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Interior services unit 2

BUILDING DRAINAGE - Layout, Principles of drainage, Trap type, materials and functions, Inspection chambers, Design of Septic tanks and soak pits, Ventilation of house drains
Anti-syphonage or vent pipes, One and two pipe systems
Sinks, bath tub, water closets, flushing cisterns, urinals, wash basins, bidet, shower panel etc.

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Interior services unit 2

  1. 1. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.1 Building Drainage : Layout (1) Separate pipes should be provided for sewage and rain water. (2) Sewage pipes should be connected to sewers. (3) All pipes should be laid in straight lines as far as possible in both the vertical and horizontal planes. (4) No bends and junctions are to be permitted in sewers except at manholes and inspection chambers. (5) All junctions of pipe should be oblique and the contained angle should be not more than 45°. (6) If it is necessary to lay a drain under a building, pipes shall be of cast iron and drains shall be laid in a straight line and at a uniform gradient. Manholes shall be provided at each end immediately outside the building. Drain shall be taken under a staircase room or a passage. (7) The following gradients shall be adopted: Pipe diameter (mm) Gradient 100 1 in 35 150 1 in 65 230 1 in 120 300 1 in 200 This gradient will allow the discharge of three times the dry-weather flow while pipe will flow only half full. A minimum size of 100 mm shall be used. (8) All vertical soil, waste, ventilating, and anti-siphonage pipes should be covered on top with a copper or heavily galvanised iron wire dome or cast iron terminal guards. Cast iron pipes should be painted periodically. (9) Waste pipes: Every pipe in a building for carrying off the waste or overflow water from bath, wash basin, or sink to a drain should be of 32-50 mm diameter. (10) Ventilating pipes: The drain pipes carrying waste water and sewage should be provided with at least one ventilating pipe. This ventilating pipe or shaft should be carried to a height of at least 600 mm above the outer covering of the roof in case of pitched roof, 1200 mm above the parapet in case of flat roof, and not less than 3 m above plinth level in any case. (11) Anti-siphonage pipes: The minimum diameter of these pipes for soil pipe should be 50 mm, and for waste pipes 40 mm. (12) Manhole and inspection chamber: At every change of alignment, gradient, or diameter of a drain, there should be a manhole or inspection chamber. (13) Rain water pipes: A rain water pipe conveying rain water should discharge directly or by means of a channel into or over an inlet to a surface drain or shall discharge freely in a compound drained to a surface drain. Normally, rain water pipes should not be less than 650 mm2 bore for every 5-6 m2 of roof surface drained, and with a minimum diameter of 75 mm. The distance between two pipes should be about 6m.
  2. 2. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.2 (14) Roof gutters: They should be of galvanised iron sheets having a thickness of 1.25 mm. The gutter should be semi-circular in section with a width at top of about twice the diameter of the downtake pipe. The gutter should be fixed 25 mm below the edge of the roof. M.S. bracket 25 mm wide and 6 mm thick are to be used to support the gutter at about 1.2 m intervals. A convenient method would be to fix the bracket to every alternate rafter. Ends of gutter should be closed with galvanised sheet. Gutters should have a general minimum fall of 1 in 120. Drainage, as distinct from plumbing, is a system whereby waste products from baths, wash-basins, water closets and sinks together with rain are collected and discharged into public sewers, septic tanks, soak ways or cesspools. The drain layer's work begins where the plumber's stops. The construction of drains is therefore principally the concern of the block layer. The very poor way in which drainage work is carried out in some towns and cities makes it necessary to treat the subject in some depth at this stage of studies. A radical change in housing drainage in the future depends mainly on the seriousness that is attached to the subject now Principles of drainage The following principles apply to every drainage scheme. 1. Materials used to be of the best quality. 2. Drains to be provided with sound foundations laid with uniform gradient (the availability of flexible plastic pipes may make this provision unnecessary). 3. Adequate means of inspection and cleaning to be provided by the construction of inspection chambers at changes of direction and other convenient positions. As many branch drains should be included as possible. 4. Pipes should, as far as it is practicable, be laid in straight lines between inspection chambers. 5. Drains on completion must be airtight and watertight, be of good workmanship with a clear bore throughout and be self-cleansing. 6. All traps must be self-cleansing and have an adequate water seal. 7. Branches should connect the main line in an inspection chamber. In some circumstances, it is possible to use a branch junction, which joins the main drain obliquely in the direction of the flow. 8. Drains to have adequate ventilation. 9. Rainwater pipes, sinks, lavatory basins and bath waste must discharge over gullies outside the building. 10. Water closets must connect direct to drains; upper water closets being connected to well ventilated soil pipes. 11. No drain should pass under a building, unless it becomes unavoidable, in which case the section under the building must be encased in concrete not less than 150 mm thick. A DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHALL SATISFY THE FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS: 1. Rapid and efficient removal of liquid wastes without leakage; 2. Prevention of access of foul gases to the building and provision for their escape from the system; 3. Adequate and easy access for clearing obstructions; 4. Prevention of undue external or internal corrosion, or erosion of joints and protection of materials of construction; and 5. Avoidance of air locks, siphonage, proneness to obstruction, deposit and damage. 6.
  3. 3. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.3 TRAPS A trap is a fitting provided in a drainage system to prevent entry of foul air or gases from the sewer or drain into the building. The barrier to the passage of foul air is provided by the water seal in the trap. A trap is merely a double bend or loop in the sanitary fitting, the depth of water seal being the distance of the first bend and the bottom of the second. The deeper the seal the more efficient is the trap. The depth of the water seal varies from 40 to 75 mm. The trap should always be fitted close to the waste or soil fitting unless the trap is an integral part of the fitting as in case of European WC (siphon type). TYPES OF TRAPS Depending upon the shape-the commonly used traps are P-trap, Q-trap and S-trap, named after the letters they resemble Depending on the use and location, the various types of traps can be broadly summarised as: (i) Floor trap (Nahani trap) (ii) Gulley trap (iii) Intercepting trap (iv) Silt trap (v) Grease and oil traps Floor Trap (Nahani Trap) Floor traps are provided in floors to collect waste water from kitchen sinks, bathroom floors, washing floors, etc. A floor trap forms the starting point of waste flow. The trap is made of cast iron or PVC, provided with a removable grating at top so as to prevent the entry of solid matter. The depth of water seal of floor trap should not be less than 40 mm.
  4. 4. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.4 Gulley Trap The gulley trap is usually situated near the external face of the wall. It disconnects the waste water flowing from kitchen, bathroom, wash-basin and floors from the main drainage system This is a deep seal trap forming a barrier for preventing the foul gases from house drain to the inside of the building. It is made of cast iron or glazed stoneware. Grating is provided on top to retain all solid matter. It is fitted in a small masonry enclosure to meet the requirements of invert levels of waste pipes discharging into the gulley trap. The water seal of about 60 to 70 mm is provided in the gulley trap. Gulley trap is provided in the waste pipe only. The maximum distance between the gulley trap and the first manhole should be 6 m. Silt Trap Silt traps are provided only in situations where the waste water carries large amount of silt, sand, coarse particles, etc. Silt traps work on the principle that silt, sand being heavier settle down in the chamber. Silt trap is a masonry chamber where inlet and outlets are provided at the higher level so that the silt, sand settles down. Grease and Oil Traps These are chambers provided on the sewer line to exclude grease and oil from sewage before it enters the sewer line These traps work on the principle that grease or oil being light in weight float on the surface of sewage. Thus, the inlet pipe is near the top of the chamber and the outlet pipe is near the bottom. The grease and oil traps are located near the sources contributing grease and oil to sewage like automobile repair workshops, grease and oil producing industries, garages, hotel kitchens, etc. If grease or oil is not removed, it sticks to the sides of sewer, reducing its capacity. Moreover, presence of grease or oil in sewer adversely affects the biochemical reactions during sewage treatment.
  5. 5. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.5 Intercepting Trap This trap is provided at the last manhole, Le. at the junction of house drain (inspection chamber) and the public sewer so as to prevent the entry of foul air from public sewers to the house drain. The trap is made of glazed stoneware with an inspection arm for the purpose of cleaning or inspection The inspection arm is kept closed by a lid or plug. The water seal is deeper than that of normal traps (not less than 100 mm).Though the use of intercepting trap is not essential; the provision of this trap is sometimes made compulsory by the local authority and thus it is a matter of policy of local authority.
  6. 6. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.6 INSPECTION CHAMBERS (MANHOLES) General A manhole or inspection chamber shall be capable of sustaining the loads which may be imposed on it, exclude sub-soil water and be water-tight. The size of the chamber should be sufficient to permit ready access to the drain or sewer for inspection, cleaning and rodding and should have a removable cover of adequate strength, constructed of suitable and durable material. Where the depth of the chamber so requires, access rungs, step irons, ladders or other means should be provided to ensure safe access to the level of the drain or sewer. If the chamber contains an open channel, benching should be provided having a smooth finish and formed so as to allow the foul matter to flow towards the pipe and also ensure a safe foothold. No manhole or inspection chamber shall be permitted inside a building or in any passage therein. Further, ventilating covers shall not be used for domestic drains. At every change of alignment, gradient or diameter of a drain, there shall be a manhole or inspection chamber. Bends and junctions in the drains shall be grouped together in manholes as far as possible. Spacing of manholes The spacing of manholes for a given pipe size should be as follows: Where the diameter of a drain is increased, the crown of the pipes shall be fixed at the same level and the necessary slope given in the invert of the manhole chamber. In exceptional cases and where unavoidable, the crown of the branch sewer maybe fixed at a lower level, but in such cases the peak flow level of the two sewers shall be kept the same. Bed Concrete The manhole shall be built on a bed of concrete 1:4:8 (1 cement: 4 coarse sand: 8 graded stone aggregate 40 mm nominal size). The thickness of bed concrete shall be at least 150 mm for manholes upto 0.9 m in depth, at least 200 mm for manholes from 0.90 m upto 2.5 m in depth and at least 300 mm for manholes of greater depth, unless the structural design demands higher thickness. Size of manhole The manhole or chamber shall be of such size as will allow necessary examination or clearance of drains. The size of manhole shall be adjusted to take into account any increase in the number of entries into the chamber. Manholes may be rectangular, arch or circular type. The minimum internal size of manholes, chambers (between faces of masonry) shall be as follows:
  7. 7. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.7 Brickwork The thickness of walls shall be designed depending upon its shape and taking onto account all loads coming over it, including earth pressure and water pressure. Generally the brickwork shall be with first class bricks in cement mortar 1:5 (1 cement: 5 coarse sand). All brickwork in manhole chambers and shafts shall be carefully built in English Bond, the jointing faces of each brick being well “buttered” with cement mortar before laying, so as to ensure a full joint.
  8. 8. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.8 Channels and benching These shall be semi-circular in the bottom half and of diameter equal to that of the sewer. Above the horizontal diameter, the sides shall be extended vertically 50 mm above the crown of sewer pipe and the top edge shall be suitably rounded off. The branch channels shall also be similarly constructed with respect to the benching, but at their junction with the main channel an appropriate fall, if required suitably rounded off in the direction of flow in the main channel shall be given. The channel drain and benching at the bottom of the chamber shall be done in cement concrete 1:2:4 and Subsequently plastered with cement mortar of 1:2 proportion or weaker cement mortar with a suitable waterproofing compound and finished smooth, to the grade (where required). The benching at the sides shall be carried up in such a manner as to provide no lodgment for any splashing in case of accidental flooding of the chamber. Channels shall be rendered smooth and benching shall have slopes towards the channel. Rungs Rungs shall be provided in all manholes over 0.8 m in depth and shall be of preferably of cast. These rungs may be set staggered in two vertical rungs which may be 300 mm apart horizontally as well as vertically and shall project a minimum of 100 mm beyond the finished surface if the manhole wall. The top rung shall be 450 mm below the manhole cover and the lowest not more than 300 mm above the benching. Manhole covers and frames The size of manhole covers shall be such that there shall be a clear opening of at least 500 mm in diameter for manholes exceeding 0.90 m in depth. The manhole covers and frames are used they shall conform to accepted standards. The frame of manhole shall be firmly embedded to concrete alignment and level in plain concrete on the top of masonry. Drop manhole Where it is uneconomic or impracticable to arrange the connection within 600 mm height above the invert of the manholes, the connection shall be made by constructing a vertical shaft outside the manhole chamber, as shown. If the difference in level between the incoming drain and the sewer does not exceed 600 mm, and there is sufficient room in the manhole, the connecting pipe may be directly brought through the manhole wall and the fall accommodated by constructing a ramp in the benching of the manhole.
  9. 9. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.9
  10. 10. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.10 SEPTIC TANK: A septic tank is an underground chamber in which the excreta from lavatories is digested by anaerobic action. Normally the septic tank is designed for disposal of night soil from lavatories. The sullage water from washbasins, sinks etc are dispersed into a garden. The liquid discharge from the septic tank after digestion called the effluent, should be given secondary treatment. LAYOUT OF A SEPTIC TANK: The layout for a septic tank sewerage system should be simple and as direct as possible. The pipes should be laid in straight lines in both vertical and Horizontal planes as far as possible. COMPONENTS OF SEPTIC TANK: The septic tank consists of a rectangular or circular underground chamber built with brick masonary or stone masonary. It should be plastered inside and outside with 1:4 c.m. The floor should be constructed with of 1:10 towards the sludge outlet. The septic tank should have a minimum liquid capacity of 1000litres with a minimum width of 750mm and depth 1000mm. A minimum free board of 300mm should be provided. The following are the components of septic tank. (i) Inlet : for tanks of width less than 1200mm, the inlet is T-shaped dip pipe of same diameter as the incoming drain. The pipe should be fixed inside the tank with top level extending above slum level and bottom limb extending about 300mm below top water level. For wider tanks, a baffle wall should be provided 150mm from the inlet of the tank, extending 150mm below the invert of the inlet pipes and 150mm above the top water level.
  11. 11. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.11 (ii) Outlet : For narrow tanks, T-Pipe if 100mm dia is fixed inside the tank with the top limb rising above the slum level and the bottom extending to about 1/3 of the liquid depth. The invert of the pipe should be 50mm below the invert of the inlet pipe. For wider tanks, a weir outlet is provided extending the full width of the tank, A scum board is fixed 150mm from the weir and extending 150mm above and 1/3 of liquid depth below the top of water level. A deflector is provided at the base of the scum board to prevent particles from reaching the outlet weir. (iii) Partitions : Where the capacity of the septic tank exceeds 2000 litres, the tank is divided into 2 chambers by partition. Suitable openings are provided in the partition at 300mm below the tank water level. (iv) Openings and cover: Each compartment should be provided with rectangular or circular openings with a cover of R.C.C or C.I. The cover should neatly fit the openings to prevent water entering through it. (v) Ventilating pipe: Every septic tank should be provided with a ventilating pipe of dia 50mm. The top of pipe should be provided with mosquito proof mesh. The pipe should extend to a height of 2m when the tank is 20m away from the building and 2m above the top of building if located closer than 20m. (vi) Free-Board - A minimum free board of 300 mm should be provided. (vii) Access Openings and Cover - Each compartment of a septic tank shall be provided with a rectangular access opening measuring, not less 455 x 610 mm or a circular opening 500 mm diameter. The cover to access openings shall be of reinforced concrete or of cast iron. A cover shall incorporate a suitable lifting device and when in place after installation of the septic tank shall fit neatly and be sealed to prevent the ingress of water. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Space for settling : The volume for settling is dependent of clear space available. Clear space may be defined as the space between upper level of the sludge and the lower level of scum. The vertical height of the clear space may vary from 0.23 to 0.3m. The clear space multiplied by the plan area of the tank gives the minimum tank volume for settling. Space for digestion : In the septic tank, the operation goes in a natural way. A sludge digestion capacity of 0.028 to 0.056 m3 percapita is made for it. space for digested sludge : The space for digested sludge produced percapita in different periods is as follows Period of clearing Storage capacity 6 months 0.0283 m3 1 year 0.0490 m3 2 years 0.0708 m3 3 years 0.0850 m3 space for scum : For scum storage an allowance of 0.01 m3 percapita is required
  12. 12. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.12 DESIGN A SEPTIC TANK FOR 50 USERS, ASSUMING THE RATE OF WATER SUPPLY AS 100 LITRES PERCAPITA PER DAY. Assume that the whole quantity appears as sewage 1. Flow of sewage per day = ( 50 x 100 )/ 1000 = 5m3 (1000 litres = 1 m3) Assume detention period of 24 hrs. 2. Tank capacity required = 5 x 24 / 24 = 5m3 Assume cleaning period of 2 years 3. Sludge storage required = 50 x 0.0708 m3 = 3.54 m3 Sludge storage per capita for cleaning period of 2 years = 0.0708 m3 4. Total capacity = 5m3 + 3.54 m3 = 8.54 m3 5. Add 25% extra for future expansion = 8.54 m3 x (125 / 100) = 10.68 say 10.7 m3 Assume the depth of liquid be 2m 6. Plan area of tank = 10.7 m3 / 2 = 5.35 m2 considering the length of septic tank as the thrice of its breadth, L=3B L x B = 5.35 or 3B x B= 5.35 or 3B^2 = 5.35 or B = Root of (5.35/3) = Root of 1.78m = 1.33 say 1.4 m ; B = 1.33 m L = 3B ; L = 3 x 1.4 m = 4.2 m; L = 4.2 m Total Depth D = Allow free board of 0.4m i.e. depth of the tank is 2 + 0.4 = 2.4m.; D = 2.4 m The size of the tank is 4. 2m x 1.4m x 2.4m CHECK FOR SPACES : 1. Sedimentation volume for a clear space of 0.3m deep = clear space x surface area = 0.3 x 5.6 = 1.68 m3 2. Scum storage at 0.01 m3 percapita = 50 x 0.01 = 0.05 m3 3. Sludge digestion at 0.028 m3 percapita = 50 x 0.028 = 1.4 m3 4. Sludge storage @ 0.0708 m3 per capita for cleaning period of 2 years =50 x 0.0708 = 3.54 m3 Total space = 1.68 m3 + 0.05 m3 + 1.4 m3 + 3.54 m3 = 6.67 m3 against tank capacity of 8.54 m3 Hence the design is safe
  13. 13. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.13
  14. 14. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.14 Soak Pit Soak pit is a covered circular pit. The effluent is allowed into it. It gets soaked or absorbed into the surrounding soil. the pit may be kept either empty or filled up with brick bats or stone aggregate. When empty the pit is lined with brick, stone or concrete blocks with dry open joints. It is provided with at least 75mm backing of coarse aggregate below the invert level to support the lining. When filled, no lining is required except for the top masonry ring. Masonry lining is constructed to prevent damaged by flooding of the pit by surface run off. DESIGN OF SOAK PIT Flow of sewage per day = 5 m3 1. Add 25% extra for future expansion = 5 m3 x (125 / 100) = 6.25 m3 Assuming the percolating capacity of filter media of soak pit as 1.25 m3 / m3 / day 2. Volume of pit required = 6.25 / 1.25 = 5 m3 Assume the depth of the pit as 2.5m below the invert level of the inlet pipe; 3. Area required = 5 / 2.5 = 2 m2 4. Diameter of the pit = ( π x D^2 )/4 = 2 ; D = 1.59 say 2m A soak pit of diameter 2m and 2.5 m deep below the invert level of the pipe may be provided.
  15. 15. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.15 SYSTEMS OF PLUMBING There are four systems adopted in plumbing of drainage work in a building 1. Single stack system 2. One pipe system 3. One pipe system partially ventilated 4. Two pipe system 1. Single stack system This is a simplified one-pipe system without ventilation pipe work. The trap of water closet, sinks, basins, is directly connected to single stack. The pipe, in addition, also acts as a vent pipe. The single stack system is economical. 2. One pipe system In his, a single soil waste pipe conveys both soil and waste directly to the building drain. A separate vent pipe is provided. Hence, it is more effective than the single stack system. The vent pip provides ventilation to water seal of all the traps. 3. One pipe system partially ventilated This system combines the one pipe and single stack system. In this system, only one soil waste pipe conveys both soil and waste. The separate vent pipe provides ventilation only to the traps of water closets. 4. Two pipe system In this system two pipes are provided. One pipe collects all soil wastes from urinals and lavortary wastes. The other pipe collects the unfoul water from kitchen, bathroom, house washings, rain water, etc. The soil pipes are directly connected to the drain.
  16. 16. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.16 SANITARY FITTINGS The sanitary fittings indicate all the fittings or appliances used for collection and discharge of soil or waste water. Different sanitary fittings perform different types of functions. They are normally made of ceramics, glazed fire-clay, glazed earthenware or glazed chinaware. The fittings are so designed so as to have non-absorbent surface which can be easily cleaned. (i) Wash-basins (ii) Bath tubs (iii) Sinks (iv) Urinals (v) Water closets (vi) Flushing cisterns. WASH.BASINS A wash-basin is used for washing hands, face, etc. It is available in various patterns and sizes; Normally oval shaped bowl type wash-basin with overflow slot Is used In houses. The wash-basin is normally mounted on angle Irons fixed on the wall. the wash basin is provided with two taps--cold water and hot water. The drainage hole is provided with the metal strainer and is connected to the waste pipe either directly or through bottle traps for discharge of waste water Into the floor trap. The top of wash basin is kept at 75 to 80 cm from floor Ievel BATH TUBS Use of bath tub is restricted to a certain class of toilets and private residences. Bath tubs may be precast or cast in situ. They are made of enameled steel, gel-coated fibre glass, enameled porcelain, reinforced concrete finished with terra cotta or marble finishes, acrylic etc. It is provided with outlet and
  17. 17. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.17 overflow pipes which are usually of 40 mm diameter. Provision is kept for both hot water and cold water connections. The length of bath tub varies from 1.75 to 1.85 m, width varies between 0.7 to 0.75 m and its depth near the waste pipe varies between 0.43 to 0.45 m SINKS Sink is used in 'kitchens, laboratories, etc.' It is made of stainless steel, plastic, marble, ACC with terrazzo finishing or glazed chinaware, etc. It is a rectangular basin with or without overflow arrangement It has a circular waste hole with metal strainer to which the waste pipe is attached for conveying the discharge from sink to the floor trap with the drain board.
  18. 18. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.18 URINALS The urinals are of following types: (a) Bowl type (b) Slab or stall type (c) Squatting urinal. Urinals fall under the category of soil appliances and the discharge from the urinal is connected to the soil pipe. Urinals are generally provided with automatic flushing cisterns which operate at intervals of 10 to 15 minutes. An anti-siphonage pipe is necessary for urinals located on different floors and connected to a common soil pipe. (a) Bowl type urinals These urinals are available in two types: (i) Flat back (ii) Corner Flat back urinals These are oval-shaped, installed at a height of 500 mm from the floor level. The urinals are screwed to wall. Corner These urinals are used in the case where two walls meet at right angle. (b) Slab or stall type These are open smooth walled urinal, flushing by means of spread. Ideal for public places
  19. 19. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.19 (c) Squaring urinals These are used in squatting position. It is available with integral flushing holes WATERCLOSETS The water closet is a sanitary fitting which collects human excreta and discharge it into the soil pipe through trap: There are three types of WCs. (a) Indian type (b) European type (c) Anglo-Indian type Indian Type WC It is usually made of porcelain and the pan and the trap are in two different pieces. The WC pan is fixed flush with the floor of the toilet. The trap has an opening for anti-siphonage pipe. The pan has the flushing rim having number of holes to spread the flush water. The excreta do not fall directly into the trap and there are chances for excreta to become foul, if not properly flushed. The contents of the pan are removed by the gravity flush of water. It is fixed in squatting position at floor level. A pair of foot rests is provided on either side of the pan for convenience
  20. 20. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.20 European Type WC This is a pedestal type of pan in which pan and trap form an integral part. The pan has a flushing rim to spread the flush water. European WC is used in sitting position over a plastic seats hinged to the fitting. The pan is in the form of inverted cone. In this type of WC, excreta falls directly into the trap and thus easy to clean and is hygienic. Following two types of European type WC are used: (i) Wash Down Type European WC In this type, contents of the pan are removed by gravity flush of water. For ground floor, WC fitted with S-trap is used whereas for upper floors, WC with P-trap is used (ii) Siphonic Type European wc The contents of the pan are removed by siphonic action. When the cistern is flushed and water passes through the pan the specially built trap sets up siphonic action when water is flushed and the entire water along with the contents get emptied from the pan into the soil pipe. After-flush chamber In the fitting is provided to re-seal the trap. Siphonic type WC may have a single trap or double trap
  21. 21. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.21 Anglo Indian Type WC It is a pedestal fitting with in-built trap and it can be used in squatting as well as sitting position. The top of the pan is provided with the pair of footrest and whenever, it is needed, the plastic seat hinged to the closet can be placed on the top of the pan to use it as European type WC. The excreta falls directly in the trap and thus can be easily flushed out
  22. 22. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.22 FLUSHING CISTERN Flushing cisterns are provided for flushing the water closets and urinals. They may be of cast iron, vitreous china, or plastic. For Indian type of WC, flushing cisterns are generally of cast iron provided at a height of approximately 2 m, but for European type of WC; it is provided at height of 30 cm from the top of the pan. The capacity of cistern varies from 10 to 15 litres. Depending upon its height, it is of two types. High Level These are generally of cast iron and is provided for Indian type WC. The height is normally 2 m to get clear space under cistern. High level cistern is provided with a hanging chain by which it is operated. Low Level These are generally provided with European WC. These low level cisterns are either wall mounted type with flush pipe having 30 cm distance between WC and cistern or can be close coupled with EuropeanWC BIDET A low oval basin used for washing one's genital and anal area. Many of us have heard the argument for using a bidet - that it saves toilet paper. But saving paper isn't the only reason why people should use bidets. In fact, even if paper waste wasn't reduced, there are still several reasons why a bidet is better. One of the most compelling reasons is that using water to wash yourself is more effective and hygienic than using dry paper. Let's take washing your face, for example. When you want to wash your face, would you just grab a piece of dry paper and start rubbing your face with it? Of course not. You would go to the sink, splash some water on your face, and wash it that way. Here are some other reasons why a bidet is better:  A New Level of Comfort - Water is a more soothing way to clean as opposed to using toilet paper. This is especially true for those who are sensitive in that region.  It's Hands-free - There's less of a chance of getting bacteria on your hands (and spreading germs) because bidet usage is a touch-less experience. Your hands stay on your lap, while the bidet works beneath you.  Medical Conditions - Bidets are great for those who have certain medical conditions. Many hemorrhoids sufferers use bidets with a lot of success. Persons with disabilities who can't wipe themselves find bidets to be especially useful. Any patient who has gone thru surgery in that region will also find comfort in a bidet.
  23. 23. Interior services Compiled by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Unit 2 Page2.23  Women & New Mothers - Menstrual periods can often produce feelings of un-freshness. Washing yourself with water will help you feeling clean. Mothers who have recently gone thru childbirth can be very sensitive in that area. Bidets can be a more soothing and relaxing way to go.  Seniors - As we age, it can be increasingly difficult to use the restroom. Some turn to care-givers for assistance with wiping. This can lower a person's self esteem - having to depend on someone else to use the toilet. Increase confidence and regain your independence! SHOWER PANEL When shower panels were first invented, it was used to hold the shower head and conceal the pipes. They had a single hole for the shower head and nothing fancy. They were purely serviceable things that people had to have in a shower if they wanted it to look better than the very first showers which had all the pipes exposed. With the changing of time and the evolution of all the things that we use today, shower panels have come a long way. They have evolved into walls that are inside the shower and provide a variety of options to make showers more pleasant. Many are a combination of rainfall shower heads, handheld showers and body jets while some shower panels even have lights inside of them, radios, and more. The options are endless, the fun is extreme, and it can all be found in some of today’s best shower panels.