2. Groups And Teams
Two or more people who interact with each other to
accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.
A group may be defined as an organized system of two or
who are interacting and interdependent,
who have common motives,
3. a group can be comprised of people of the same race or
two or more people with common interests, objectives,
and continuing interaction.
Two or more people
People see themselves
There is interaction
A group whose members work intensely with each other to
achieve a specific, common goal or objective.
A group of people with complementary skills who are
committed to a common mission, performance goals, and
approach for which they hold themselves mutually
A small number of members with shared leadership who
perform interdependent jobs with both individual and group
accountability, evaluation, and rewards.
5. A team is...like a car in that it consists of multiple parts
joined together to accomplish a particular task
A team is a group of people who come together
temporarily to achieve a purpose.
Teams often are difficult to form.
It takes time for members to learn how to work together.
All teams are groups but not all groups are teams.
Come together to share
information and perspectives
Focus on individual goals
Produce individual work
Individual and mutual accountability
Frequently come together for
discussion, decision making, problem
solving, and planning.
Focus on team goals
Produce collective work products
Define individual roles,
responsibilities, and tasks
Concern with one's own
outcome and challenges
Purpose, goals, approach to
work shaped by manager
Define individual roles,
responsibilities, and tasks to help
team do its work; often share and
Concern with outcomes of everyone
and challenges the team faces
Purpose, goals, approach to work
shaped by team leader with team
Members responsible for their
Members tend to focus on
themselves because they are
not sufficiently involved in
planning the unit's objectives.
Member’s collective performance
Members feel a sense of ownership
for their jobs and unit, because
they are committed to value
based common goals that they
9. The Stages of Group Development
American organizational psychologist
Bruce Tuckman (1965)
Group is initially coming together.
Group members get to know each other and familiarize them selves.
Extraverted outspoken members may rapidly assume some kind of
Group members look to the leader for direction.
Members have a desire for acceptance by the group and fitting in.
Why are we here? What are we doing?
What is our goal, our purpose?
Members are sizing each other up–checking out personalities and
talents of other members.
Members focus their discussion on the task at hand, not worrying
Feelings going through members include insecurity, nervousness.
They are asking themselves
“do i belong?”, “Will i be accepted by the group?”
Set ground rules for group.
Group need to identify their purpose, develop group norms,
identify group processes, define roles, build relationships and
Group usually need a strong leader who can help the team go
through its forming activities.
This stage is characterized by tension, competition, and
conflict among group members
Group members disagree on direction and leadership.
Questions arise about who is responsible for what and what
the rules are?
Some members may remain silent while others attempt to
Some members question authority and competency of the
The group leader has to raise the conflict issue and deal
A period of "testing-out" the leaders. Disagreements and
The initial leaders may not survive this period: it is the
most uncomfortable phase of the group's life.
Group need to learn how to resolve conflict; clarify their
roles, power, and structure; and build consensus through
Group need leaders who is willing to identify issues and
In the end, roles are eventually allocated
Leadership is shared and cliques dissolved.
Conflicts are resolved and there is a stronger sense of belonging
to the group.
Creativity is high.
People know where they fit in and what is expected of them.
Closeness begin to develop between group members.
Members Work Together Developing Close Relationships &
feelings of Cohesiveness
Group need to learn to engage in more sophisticated problem-solving
and decision-making, continue the use of effective strategies for
conflict resolution and take greater levels of responsibility for their
leaders become less directive, team members feel empowered, and
multiple leaders emerge.
Internal group structure now sorted, Group Identity takes shape.
The group begins to do its real work.
Now the group is in high gear and highly productive
Work and progress commences on the basis of a relatively
stable group structure.
Group members can now focus on the task and care for other
members of the group.
Group identity is complete, group morale is high, and
group loyalty is intense.
Moving towards goals and completion.
Group members Work towards Getting their jobs done
it’s often difficult to identify the leader, because
everyone is sharing in leadership.
This stage occurs when the tasks are completed and there no
longer is a need for the group to exist
Completion and disengagement.
Separation and ending from tasks and members.
Pride and accomplishment may be felt.
recognizing the sense of loss felt by group members.
This stage includes recognition for participation (awards) and an
opportunity for group members to say good bye.