed) Research  Sampling in qualitative research never seeks to generalize to an entire population; it wants to tell a story from that population  There is recognition of bias as the sample is non-random and often small  The sample MUST represent some aspect of the phenomena being studied in the research question
  9. Sampling in Qualitative Research: focus  Maximum variation  Homogenous sample selection  Extreme case sampling  Typical case sampling  Critical case sampling  Negative case sampling
  10. Sampling in Qualitative/Mixed Research: Techniques  Convenience/opportunistic  Quota (choosing groups and numbers)  Purposive/criterion-based  Snowball  Comprehensive
  11. Your Turn Positivist/Post-Positivist Constructivist Feminist Ethnic Marxist Culture Mixed  Select five sampling techniques  Describe what questions they could answer for each paradigm  Describe what types of cases you could focus on to answer your question  Describe the limitations of each technique
  12. Fieldnotes
  13. Fieldnotes  Sit alongside other techniques  Detailed notes and reflections of the field  Three types  Descriptive  Methodological  Reflexive  Occur after/before – rather than during
  14. Descriptive Fieldnotes  Include observations  Describes the field – including maps, setting descriptions, and individuals
  15. Methodological Fieldnotes  Reflections on methodological approaches being used  Notes on any changes to any approach being used
  16. Reflexive Fieldnotes  Journaling of own learning/experiences/ thoughts throughout the process  May sit within or alongside descriptive and methodological notes  Technically seen as journaling of experience
  17. Dilemmas  What dilemmas and issues to research does the practice of observation bring?  How can fieldnotes counter these issues and dilemmas?  What else can the researcher do to ensure that the story makes sense intrinsically (on an emic level) and extrinsically (on an etic level)?
  18. Observation
  19. Why Observe?  To develop a theory  To prove/disprove a theory  Making use of an “opportunity” (Wolcott, 1995)  Provide a thick description to analyse  Provide an instrument of triangulation (alongside interviewing and fieldnotes)
  20. What to observe  Interactions  Between people  Between people and settings  Between people and yourself  Behaviours  Reactions  Routines  Interactions  The Context/Setting  The overt and the covert
  21. How?  Traditional  Eyes, pen, and paper  Technological  Cameras/Video/ICT  Combination  Trad+Post  Even the post involves a level of the traditional
  22. To what degree/level  Four phases of observation  Scoping  Descriptive  Focused  Selective  Each involves a different focus/depth
  23. Phase One: Scoping  Familisation with the setting  Setting mapping  Apparent rules/structures  General impressions  Your own reactions  Any thoughts/hypotheses  A reflexive tool  Jottings and diagrams
  24. Phase Two: Descriptive  Detailed descriptions of settings, interactions, and behaviours  Focuses on questions that can be addressed through observation - the inquisitive eye  Uses delimiters and descriptors for current details and future reference
  25. Phase Three: Focused Observation  Descriptive observation focusing on specific descriptive questions:  Space  Objects  Time  Behaviours  Individuals
  26. Descriptive Questions Space Object Act Activity Event Time Actor Goal Feeling Space Object Act Activity Event Time Actor Goal Feeling From Spradley (1980)
  27. Descriptive Questions Space Object Act Activity Event Time Actor Goal Feeling Space Object Act Activity Event Time Actor Goal Feeling
  28. Phase Four: Selective Observation  The focusing down of ‘focus observations’  Looks at filling in the gaps  Providing other dimensions to focused observations and the phenomenon in question  Focuses on the specifics  Individual  Event  Behaviour  Context
  29. Observation and Technology  What are the strengths of involving technology as an observation tool?  What ‘new’ dilemmas arise from using technology as an observation tool?  Do paper and pen still have a role to play alongside technology?  What is this role?
  30. Time to go Observing