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CH 6.pptx

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
  2. 2. KYOTO PROTOCOL - 1997 • Binding emission reduction targets • “common but differential responsibility” • 2001 – Marrakesh accord • 2005 – into force • Commitment period : I – 2008 – 2012 II – 2013 – 2020 ( Doha amendment )
  3. 3. • Annex I – Industrial countries, economies in transition and European committee – pledged to reduce • Annex II – OECD members of annex I but not EIT – help developing countries • Non Annex – mostly developing
  4. 4. • Only binds developed countries • Average of 5 % reduction in emission ( compared to 1990) • Green House Gases :  CO2  CH4  N2O  HFC  PFC  SF6
  5. 5. Kyoto agreement period II • Target at least 18 % below pre industrial level • New GHG – NF3 • India ratified • 75 / 192 countries ratified • 144 needed o become operational
  6. 6. Flexible Trading Mechanisms • International Emission Trading - AAU • Joint Implementation – ERU • Clean Development Mechanism – CER
  7. 7. Funding Mechanisms • Adaptation Fund (2001)– fund projects in developing countries ( 2% from CER) • World bank – trustee • Green Climate Fund (2010) – support developing countries to reduce GHG emission and adapt to climate change. • Invest in low emission and climate resilient development
  8. 8. • 2009 – Copenhagen Accord  Developing nations block – BASIC  Pledge voluntary reduction targets  Goal - $ 100 bi per yr by 2020  Global warming should be limited to below 2 deg C • 2014 – Lima • 2015 - Paris
  9. 9. LIMA • Goal – limit global rise in temperature below 2 deg C (pre industrial level) by 2030 - reducing GHG emission. • Lack of consensus • Outcomes : INDC ( pledge before Paris summit) Developed countries agreed to finance developing
  10. 10. PARIS AGREEMENT • Objective – legally binding agreement to be signed in 2015 • Implemented by 2020 • Into force – 2016 Nov ( at least 55 parties accounting to 55 % of GHG emission ratified ) • INDC was submitted • 2018 – evaluate collective progress towards achieving the goal. • Global stock take every 5 years
  11. 11. INDC - INDIA • Reduce intensity of GHG emission by 33 to 35 % by 2030. ( compared to 2005 levels) • 40 % electricity production will be from non- fossil fuel based energy source by 2030 • Create additional carbon sink equivalent to 2.5 to 3 billion tones of CO2 by 2030.
  12. 12. • Sustainable lifestyle • Cleaner economic development • Reduce emission intensity of GDP • Increase the share of non fossil fuel based electricity • Enhancing carbon sink • Adaptation • Mobilizing finance • Technology transfer and capacity building
  13. 13. COP 23 - BONN Climate Change Conference • Talanoa Dialogue • Asses countries progress towards on climate actions • Framework rules to implement post 2020 Paris agreement • Talks on pre 2020 commitments by developed countries
  14. 14. Vienna Convention 1985 • Into force 1988 • 2009 universal ratification
  15. 15. Montreal Protocol 1987 • Reduce production and consumption of ozone depleting substances • Into force – 1989 • 6 amendments • Ozone depleting substances  CFC  Halons  CCl4  Methyl chloroform  HCFC  HBFC  Methyl bromide  Bromochloro methane  HFC
  16. 16. Kigali Amendment • Aimed at including HFC • GHG with a GWP • Binding on countries from 2019 • Reduce HFC by 85 % of the baseline by 2045 • Target - 3 groups • Rich and industrialized countries Freeze production and consumption by 2018 85 % reduction in production and consumption of HFC of 2012 level by 2036
  17. 17. • China, brazil, south Africa etc Freeze HFC use by 2024 Reduce production and consumption by 80 % of 2021 levels by 2045 • India, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, etc Freeze HFC production and consumption by 2028 Reduction in consumption and production by 85 % of 2025 level by 2047.
  18. 18. REDD ( Reducing Emissions From Deforestation And Forest Degradation) • FAO + UNDP + UNEP • Bali action plan of UNFCCC 2007 – REDD + Reducing emissions from deforestation Reducing emissions from forest degradation Conservation of forest carbon stock Sustainable management of forests Enhancement of forest carbon stock
  19. 19. 3 phases of implementation • Development of National strategies or action plans, policies ,measures and capacity building. • Implementation of National policies, National strategies or action plans. • Result based action that should fully be measured, reported and verified.
  20. 20. In India • Green India Mission - National Action Plan On Climate Change • REDD sustainable management of forest and afforestation & reforestation • REDD + coordinating agency
  21. 21. CBD – CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY • Into force 1993 • Conservation of biological diversity • Sustainable use of the components of biological diversity • Fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of utilization of genetic resources
  22. 22. CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY • Adopted in 2000 • Into force 2003 • Governing the movement of living modified organisms ( LMO ) • Advanced Informed Agreement (AIA) • Biosafety Clearing House • Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur supplementary protocol Response measures in case of damage to biodiversity by LMO
  23. 23. NAGOYA PROTOCOL • Adopted 2010 • Into force 2014 • Access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization (ABS) • Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity – includes traditional knowledge • ABS clearing house
  24. 24. AICHI BIODIVERSITY TARGETS 2011-2020 • 5 Strategic goals and 20 Targets • Goal A : Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society • Goal B : Reduce direct pressure on biodiversity and promote sustainable use • Goal C : To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
  25. 25. • Goal D : Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services • Goal E : Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building
  26. 26. IUCN- A just world that values and conserves nature • Global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it. • IUPN – 1948 • IUCN – 1956 • World Conservation Union - 1990 • Observer status at UN • IUCN world conservation congress – meets once in 4 years
  27. 27. Conservation Tools • IUCN red list of threatened species • IUCN red list of ecosystems • World database on key Biodiversity areas – Birdlife International & IUCN • Protected planet – UNEP & IUCN • ECOLEX – FAO , UNEP & IUCN
  28. 28. CITES • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora • Resolution under IUCN in 1963 • 1975- Washington convention • Legally binding ( does not take the place of national law) • Under UNEP
  29. 29. Appendices • I – species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances. • II – species not necessarily threatened with extinction , may become so without trade restrictions. • III – species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES parties for assistance in controlling the trade.
  30. 30. TRAFFIC • Wildlife trade monitoring network • IUCN & WWF • Fauna and flora • Red stream : Wildlife crime and illegal trade • Green stream : Sustainable, legal wildlife trade
  31. 31. CMS – Convention of Migratory Species • Under UNEP - 1983 • Internationally coordinated conservation measure throughout the migratory range. • Appendix I – Migratory species threatened with extinction • Appendix II – Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international cooperation.
  32. 32. GLOBAL TIGER FORUM • Delhi declaration -1993 • Consists of Tiger range countries Non tiger range countries International organizations Honorary individual members National NGOs Associated members
  33. 33. • Members – India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, UK • Report by IUCN & GTF • 22 % increase in tiger population around the world (base 2010)
  34. 34. • 1972 – UN Conference on Human Environment – UNEP • 1988 – UNEP & WMO – IPCC • 1992 – GEF UNFCCC UNCBD UNCCD Stockholm convention on PoP Minamata convention on mercury
  35. 35. • Basel convention – 1989 • Rotterdam convention – 1998 • Stockholm convention on PoP - 2004

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