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Geography Chapter 2.2

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Geography Chapter 2.2

  1. 1. Bodies of Water and Landforms
  2. 2.  Oceans and seas are interconnected bodies of salt water covers about ¾ of the earth’s surface 1) Atlantic Ocean 2) Pacific Ocean 3) Indian Ocean 4) Arctic Ocean 5) Southern Ocean * Pacific is largest ocean * waters near Antarctica now called the Southern Ocean
  3. 3. Pacific Ocean
  4. 4. Indian Ocean
  5. 5. Atlantic
  6. 6. Arctic Ocean
  7. 7. Southern Ocean
  8. 8.  The ocean is constantly moving, circulating through currents, waves, tides Motion of ocean helps distribute heat on the planet - winds are heated and cooled by ocean water  Currents-act like rivers flowing through the ocean  Waves - swells or ridges produced by winds  Tides - the regular rising and falling of the ocean  - created by gravitational pull of the moon or sun
  9. 9.  Hydrologic Cycle - the continuous circulation of water between the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth - water evaporates from the earth’s oceans and plants into the atmosphere  - the vapor eventually falls back to earth as precipitation (rain, sleet, hail or snow)
  10. 10.  Lakes hold more than 95% of all the earth’s freshwater Freshwater lakes, like the Great Lakes, are result of glacial action - Lake Baikal in Russia is world’s largest freshwater lake Saltwater lakes form when outlet to sea is cut off: - streams and rivers carry salts into lake  - salts build up with nowhere to go  - Caspian Sea in Western Asia is world’s largest saltwater lake
  11. 11.  Lake Baikal is the largest and deepest freshwater lake in the world. - Over 1 mile from surface to the bottom  - said to contain 20% of the earth’s fresh water!  -very clean lake, home to over 1200 unique plant and animal species
  12. 12.  Caspian Sea is 750- mile-long saltwater lake -largest inland sea in world
  13. 13.  Rivers move water to or from large bodies of water Tributaries are smaller rivers, streams that feed into larger ones Rivers and their tributaries connect into drainage basins Drainage Basin – an area drained by a major river and its tributaries
  14. 14. -World’s longest river-4,132 miles long!-Drainage basin covers 10%of Africa
  15. 15.  Landforms are  Landforms include: - Mountains naturally formed  - Valleys features on the  - Plateaus surface of the earth  - Islands  - Volcanoes Look on page 34-35  - Canyons to see all the  - Peninsulas different types of  - Lakes landforms.  - Rivers  - Bays  - Etc.
  16. 16.  Continental shelf — sea floor from continent’s edge to deep ocean Sea floor has ridges, valleys, canyons, plains, mountain ranges
  17. 17.  Islands are formed by volcanoes, sand, or coral deposits Coral formed island Volcano formed island
  18. 18.  Mountain chains also cover parts of the ocean floor The largest mountain range is the Mid- Atlantic Ridge (thousands of miles long)
  19. 19.  Mt. Everest is technically not the largest mountain in the world. Muana Kea in Hawaii is a dormant volcano that stands 13, 800 ft. above sea level. However, a significant part of the mountain is under water. When measured from its oceanic base, Mauna Kea is over 33,000 ft. high— significantly higher than Mount Everest.
  20. 20.  During the winter months, Mauna Kea also receives an ample amount of snow. Hawaii is probably not the first destination that might pop into your head for skiing, but if tropical snow is your bag, then Hawaii is the place to be! The best months to visit for skiing are February and March. Temperatures average around 75-80 F, so you can split time between the mountain and the beach.
  21. 21.  Relief — difference in landform elevation from lowest to highest point. Four categories of relief:  - Mountains  - Plateaus  - Hills  - Plains Mountains have great relief, whereas plains Physical maps like the one above have very little. show landforms, bodies of water and elevation or relief.
  22. 22.  Himalaya Mountains
  23. 23.  Peel Plateau, Canada
  24. 24.  Chocolate Hills, Philippines
  25. 25.  The Great Plains, United States
  26. 26.  Topography — the configurations and distribution of landforms Topographic map shows vertical dimensions, relationship of landforms