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O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
will there be enough land to support urban development? If not, how can the government mobilize the resources to finance the concession of various infrastructures? Is the land market operating efficiently? Will the prevailing patterns of population and housing density continue into the future or there are alternatives to urban development that require less land? How can agricultural land surrounding the cities be preserved without driving the price of land beyond the reach of low – and middle-income peoples? Should the government attempt to aggressively control land development? High cost of real estate – man made problem Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
World over, land prices are low wherever habitat quality is high; land prices skyrocket only when the environment becomes bad! This phenomenon is the result of overcrowding that feeds on itself to overcrowd even more. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Go vertical - That generally makes matters worse because it increases congestion, escalates land prices and hurts the poor more and more Expanding horizontally - That increases commuting distances, worsens the congestion at the centre, and is no better than vertical expansion from the social point of view satellite town Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
It leads to lowest land prices, and hence offers the poor the best chance for proper housing. In every way — financial, ecological, ethical, and social — satellite towns are the best cure Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
In India, the old city is the dormitory, the satellite town the work place. In the US, it is the other way round. That happens because American satellite towns offer high quality services of the type that may be described as tele-ineffective — the kind of services that have to be close to the home and are of no use if they are far away. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Tele-ineffective services are mainly three — schools, general hospitals and retail stores. People do not expect colleges to be nearby, but kindergarten and elementary schools have to be close at hand. They would be willing to go even a thousand miles for open-heart surgery, but maternity hospitals must be accessible at short notice. The same is true for retail shopping too. In all three cases, satellite towns of the US offer first-rate facilities. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
In India, the situation is quite the opposite. It is the city that offers the best schools, medical facilities and shopping, not satellite towns. Maraimalainagar , near chennai lay dormant for decades because it offered no schools or hospitals of repute. Kalyani, near kolkata started with a university but no schools worthy of note. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
satellite towns will take off when two conditions are satisfied: One, when they offer superior quality schools, hospitals and departmental stores. Two, the cost of commuting to the city is low — to access tele- effective services such as universities and airports that only the parent city can offer. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
We have a false notion that cities must be congested. In truth, allocation of urban space on the lines of New York will need only one per cent of the countrys land area to accommodate the entire urban population of India. So, the problem is not physical but political and cultural Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Step 1 satellite town should offer, on an average, a minimum of 200 square metre of residential space per dwelling plus another 200 square metres for non-residential uses. That is ten times more than what Kolkata offers. With 200 square metres as the average, even the poor can hope to have 70-100 square metres — enough to live with dignity. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Step 2 The space should be evenly distributed. New York has hotspots of high congestion As a thumb rule, in every locality, minimum allocation per dwelling should be: › 80 square metres of roads › 20 square metres of commercial space, another 20 square metres of parking space in commercial centres › 40 square metres of gardens and parks › 10 square metres for schools and hospitals › 40 square metres for industries, etc. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Step 3 Choosing the location - If land allocation is ten times that in Kolkata, to limit costs, land price should be at least ten times less that in Kolkata. That will be possible if the satellite town is located far enough from the city, preferably on marginal land. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Step 4 To make satellite towns truly attractive, there must be a holiday for over-restrictive laws and extortionate stamp duty too. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Step 5 Govt. should take active steps to promote high quality schools, hospitals, and shopping malls in satellite towns. For instance, they may minimise entry costs for investors by leasing land rather than selling it outright. In a matching fashion, the government may acquire land from farmers for the satellite town not by outright purchase but on an annual lease. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Farmers will be happy to accept an annual fee equal to twice the prevailing price of what they grow at present. It would be an added bonus if they are offered also, say, ten square metres of shopping space in the new town for each acre of farmland they surrender. That way they will have guaranteed, inflation protected income some three- four times their present net earnings. Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Step 6 let it be made the statutory duty of every employer to offer a minimum 100 square metres of living space to every employee in the city. Those employers who fail to do so may be asked to make a refundable deposit equal to the cost of that much space in the vicinity of their business. As a concession to small firms, only those with large number of employees may be so charged. Typically, that will be Rs 10-20 lakh per employee — sufficient to move employers away unless they have no alternative. When they do move, they get back their deposit Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.
Step 7 employers in the city may be asked to reimburse in full the commuting costs of their employees from their homes to the work place. That will make commuting from satellite towns affordable Prepared by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P.