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Plan For Accessibility - TODCon 2008

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Introduction to web accessibility, why it is important, and how to incorporate it from the start of your project.

Publicada em: Tecnologia, Design
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Plan For Accessibility - TODCon 2008

  1. From concept to implementation Presented by Denise R. Jacobs Planning for Accessibility
  2. Overview of Accessibility For the purposes of this presentation, "accessibility" refers to making web sites accessible to people with disabilities, and at the same time to people using different operating systems, web browsers and devices.
  3. Who Cares? “If anybody asks me what the Internet means to me, I will tell him without hesitation: To me (a quadriplegic), the Internet occupies the most important part in my life. It is my feet that can take me to any part of the world; it is my hands which help me to accomplish my work; it is my best friend — it gives my life meaning.” — Dr. ZhangXU
  4. Accessibility matters to… The User The Client User Interface Designer(s) The Search Engine The Host
  5. 7 Real-Life Situations where Web Accessibility is a Must 1) Users cannot see. 2) Users cannot hear. 3) User cannot move. 4) Users cannot understand complex text. 5) Users have slow Internet connections and the images either take too long to download or do not download at all. 6) Users are not native speakers and have difficulties understanding the foreign language. 7) The situation prevents for the user from using their hands, eyes or ears to access a web page.
  6. Knowledge is power Know yourself, know your audience It's important to make sure that you know what outcome you want with the end-product of your website and how your site will best serve your audience. ~ 10% of the population has disabilities What are your audience's needs? What are your internal needs?
  7. If the users have… sight disabilities  correct page semantics for screen readers  audio equivalents to audio pieces  color schemes optimized for contrast and people with color blindness Know what to provide in each situation
  8. Know what to provide in each situation, 2 If the users have…  hearing disabilities  text equivalents to any audio pieces  motor disabilities  easily navigatable pages (by multiple methods: click, tab, keyboard)  content chunked well  cognitive disabilities  content chunked well  clear, simple presentation of content  content written in clear, simple language
  9. Know what to provide in each situation, 3 If the users have…  different browsers and operating systems  thorough cross-browser testing  alternative media  alternative stylesheets  updated easily in the future: progressive enhancement  correct page semantics (proper HTML coding)  properly styled implementation that can be altered
  10. Trends in accessibility Adhering to Web Standards: Following the specifications created by the W3C for the version of markup or scripting language that you are using.
  11. Trends in accessibility Web Standards make for good business  Accessibility  Usability  Compatibility  Substantially increased performance  Higher search engine rankings  Powerful designs
  12. Trends in accessibility Standards Harmonization "Standards Harmonization" refers to the adoption of a consistent set of international technical standards for accessibility of:  Web content  browsers and media players  authoring tools
  13. Accessibility and Your Website Project Integrate accessibility standards into design process Examples of design requirements for people with different kinds of disabilities include:  Visual:  described graphics or video; well marked-up tables; keyboard support, screen reader compatibility  Hearing:  captioning for audio, supplemental illustration
  14. Accessibility and Your Website Project (continued)  Physical, Speech:  keyboard or single-switch support; alternatives for speech input on voice portals  Cognitive, Neurological:  consistent navigation, appropriate language level; illustration; no flickering or strobing designs
  15. Site wireframing and designing Incorporating accessibility into wireframes and design – what to look for • The wireframes/design should have logical and consistent navigation. • Elements should be grouped and relationships between elements should be evident. • The design should not rely on color alone to convey information. • As a client, do NOT require browser pop-up windows for your site (pop-up divs are different, however).
  16. Site wireframing and designing Some (potentially) tough design choices:  Submit buttons – standard buttons have full functionality, whereas Javascript buttons may pose accessibility issues.  Use (and/or abuse) of Ajax – Ajax is a combination of technologies that is not reliable from an accessibility standpoint. Be sure that any Ajax desired on the site is proven to be accessible.  Color - luckily, most of the unusable color combinations are also visually unappealing. However, it is still important to test the colors for contrast and color blindness.
  17. Site wireframing and designing The Goal: Graceful Transformation  “Graceful Degrading” – backwards degrading: the site works well in its simplest form.  “Progressive Enhancement" – while users are still able to see everything with a basic browser, JavaScript can overwrite and add functional richness if necessary. Also, if the site is redesigned, conceivably, only styles would need to be changed, but the page semantics and hierarchy are still solid.
  18. Site wireframing and designing Accessible is Beautiful Once you get past all of the hard thinking to make sure you have all of your accessibility bases covered, then the fun can begin! Don’t think that just because a site is accessible, it can’t be beautiful too!
  19. Content creation Some Accessibility Guidelines for Web Content :  Provide context and orientation information.  Link text should be meaningful enough to make sense when read out of context - no more "click here"!  Place distinguishing information at the beginning of headings, paragraphs, lists, etc.  Use the clearest and simplest language appropriate for a site's content.
  20. Accessibility and Implementation You have the power…But with power comes responsibility! The WC3 has created the WCAG Guidelines, the standards by which web developers can create sites that are accessible to all audiences.
  21. Accessibility and Implementation Here are some of the guidelines we will cover:  Guideline 1. Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content.  Guideline 3. Use markup and style sheets and do so properly.  Guideline 5. Create tables that transform gracefully.  Guideline 6. Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully.  Guideline 9. Design for device-independence.  Guideline 12. Provide context and orientation information.  Guideline 13. Provide clear navigation mechanisms.
  22. Accessibility and alternate browsers Most web browsers on mobile devices, such as PDAs or cell phones generally render sites with minimal css and no javascript. Consequently, all of the issues that affect screen readers also affect these mobile browser applications. (WCAG Guideline 9)
  23. Accessible HTML: General Use Headings Properly Include more than just “read more” in links. Skip Navigation/Jump to Content Link
  24. Distinguish between Presentational Images Content-Based Images Accessible HTML: Images
  25. Tables Are Not For Layout Tabular Data How the Blind “see” on the web Semantic Forms Use Required flag to promote important content Accessible HTML: Tables and Forms
  26. Similar to the table tag being used for layout, iframes are another tag that can make navigation with a screen reader difficult. Keeping track of content with more than one page, and the difficulties of tracking which link opens in which frame, can be a headache. It is best avoided. (WCAG Guideline 12) Accessible HTML: Iframes
  27. Flash: Provide an alternative Most Flash is not developed with accessibility in mind. Because of the difficulty of Flash working properly with screen readers, most screenreader users don’t even have flash installed. If a user doesn’t have Flash installed, you should show the user alternate text. Flash files that use dynamic content can be reproduced in HTML as an alternate text version. (WCAG Guidelines 1, 6) Accessible HTML: Flash
  28. Lists for Navigation Definition Lists Accessible HTML: Lists
  29. The main way increase blog accessibility is to maximize the ways to get to content. categorized content is essential tagged content popular/rated content Accessible Blogs
  30. Conclusion "Accessibility is a Process, Not a Product." - Bob Regan, Macromedia Questions? Comments?