2. Natural Vegetative Propagation Plant
• Natural Vegetative Propagation Plant
happen when plant grow and develop
naturally without human intervention.
• The most primitive members of the plant
kingdom, green algae,
reproduce asexually (offspring only have
one parent) by fission (splitting).
• Other plants can reproduce by the asexual
process called fragmentation (breaking
3. Natural Vegetative Propagation Plant
• The remainder of
(offspring with parents
from each sex) by
releasing gametes (repr
• Male reproductive cells
are called sperm
• female reproductive cells
are called eggs.
Spores are reproductive cells that are
able to develop into a new individual
without fusing with another cell (in
contrast, seeds are formed when male
and female gametes join together)
In plants, spores can be found on non-
seed bearing plants including green
algae, mosses and ferns. Often, the
spores are located on the underside of
the leaves and are carried to a new
area by wind or rain.
Spores, unlike seeds, are less likely to
be eaten by animals, but they are at
risk of being consumed by bacteria and
Flowers are what make flowering plants
flowering plants! Flowers provide the
mechanisms for sperm to find eggs, thus
leading to fertilization and development of
The outermost parts of the flower which
typically surround the rest of the flower are
greenstructures called sepals.
Inside of the sepals are the petals, which
are typically colourful. Petals on flowers are
also modified leaves which serve a similar
function as bracts.
Next are the stamens, each of which
contains a filament topped by pollen-
The innermost part of the flower is
the carpel, which contains the ovary (where
the eggs are located). The pollen from
another flower must enter the ovary and
fertilize the ovule in order for a seed to
• Seeds are embryonic (immature) plants that are
enclosed in protective seed coats. Seeds often
contain stored nutrients in the endosperm, which
is rich in oil, starch and protein.
• Seeds can be dispersed (sent to new places) by
wind (can be lighter or structured to be air-
• by water (can float so they can drift down rivers)
• by animals (can have barbs to catch on animal’s
fur or can be eaten and dispersed through an
• Seeds are a more evolutionarily advanced form of
plant reproduction than spores and are present in
both gymnosperms and angiosperms.
• In gymnosperms the seeds are covered by
the scales of cones, while in angiosperms the seed
becomes covered with a fleshy or hard fruit.
Female cones (A) produce ovules and male cones (B), which are much
smaller and not as visible, produce pollen (which is visible as a
This is to improve cross-fertilization (being fertilized with the
pollen of another plant) and avoid self-fertilization (being
fertilized with its own pollen).
The tiny, lightweight pollen of one conifer is more likely to be
carried by the wind to female cones of a different conifer than
upward into its own female cones.