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Deepthy P Thomas
Ist year MSc nursing
The manifestation of redistribution of power that
challenges patriarchal ideology and male dominance.
Process aimed at changing the nature and direction of
systematic forces which marginalize women and other
disadvantaged sections in a given context.
Empowerment is probably the totality of the
following or similar capabilities:
• decision-making power of their own
• access to information and resources for taking
• Having a range of options /choices
• assertiveness in collective decision making
• positive thinking on the ability to make change
• Ability to learn skills.
• Ability to change others’ perceptions by
• Involving in the growth process and changes that
is never ending and self-initiated
• Increasing one’s positive self-image and
PRE-REQUISITES OF EMPOWERMENT
Active participation in social economic and
Process of decision making empowerment.
Involvement of women in
decision making process
• Active participation in social
economic and political spheres.
• Process of decision making
• Desired self-respect.
• Social dignity.
• Involvement of women in decision
FACILITATING FACTORS FOR
Existence of women's organizations
Availability of support systems
Availability of women-specific
Availability of funds
Favourable media coverage
Favourable policy climate.
CONSTRAINING FACTORS FOR
Heavy work load of women.
Isolation of women from each other.
Traditional views limit participation.
Disagreements/conflicts among women's groups.
Structural adjustment policies.
Negative and sensational coverage of media
ADVANTAGES OF WOMEN
next generation will be empowered because
if woman will be empowered she will not be
a burden on anyone.
financial burden of man can be shared with
family can be more strong because of both
when financial problems will be shared than
results of conflict.
RIGHTS OF WOMEN
the right to work as a human being.
The right to the same employment opportunities,
including application of the same criteria for selection.
The right to free choice of profession and employment,
the right to promotion, job security and all benefits
and conditions of service and right to receive
vocational training and retraining.
The right to equal remuneration.
The right of social security as well as the right to paid
The right to protection of health and to safety.
EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN
Economic Empowerment of women
by offering them a range of economic and
social options, along with necessary support
measures to enhance their capabilities
strengthening of existing micro-credit
mechanisms and micro-finance
institution will be undertaken so that
the outreach of credit is enhanced
Women and Economy
Their contribution to socio-economic development as
producers and workers will be recognized in the formal
and informal sectors (including home based workers)
and appropriate policies relating to employment and to
her working conditions should be drawn up.
Benefits of the growing global economy have
been unevenly distributed leading to wider
economic disparities, the feminization of
poverty, increased gender inequality through
often deteriorating working conditions and
unsafe working environment.
Women and Agriculture
Concentrated efforts should be made to ensure that
benefits of training, extension and various
programmes will reach them in proportion to their
Women and Industry
comprehensive support in terms of labour
legislation, social security and other support
services to participate in various industrial
child care facilities, including creches at work places
and educational institutions, homes for the aged and
social empowerment of women
Education for women
equal access to education as men and boys
Healthcare for women
Participation of women in development of science
Nutrition of women
Drinking Water and Sanitation
Recognizing that education and training
To acknowledge and accept the glaring gender based
Empowering women by increasing awareness
regarding the rights of an employee.
Work on the communication skills of women
Encouraging and supporting women entrepreneurs to
develop marketable models of enterprise
Planning educational and training modules for
motivating women to take up self- empowerment
Educating and training women to gainfully engage in markets
Publicizing the central role of women in the national
economies and celebrating the success stories of women
entrepreneurship and women professionalism in every field.
Gender training and sensitization of the current structures of
the society represented by the government, non-governmental
bodies and private enterprises.
Improving the flow and access of credit and finance for
women through financial institutions for female entrepreneurs
at the governmental and non-governmental levels.
The access of credit to be financed through collateral for loans.
Building and strengthening networks where women come
together from different nations and regions for common goal
economic empowerment of women.
Cultural Empowerment of Women
There should be a change in the mind set of society on
a fundamental level. Cultural empowerment as such
can be achieved only when women are treated as
human beings first and foremost
Women in difficulties
Fighting against violence and discrimination
Rights of the Girl Child
LEGISLATIVE ACTS IN INDIA FOR
EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN
Constitution of India, 1950 :
Article 14 -equality .
Article 15- prohibits
discrimination of sex.
Article 16- equality of opportunity
The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution of
India provided for reservation of seats
Indian Penal Code, 1860 :
Section 304(b) -murder of women in connection with
demand of dowry.
Sections 312 to 318 -miscarriage.
. Section 366-A deals -procuration of minor girls for
Section 376 -punishment for rape
Section 498-A -women to cruelty by her husband or
S. 509- punishment for uttering words and gesture or act
intended to insult the modesty of a woman
The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
The Factories Act, 1948
The Employees State Insurance Act, 1948
The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 :
The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
The Chid Marriage Restraint Act, 1976
The Indecent Representation of Women
(Prohibition) Act, 1986
The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987
The National Commission for Women Act, 1992 :
The Prenatal Diagnostic Technique Act, 1994
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence
Women's Reservation Bill or the The Constitution
(108th Amendment) Bill.
The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace
(Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013
The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013
Kerala State Women’s Development Corporation
Kerala State Women’s Commission
Kerala State Social Welfare Board
Goals and objectives:
Advancement and development of women in every
walk of life.
Creating an environment through economic and
enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental
Equal access to participation and decision making
Equal access to women at all levels
Strengthening legal systems
active participation and involvement of both men and
Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the
Care India Assisted Programmes
Setting up of Employment-cum
income Generation-Production Units
Support to Training & Employment
Programme for Women (STEP
Mahila Samriddhi Yojana (MSY)
Rashtriya mahila kosh
Indira mahila yojana (imy)
Balika Samriddhi Yojana (BSY)
Rural Women’s Development and Empowerment (Swa-
Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme
The stated objective of the Act is “to enhance
livelihood security in rural areas by providing
at least 100 days of guaranteed wage
employment in a financial year to every
household whose adult members volunteer to
do unskilled manual work.
national policy for the empowerment of
Goals and objectives:
(i) Creating an environment through positive economic and
social policies for full development of women to enable them
to realize their full potential.
(ii) The de-jure and de-facto enjoyment of all human rights
and fundamental freedom by women on equal basis with
men in all spheres – political, economic, social, cultural and
(iii) Equal access to participation and decision making of
women in social, political and economic life of the nation
Goals and objectives
iv) Equal access to women to health care, quality education at all
levels, career and vocational guidance, employment, equal
remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security and
public office etc.
(v) Strengthening legal systems aimed at elimination of all forms
of discrimination against women
(vi) Changing societal attitudes and community practices by active
participation and involvement of both men and women.
(vii) Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development
(viii) Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence
against women and the girl child;
(ix) Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society.
Women in difficulties
Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of
Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) – ‘Sabla’
Central Social Welfare Board (CSWB)
The National Mission for Empowerment of
was launched by the Government of India (GoI) on
International Women’s Day in 2010
strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the
process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and
socio-economic development programmes across
ministries and departments.
Mission Poorna Shakti
Focus Area of the Mission
Access to health, drinking water, sanitation and hygiene
facilities for women .
Coverage of all girls especially those belonging to
vulnerable groups in schools from primary to class
Higher and Professional education for girls/women.
Skill development, Micro credit, Vocational
Training, Entrepreneurship, SHG development .
Gender sensitization and dissemination of
Taking steps to prevent crime against women and
taking steps for a safe environment for women .
Key Strategies of the Mission
Facilitating inter-sector convergence of
Strengthening institutional framework
At policy level commission research, evaluation
studies, review schemes, programmes and
legislation, do gender audit and outcome
Enhance economic empowerment.
Evolve with the support of community
representatives and groups
a project to test a model of delivery for convergent
implementation of programmes intended for welfare
and development of women.
The women centre at the village level, the first point of
contact for women will be known as the Poorna
Shakti Kendra (PSK).
Village coordinators at the Kendras would reach out to
the women with the motto
"HUM SUNENGE NAARI KI BAAT!"