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Oceans and seas are interconnected bodies of salt water covers about ¾ of the earth’s surface 1) Atlantic Ocean 2) Pacific Ocean 3) Indian Ocean 4) Arctic Ocean 5) Southern Ocean * Pacific is largest ocean * waters near Antarctica now called the Southern Ocean
The ocean is constantly moving, circulating through currents, waves, tides Motion of ocean helps distribute heat on the planet - winds are heated and cooled by ocean water Currents-act like rivers flowing through the ocean Waves - swells or ridges produced by winds Tides - the regular rising and falling of the ocean - created by gravitational pull of the moon or sun
Hydrologic Cycle - the continuous circulation of water between the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth - water evaporates from the earth’s oceans and plants into the atmosphere - the vapor eventually falls back to earth as precipitation (rain, sleet, hail or snow)
Lakes hold more than 95% of all the earth’s freshwater Freshwater lakes, like the Great Lakes, are result of glacial action - Lake Baikal in Russia is world’s largest freshwater lake Saltwater lakes form when outlet to sea is cut off: - streams and rivers carry salts into lake - salts build up with nowhere to go - Caspian Sea in Western Asia is world’s largest saltwater lake
Lake Baikal is the largest and deepest freshwater lake in the world. - Over 1 mile from surface to the bottom - said to contain 20% of the earth’s fresh water! -very clean lake, home to over 1200 unique plant and animal species
Caspian Sea is 750- mile-long saltwater lake -largest inland sea in world
Rivers move water to or from large bodies of water Tributaries are smaller rivers, streams that feed into larger ones Rivers and their tributaries connect into drainage basins Drainage Basin – an area drained by a major river and its tributaries
-World’s longest river-4,132 miles long!-Drainage basin covers 10%of Africa
Landforms are Landforms include: - Mountains naturally formed - Valleys features on the - Plateaus surface of the earth - Islands - Volcanoes Look on page 34-35 - Canyons to see all the - Peninsulas different types of - Lakes landforms. - Rivers - Bays - Etc.
Continental shelf — sea floor from continent’s edge to deep ocean Sea floor has ridges, valleys, canyons, plains, mountain ranges
Islands are formed by volcanoes, sand, or coral deposits Coral formed island Volcano formed island
Mountain chains also cover parts of the ocean floor The largest mountain range is the Mid- Atlantic Ridge (thousands of miles long)
Mt. Everest is technically not the largest mountain in the world. Muana Kea in Hawaii is a dormant volcano that stands 13, 800 ft. above sea level. However, a significant part of the mountain is under water. When measured from its oceanic base, Mauna Kea is over 33,000 ft. high— significantly higher than Mount Everest.
During the winter months, Mauna Kea also receives an ample amount of snow. Hawaii is probably not the first destination that might pop into your head for skiing, but if tropical snow is your bag, then Hawaii is the place to be! The best months to visit for skiing are February and March. Temperatures average around 75-80 F, so you can split time between the mountain and the beach.
Relief — difference in landform elevation from lowest to highest point. Four categories of relief: - Mountains - Plateaus - Hills - Plains Mountains have great relief, whereas plains Physical maps like the one above have very little. show landforms, bodies of water and elevation or relief.