O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Textile manufacturing and fabric processing (fiber to fabric)

Próximos SlideShares
Yarn Manufacturing
Yarn Manufacturing
Carregando em…3

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 53 Anúncio

Textile manufacturing and fabric processing (fiber to fabric)

Baixar para ler offline

This presentation deals with basic of fiber to fabric manufacturing process i.e spinning weaving , dyeing and printing.Spinning portion cover both natural fiber spinning, details of weaving and wet chemical processing portion cover dyeing printing and finishing of fibre yarn and fabric

This presentation deals with basic of fiber to fabric manufacturing process i.e spinning weaving , dyeing and printing.Spinning portion cover both natural fiber spinning, details of weaving and wet chemical processing portion cover dyeing printing and finishing of fibre yarn and fabric


Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (20)

Semelhante a Textile manufacturing and fabric processing (fiber to fabric) (20)


Mais recentes (20)

Textile manufacturing and fabric processing (fiber to fabric)

  1. 1. FIBRE TO FABRIC FIBRE YARN FABRIC Damayanti Meher DRDO-SRF Defence Research & Development Establishment Date: 08.07.2019 Textile Manufacturing & Fabric Technology
  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction of Textile fibers Classification of textile fibers Yarn manufacturing process(Spinning)- Synthetic & natural Fabric manufacturing Process (Weaving) Wet Chemical Processing of textile (Fiber, Yarn & Fabric)  Dyeing  Printing  Finishing
  3. 3. What is textile fibers? It is a material mainly made from natural or synthetic sources. It is a hair like strand having high length to diameter ratio. It is the smallest visible unit of textile production. Properties of textile fiber: 1. Staple Length 2. Strength 3. Elasticity 4. Uniformity 5. Spinnability INTRODUCTIONS
  4. 4. Textile Fibres Natural Fibres Animal Fibres Misc Glass Fibre Vegetable source Animal Source Pure Cellulosic Modified Cellulosic Man made Fibres Vegetable Fibres Mineral Fibres Inorganic Fibres Synthetic Fibres Regenerated Fibres Hair Fibres Secretion Fibres Fruit Fibres Leaf Fibres Bast Fibres Seed Fibres cellulosic Fibres Protein Fibres Polyamide Polysters Polyolefins Polyvinyls Polyurethanes Zein peanut Casine Viscose Polynosic Cupramonium AlginateTricel/dicel Wool mohair Silk Cotton Kapok Jute Hemp Linen ramie Sisal pineappl e Coir Classification of Textile Fibers Asbestos
  6. 6. COTTON SPINNING PROCESS DIAGRAM Raw material Blow Room Carding Draw Frame Roving Frame Carded Yarn For Carded Yarn Ring Frame Raw material Blow Room Carding Ribbon/Sliver Lap Comber Roving Frame Draw Frame Ring Frame Combed Yarn For Combed Yarn
  7. 7. BLOW ROOM PROCESS OBJECTIVES : 1. Opening 2. Cleaning 3. Blending 4. Mixing
  8. 8. CARDING PROCESS OBJECTIVES: 1. Opening in to individual fiber 2. Cleaning 3. Removal of short fibers 4. Parallelization 5. Sliver formation 1. Hopper feeder cylinder 2. Analogue pressure switch 3. Microcomputer 4. Colier 5. Lap thickness sensor 6. Funnel with monitoring sensor for quality sliver 7. Card feeder cylinder CARDING MACHINE
  9. 9. DRAWING FRAME Drawing is a operation by which slivers are blended, doubled or leveled and by drafting reduced to proper sized sliver suitable of being fed to simplex It influence on quality of yarn(final product), as draw frame is the last point of compensation for the elimination of error to produced by subsequent m/c OBJECTIVES: Drafting Parallelization Improved Evenness Dust Removal Drafting Zone Drafting M/c
  10. 10. ROVING FRAME OBJECTIVES: Drafting Twisting(protective twist impart) Winding ROVING M/C BOBBIN PROFILE
  11. 11. RING FRAME The Ring frame transform roving from roving frame to spun yarn by following operation Drafting - Attenuate the roving until the required fineness is achieved Twisting -To impart strength to the fiber strand by twisting it Winding - To wind up the resultant yarn in a form suitable for storage , transportation and further processing Drafting Zone Drafting M/c Ring Frame Machine
  12. 12. Manufacturing of the fibre forming polymer. Spinning ( extrusion through spinneret) Stretching/Drawing ( improving strength and crystanillity) Texturing/Crimping ( developing natural fibre properties) Intermingling/Interlacing (applied instead of twisting) Heat setting (made dimensionally stable) Cutting: According to requirements. Flow chart of Man Made Fiber production
  13. 13. The conversion of polymer into fibre is called spinning. The fibre forming substance is made temporarily fluid, extruded through spinneret and then returned to solid state (by solidification) in fibre form Three types of spinning process: – Melt spinning (Synthetic). –Wet spinning. – Dry spinning. MAN MADE FIBRE SPINNING
  15. 15. PARAMETERS MELT SPINNING DRY SPINNING WET SPINNING Process The process of spinning by which fibre or filament is produced from melted polymer chips by extruding through spinneret continuous filament produced here. In dry spinning, the fibre forming polymer dissolved in a volatile solvent is introduced into a heated drying chamber where the solvent is evaporated and solid fibre is obtained through spinneret In wet spinning the dope is extruded through spinneret and in contact of coagulant cellulose is regenerated. Solvent Not Required Only volatile organic solvent Both organic or non organic solvent can be used Spinning Speed 3000 m/min 500-1500 m/min 30-300 m/min Heat of spinning High Very High Low Application Filament / Staple Filament Filament / Staple Hazard Non Toxic Toxic Toxic Investment Cost Low High Low Fibre can be spunned PET, Polyamide, Polyolefine Cellulose acetate, Triacetate, Acrylic Viscose, Cuprammonium, Acrylic SPINNING DIFFERENCE
  16. 16. DRY JET WET SPINNING Dry jet wet spinning is a modification of wet spinning, where the spinneret is kept just outside the surface of coagulation bath. In this case, the fibre is extruded into air/gaseous environment and then is pulled inside a coagulation bath Example : Meta-aramide Fibre (Kevlar, Nomex) General Characteristic of Meta-aramide Fibre : •Good resistance to abrasion •Good thermal insulation •Nonconductive under normal condition •No melting point, degradation start from 500◦C •Low Flammability •Good Fabric integrity at higher temp Dry – Jet Wet Spinning Process
  17. 17. FORMATION OF FABRIC • Weaving • Knitting • Braiding • Nonwovens
  18. 18. WEAVING • Interlacement of yarn is called Weaving Warp Plain Weave Weft There are three basic weaves: 1.Plain 2.Twill 3.Sateen Twill weaveSateen weave
  20. 20. WINDING OBJECTIVES: • To produced a good package that contain long length of yarn & unwound well during warping • To removed objectionable yarn fault Yarn Package
  21. 21. OBJECTIVES: To arrange a convenient number of warp yarn so that they can be collected on a single warper ’s beam An operation where yarn is transferred from single packages of yarn to an even sheet of yarn representing hundreds of ends and then wound on to a warp beam. WARPING
  22. 22. OBJECTIVES:  To Improve the tensile strength & abrasion resistance of yarn Strengthen the yarn Make outer surface of yarn smoother Lubricate the yarn Adhesives : Starch and gum Lubricant : Fatty & Oily substance SIZING Sizing Machine
  23. 23. DRAWING -IN This is a process of drawing every warp end through its drop wire, heald eye and reed dents Drawing –in process
  24. 24. Shedding Picking Beating Take up Let off Warp stop Weft stop DIFFERENT MOTIONS OF WEAVING
  25. 25. Shedding To Separate the warp thread in to two layers, one is raised and other is lower Picking To insert weft thread across the warp through shed Beat Up To push the weft yarn that has been inserted across the warp ,to the fell of the cloth PRIMARY MOTION
  26. 26. Take Up Motion To draw the fabric to the cloth roller regularly as it woven, maintaining the pick density and pick spacing through out the cloth Let-Off Motion To regulate the amount of warp delivered from the warp beam during weaving To maintain the necessary tension upon the warp To influence the number of picks per unit space in a fabric being subsidiary to take up motion SECONDARY MOTION
  27. 27. FACTOR EFFECT THE PROPERTIES OF END PRODUCT Parameter Fabric Properties Fiber Length 1. Durability-Tensile strength, Tearing strength, Abrasion resistance 2. Aesthetic Properties- Drape, Stiffness, Stability, Crease recovery 3. Comfort- Waterproof, Water repellent, stretch and recovery, Thermal insulation 4. Maintenance – Color fastness,(light, rubbing, perspiration) storage(moth resistance, stain resistance) Fineness Type of fibre Yarn Count Twist Process of manufacturing Fabric Weave Yarn density Fabric manufacturing process Fabric dyeing process Dye/ finish Solubility Compatibility
  28. 28. WET CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF TEXTILE There are three step of wet processing sector Preparation process Coloration process Finishing Process These process ensure that textile have the right physical and chemical properties to enable them to be colored or finished Examples: Singeing De-sizing Scouring Bleaching Heat Setting etcs . The processes exist to provide the textile with color either for aesthetic reasons or for some functional purpose determined by the product Examples: Dyeing Printing These processes exist to provide the textile with the properties that the end- use demand and which have not already been provided by any earlier process. Examples: Starch Finish Resin Finish Water Repellent Flame Retardant
  29. 29. Dyestuff is organic or inorganic substances which can absorb light and reflect some lights to show color . Actually the dyestuff is water soluble substance Pigment is a substance that can absorb light and reflect some light to show color but it is water insoluble substances. Normally it is used for printing(with the presence of binder) or mass –coloration of the synthetic fibres Mechanism of Dyeing: 1. Moving of dyestuff from dye bath to surface of fibre 2. Adsorption of the dyestuff into the surface of the fibre 3. Diffusion of dyestuff in to the interior of the fibre Basic Textile Term & Definitions Used in Dyeing
  30. 30. Coloring matter Direct Dye Pigment Ingrain Dye Natural Dye Synthetic Dye Dyestuff Water insoluble DyeWater soluble Dye Vat Dye Sulphur Dye Disperse Dye Reactive Dye Acid Dye Basic Dye Optical whitener Mineral color Oxidation Color Azoic Dye phthalocyanineMineralVatAzoic Classification of Dyes
  31. 31. Dyeing process can be applied in many stages such as : CLASSIFICATIONS OF DYEING PROCESS 1.Mass coloration method is for dyeing of molten fibre or plastic chip or textile polymer with pigment dyes. After that the molten or polymer will extrude from a spinneret to form fibre 2.Fibre Dyeing is method of dyeing fibre dyeing before it blend with other color to giver fancy yarn or fabric 3.Yarn Dyeing is a method of dyeing yarns in hank form s or package dyeing. This is used in handloom weaving 4.Fabric Dyeing is the method after weaving, knitting or non woven to make fabric. This is very popular method of dyeing as the dyed fabric will be processed further to garment industries easily.
  32. 32. Fibre, Dye & Dye- Fibre Bonds Fibre Dye Class having affinity Types of dye-fibre bonds Cellulosic :Cotton, Jute, rayon etc • Direct, Vat and Sulphur Vander waals’ forces and Hydrogen bond • Reactive Covalent bonds Protein/Polyamide: Wool, Silk, nylons Direct, acid, metal complex and basic Ionic or electrostatic bonds Reactive Covalent bonds Polyster Disperse Vander waals’ forces and Hydrogen bond Cationic dyeable PET Cationic Ionic or electrostatic bonds Disperse Vander waals’ forces and Hydrogen bond Acrylic Cationic Ionic or electrostatic bonds Disperse Vander waals’ forces and Hydrogen bond
  33. 33. What is Printing ? Printing is a branch of dyeing and is generally defined as the “ Localised Dyeing” i.e dyeing which is confined to certain portion of the fabric that constitute the design Defined as the application of dye or pigment in a different pattern on the fabric and by Subsequent after treatment of fixing the dye or pigment to get a particular design In cotton , dye likes vat, reactive are used In man made , dye likes disperse and cationic > 26 billion m2 screen printed fabric produced every year(Du pont Report)
  34. 34. In printing style means the manner in which a printed effect produced There are three approaches to printing a color on fabric: 1. DIRECT PRINTING 2. DISCHARAGE PRINTING 3. RESIST PRINTING DIFFERENT STYLE OF PRINTING
  35. 35. In this type of printing dye is applied on to the fabric by craved block, stencil, screen, Engraved roller etc. The Dye is imprinted on fabric in paste form and any desire pattern may be produced Example : Block printing, Roller Printing, Screen Printing DIRECT PRINTING
  36. 36. In this method the fabric is dyed and then printing with chemical that will destroy the color in designed area. Some time the base color is removed and another color printed in its place DISCHARAGE PRINTING White Discharge printing Color Discharge printing
  37. 37. White Discharge Color Discharge Application of discharge paste Application of discharge paste Discharging agent Dye Rongalite C Azoic dye , direct, acid, reactive ground Safoline Disperse dye Sodium bi-sulphite Naptholated ground Tin salt Color discharge of azo dye
  38. 38. In this method bleached fabric are printed with a resist paste ( a resinous substance that cannot be penetrated when the fabric is immersed in a dye . The dye will only affect the parts that are not covered by the resist paste. After the fabric has passed through a subsequent dyeing process the resist paste is removed leaving a pattern on a dark background RESIST PRINTING Bandhej Fabric Ikat Fabric
  41. 41. Fabric finishes are used to improve the fabric in some way. This could be: Improve appearance - color, pattern Change the texture of fabric - embossing, brushing/ smoothing Improve the feel- softer, crisper, firmer Improved wearing qualities- crease recovery, waterproof, flame retardant  Provide aesthetic value  Soften fabric or change the hand  Add to durability  Adds to comfort  Provide safety  Improves performance Why are fabric finishes used ? What Finishing Do?
  42. 42. CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHES Finishing mainly falls in to three category - 1.Temporary Finish: not stable goes off after 1st wash Mechanical – Calendring , Embossing etc Chemical – Starching, Softening (except reactive softener) 2.Permanent Finish : Not effected or disappear through out all condition Mechanical – Sanforizing , Milling, Chemical - Resin finish, water proof, FR finish 3.Semi- Permanent : stable not more that 5 to 10 washes Mechanical – Schreiner Calendring Chemical - Buckram finish
  43. 43. FLAME RETARDANT FINISH FR finishes provide textile with an imp performance characteristic that is it stopped the propagation of fibre when it comes in contact with fire FR finish is a surface finishes and coating that inhibit Suppress or delay the production of flames to prevent the spread of fire Element of FR finish: 1. Bromine, Phosphorus, Nitrogen & Chlorine 2. Inorganic Compound Process: Pad – Dry- Cure
  44. 44. WATER REPELLENT FINISH Characteristics: Water repellent finish are chemical finish Resist the penetration of water in to the fabric Permit the passage of moisture or air through the fabric(breathable fabric) Element of WR finish: 1. Metallic salt- aluminium/lead acetate 2. Silicone emulsion , Wax Emulsion 3.Pyridinium compound 4. Fluro-carbons Process: Pad – Dry- Cure
  45. 45. INSECT REPELLENT FINISH Insect repellent agent : It is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insect from landing or climbing on that surface. Aim of LLIRF : To protect from insects which causes different type of diseases. Chemical used: Permethrin Process: Pad – Dry - Cure
  46. 46. LAMINATION Lamination involved binding together two or more fabric of same or different varieties to increase strength and other properties. The technique of lamination are: Hot melt bonding Adhesive Bonding Stitching Bonding Flame lamination Hot melt bonding: Laminating agent Used- Cellulose acetate , Thermoplastic resin etc Process : Laminating agent sandwich between fabric - calender Adhesive Bonding: Adhesive used: Reactive monomer like acrylamide, N-methylolacrylamide Process: Pad- Dry - Cure Hot melt Lamination M/c

Notas do Editor

  • Carding is the heart of spinning. If carding is done properly then assumed that 50% spinning already done