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Design issues and processes

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Design issues and processes

  1. 1. Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media<br />Design issues and processes<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Design<br />Interaction design <br />Experience design<br />Design strategy<br />Development lifecycles<br />Systems development lifecycle<br />Agile lifecycle<br />Methods and techniques<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Design<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Design <br />From google<br />Noun<br />A plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of a building, garment, or other object before it is built or made<br />Verb<br />Decide upon the look and functioning of (a building, garment, or other object), typically by making a detailed drawing of it<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />
  5. 5. Design<br />Design is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the mufti-faceted qualities of<br />Objects<br />Processes<br />Services, and their<br />Systems in whole life cycles<br />Design is also…<br />the central factor of innovative humanization of technologies; and<br />the crucial factor of cultural and economic exchange<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Design<br />The rational model states that<br />Designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and objectives<br />The design process is plan-driven<br />The design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Design<br />The action-centered model<br />Designers use creativity and emotion to generate design candidates<br />The design process is improvised<br />No universal sequence of stages is apparent<br />Analysis, design and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linked<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Interaction design<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Interaction design<br />According to Allan Cooper…<br />Interaction design is the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services<br />Further, interaction design is heavily focused on satisfying the needs and desires of the people who will use the product<br />It is, however, about behavior and not so much focused on form or appearance<br />And behavior is much harder to observe and understand than appearance<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Interaction design<br />Dan Saffer identifies three ways of looking at interaction design<br />These are views centered in<br />Technology<br />Behavior<br />Society<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />10<br />
  11. 11. The technology centered view <br />Interaction designers make technology, particularly digital technology, useful and pleasurable to use<br />This is why the rise of software and the Internet was also de rise of the field if interaction design<br />Interaction designers take the raw stuff produced by engineers and programmers and mold it into products that people enjoy using<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />11<br />
  12. 12. The behaviorist view<br />According to Jodi Forlizzi and Robert Reimann…<br />Interaction design is about defining the behavior of artifacts, environments and systems<br />This view obviously focus on functionality and feedback being concerned on how products behave and provide feedback based on what the people engaged with them are doing <br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />12<br />
  13. 13. The social interaction view<br />Interaction design is inherently social, revolving around facilitating communication between humans through products<br />Technology is nearly irrelevant in this view<br />Any kind of object or device can make a connection between people and these connections can take many forms<br />They can be one-to-one, as with a telephone call<br />They can be one-to many, as with a blog<br />They can be many-to-many, as in the stock market<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Interaction design<br />Although these are distinct conceptualizations of what interaction design is, the common ground is that…<br />…they all perceive interaction design as an applied art that solves specific problems, under a particular set of circumstances, using the available materials<br />However, generalizations have been made and true rules have emerged that defy the applied art claim<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Interaction design<br />Common to all conceptualizations of interaction design are the four approaches to address it<br />User centered design<br />Activity centered design<br />Systems design<br />Genius design<br />All have been used to create successful products<br />And it is typically up designers to select the approach that better addresses the problem at hand<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Interaction design<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Interaction design<br />Again, common assertions apply<br />These approaches can be used in many different situations to create distinct products and services<br />Most problematic situations can be improved by deploying at least one of these approaches<br />The best designers are those who can move between approaches, applying the best approach to the problem at hand<br />An individual designer will probably gravitate toward one specific approach in detriment of others<br />Designers will generally work with the approaches they feel most comfortable however, some other approach might be the best way to address a given problem so interaction designers should know all four <br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Experience design<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />
  19. 19. Experience design<br />But what is this experience or user experience?<br />Different people understand it in very different ways<br />A group of user experience experts has been working on a white paper, which is an important step towards a common understanding of the concept of user experience however, a number a distinct definitions still coexist, which indicate that this is not yet a mature concept<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />19<br />Available in our shared dropbox<br />
  20. 20. But what is this experience or user experience?<br />The term user experience is often used as a synonym for…<br />usability<br />user interface<br />interaction experience<br />interaction design<br />customer experience<br />web site appeal<br />emotion<br />wow effect<br />general experience<br />…or as an umbrella term incorporating all or many of these concepts<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Experience design<br />Some definitions…<br />All the aspects of how people use an interactive product: the way it feels in their hands, how well they understand how it works, how they feel about it while they’re using it, how well it serves their purposes, and how well it fits into the entire context in which they are using it.<br />http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/240000/235010/p11-alben.pdf?key1=235010&key2=2405233021&coll=GUIDE&dl=GUIDE&CFID=16757653&CFTOKEN=13134697<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Experience design<br />Some definitions…<br />All aspects of the end-user’s interaction with the company, its services, and its products. The first requirement for an exemplary user experience is to meet the exact needs of the customer, without fuss or bother. Next comes simplicity and elegance that produce products that are a joy to own, a joy to use. True user experience goes far beyond giving customers what they say they want, or providing checklist features. In order to achieve high-quality user experience in a company’s offerings there must be a seamless merging of the services of multiple disciplines, including engineering, marketing, graphical and industrial design, and interface design.<br />http://www.nngroup.com/about/userexperience.html<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Experience design<br />Some definitions…<br />A consequence of a user’s internal state (predispositions, expectations, needs, motivation, mood, etc.), the characteristics of the designed system (e.g. complexity, purpose, usability, functionality, etc.) and the context (or the environment) within which the interaction occurs (e.g. organisational/social setting, meaningfulness of the activity, voluntariness of use, etc.)<br />http://www.uni-landau.de/hassenzahl/pdfs/hassenzahl_LR_91-98.pdf<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Experience design<br />So, how can we address experience design?<br />Marc Hassenzahldistinguishes three different levels, when designing an experience through the interaction with an object…<br />The Why level<br />The What level; and<br />The How level<br />Marc Hassenzhal is also one the co-authors of the definition of user experience presented in the previous slide<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />24<br />
  25. 25. The why level<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />25<br />
  26. 26. The what level<br />The What addresses the things people can do through an interactive product, such as…<br />making a telephone call<br />buying a book<br />listening to a song<br />It is reflected by a products' functionality<br />The What is often intimately tied to the technology itself or a certain product genre. <br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />26<br />
  27. 27. The how level<br />The How level addresses acting through an object on an operational, sensory-motor level<br />Buttons pressed<br />Knobs turned<br />Menus navigated<br />Touch screens stroked<br />Remotes waggled<br />The How is tied to the actual object to be designed and its context of use<br />It is the typical realm of the interaction designer…<br />to make given functionality accessible in an aesthetically pleasing way.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />27<br />
  28. 28. (back to) The why level<br />The Why aims to clarify the needs and emotions involved in an activity, the meaning, the experience<br />Only then, it determines…<br />the functionality that is able to provide the experience (the What); and<br />an appropriate way of putting the functionality to action (the How)<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />28<br />
  29. 29. From the Why to the What and the How<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />29<br />http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html<br />
  30. 30. Design strategy<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />
  31. 31. Design strategy<br />Design strategy is the product and project planning that takes place at the beginning of a design process<br />It is a combination of…<br />defining a vision for the end state of a project, and<br />determining the tactics needed to execute that vision<br />It is composed of:<br />Framing the problem (or opportunity) to be addressed<br />Determining key differentiators for the product to be design<br />Visualizing and selling the strategy to the organization<br />Creating a product roadmap and a project plan to achieve its goals<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Design strategy<br />Although design strategies are usually driven by business strategies<br />The reverse can also happen<br />After the success of the iPod, Apple Computer became just Apple when as it realized that its future was also in consumer electronics<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Design strategy<br />As it happens with design in general, a design strategy is usually achieve through a series of divergent and convergent steps, involving…<br />Research<br />Observations<br />Analysis<br />And also…<br />Ideation<br />Principles<br />Refinement<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />33<br />http://www.uxbooth.com/blog/concerning-fidelity-and-design/<br />
  34. 34. Design strategy <br />But what is it exactly?<br />Instead of letting a wish like “let’s design this new widget” drive<br />a design process, making a design strategy explicit, allows questions like…<br />What should we be designing hat will meet our organization’s needs and the needs of our customers?<br />How should that solution be manifest? As a widget or something else?<br />…determine how the design process should be driven<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />34<br />
  35. 35. Common development lifecycles<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />
  36. 36. Common development lifecycles <br />A development lifecycle is a project management framework<br />Current development lifecycles are the result of accumulated experience and best practices but should not, nevertheless, be dogmatically adopted<br />Although not sole relevant project management frameworks, these two approaches are the predominant development lifecycles<br />System development lifecycle, and<br />Agile lifecycle<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />36<br />
  37. 37. System development lifecycle<br />This is a framework used to describe the process for building information systems<br />It is intended to develop information systems in a very<br />deliberate<br />Structured, and<br />methodical way<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />37<br />
  38. 38. System development lifecycle<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />38<br />http://www.justice.gov/jmd/irm/lifecycle/ch1.htm<br />
  39. 39. Agile development<br />Agile development is based on an iterative and incremental approach<br />Requirements and solutions evolve throughout the project by means of collaboration between self-organizing, cross-functional teams <br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />39<br />http://agilemanifesto.org/<br />
  40. 40. Agile development<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />40<br />http://www.agilemodeling.com/<br />
  41. 41. Agile development<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />41<br />http://www.agilemodeling.com/<br />
  42. 42. Agile development<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />42<br />http://www.agilemodeling.com/<br />
  43. 43. Methods and techniques<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />
  44. 44. Methods and techniques<br />To finalize, we will just go over some of methods and techniques used when designing for new media<br />These include…<br />Personas<br />Scenarios<br />Card sorting<br />Prototyping<br />Paper prototyping, wireframe prototyping, etc…<br />And many others…<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />44<br />
  45. 45. Personas<br />A personais an artifact that consists of a narrative relating to a desired user or customer's daily behavior patterns…<br />using specific details, not generalities<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />45<br />
  46. 46. Personas<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />46<br />
  47. 47. Scenarios<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />47<br />
  48. 48. Card sorting<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />48<br />
  49. 49. Card sorting<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />49<br />
  50. 50. Paper prototyping<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />50<br />
  51. 51. Wireframe prototyping<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />51<br />
  52. 52. And many others…<br />Methods for concept ideas<br />Co-discovery<br />Contextual Laddering<br />Experiential Contextual Inquiry<br />Methods for early prototypes<br />Group-based expert walkthrough<br />Immersion<br />Perspective-Based Inspection<br />Expert evaluation<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />52<br />
  53. 53. Design issues and processes recap<br />Design<br />Interaction design <br />Experience design<br />Design strategy<br />Development lifecycles<br />Systems development lifecycle<br />Agile lifecycle<br />Methods and techniques<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />53<br />