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Problems and Issues in the Philippine Educational System
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Philippine education presentation

  1. 1. Philippine Education Where we are, basic characteristics, issues and concerns Carlo Magno Ph. D Educational Psychology
  2. 2. “Education is not about teaching people what they do not know. It means teaching them to behave as they should… It is a painful, continued process to be accomplished with kindness, by precept and by praise, and above all, by example.” John Ruskins
  3. 3. Outline: Philippine Education • Development of Philippine Education • Influences of Early Childhood Education • Pre-elementary Competencies • Basic Education – objective & competencies – Secondary Education, Key problems • Higher Education – Objective, CHED, Research Agenda, Long term HED Plan • Graduate Education in the Philippines – EDCOM, future prospects, issues • Technical vs. Vocational Education Education – Need, TESDA, Issues • Commission on Higher Education
  4. 4. Development of Philippine Education • Pre-Magellan Times - informal, unstructured, and devoid of methods. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3 Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors. • Spanish system - Education was religion-oriented. It was for the elite – liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 p – Provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. – Primary instruction was free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory.
  5. 5. • Malolos Constitution - A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established • Schuman Commission - An adequate secularized and free public school system • Taft Commission – English as medium of instruction • 1901 Philippine Commission – 600 American teachers were brought to the Philippines (Thomasites) Development of Philippine Education
  6. 6. • Japanese Education - the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character Education was reserved for Filipinos. – Love for work and dignity of labor was emphasized. • Education during pre-Martial Law – The 2-2 plan which provided common curriculum in the 1st and 2nd years, vocational curricula was implemented • Education Under the New Society – Pres Marcos formulated a 10 year national education development program – 1973 Revised Secondary Education program Development of Philippine Education
  7. 7. • The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) – 1930’s, fewer learning areas, emphasis on mastery learning, more time allotment for the basic skills. • The New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) – 1989, to improve performance in science, math and communication – Focus on process, values development, productivity and technology Development of Philippine Education
  8. 8. • 2002 Basic Education Curriculum – To empower lifelong learning through attainment of functional literacy – 5 learning areas: Filipino, English, Science, Math and Makabayan – Revised Basic Education Curriculum Development of Philippine Education
  9. 9. Influences on Early Childhood Education Jean Jacques Rosseau • Children grow and develop naturally in direct opposition to the prevailing methods of teaching • “Emil”: contains some excellent educational suggestions • A strong plea for more natural mode of training whether physical, moral or mental • First 12 yrs of the child’s life is directed towards observation • Child of nature: speaking its own language by imitation not by grammatical rule, well fitted to become the active recipient of all necessary knowledge
  10. 10. Johann Pestalozzi • Concept of child growth & development was organismic rather than mechanistic • Chief function of the teacher is to provide a good learning environment and to lead pupils to vital experiences
  11. 11. Friedrich Froebel • Created the earliest kindergarten – child’s garden • School: large well-stocked garden, with plots of eligible pupils care, well ventilated rooms • Every child’s inner self contained a spiritual essence • Curriculum: songs, stories, games, gifts, occupations • Most of the day is spent on the grounds • Froebel’s gifts: spheres, cubes, cylinders
  12. 12. Maria Montessori • School: Casa dei Bambini (Children’s House) • Classes of activity: Practical, sensory, formal skills • Teaching materials: laces, buttons, weights, materials identifiable through sound and smell
  13. 13. Pre-elementary Education Komunikasyon-Filipino Pakikinig, pagsasalita, pagbasa, pagsulat Edukasyon sa Pagpapalakas ng Katawan- EPK Mekaniks ng pangangatawan, mimetics, rythmic activities, mga laro, malayang pagsasanay ng kamay at paa Kasanayang Panggalaw at Malikhain-Musika Kamalyan ng iba’t ibang ritmo, tono, himig, kalakas ng tunog, pagpapahalaga sa awit at tugtog Numeracy Skills •Classify objects according to color, shape, size and position •Read write and arrange numbers on sequence •Comprehend addition and subtraction •Recognize money value up to 5 Php •Comprehend the concept of time
  14. 14. Pre-elementary Education Communication Skills – English Listening, speaking, reading, writing Socio-emotional Development Pagunawa sa sarili, pagpapahala sa kapwa, karapatan at tungkulin ng Pilipino Sensory Perceptual Skills Knowing oneself, knowing things around us Sining Visual and tactile perception, creative expression, media, materials and processes, appreciation, improving one’s environment
  15. 15. Basic Education • Intended to meet basic learning needs • Lays the foundation on which subsequent learning can be based • Encompasses early childhood, elementary, high school…
  16. 16. Objectives of Basic Education • Objectives of the Elementary School: Impart knowledge and skills, habits and appreciative attitude that will make the child to be an intelligent, practical catholic, a good citizen, a good member of society and of the various groups to which he belongs: family, working group, neighborhood, etc (McGucken and Sheridan, 2000). • Objectives of the Secondary School: Preparation for further education is one major aim. Strive to arouse in each student an intelligent appreciation of Catholicism so that his faith may be constantly meaningful and relevant, and an equally intelligent appreciation of the traditions of his heritage so that he can become an effective citizen fully at home and in society.
  17. 17. Basic Education Curriculum for Elementary English (Listening speaking, reading, writing) Access varied information and creatively use them in spoken and written forms; communicate fluently and accurately orally and in writing, for a variety of purposes and different social and academic contexts at their level while carrying out activities in everyday life Science Filipino Nagagamit ang Filipino sa mabisang pakikipagtalastasan (pasalita at pasulat); nagpapamalas ng kahusayan sa pagsasaayos ng iba’t ibang impormasyon at mensaheng narinig at nabasa para sa kapakinabangang pansarili atpangkapwa at sa patuloy na pagkatuto upang makaangkop sa mabilis na pagbabagong nagaganap sa daigdig
  18. 18. Edukasyong Pangtahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Grade (4-6) •Nagagamit ang sariling kaalaman at saloobin sa pagpapaunlad ng sarili at pamilya •Nagagamit ang kaalaman, kasanayan at saloobin sa pagpapaunlad ng pamayanan Mathematics Demonstrate understanding and skills in computing with considerable speed and accuracy, estimating, communicating, thinking analytically and critically, and in solving problems in daily life using appropriate technology Basic Education Curriculum for Elementary
  19. 19. Makabayan •sapat na kaalaman at kamalayan sa mga pambansang pagkakakilanlan, kapaligiran at pagpapaunlad ng kabuhayan,agham at teknolohiya; • mapanuri at malikhaing pag- iisip tungo sa mapanagutang pagpapasya sa mga isyu o usaping kinakaharap; • pagpapahalaga sa sining, musika, laro, sayaw at iba pang bahagi ng kultura gayundin sa pagiging Pilipino at sa kanyangmga karapatan at pananagutan bilang mamamayan; • positibong saloobin sa paggawa upang makapamuhay nang produktibo sa isang bansang mapayapa; at • kakayahang makaagapay sa mabilis na pagbabagong nagaganap sa mundo Basic Education Curriculum for Elementary
  20. 20. Secondary Education • Stage of free formal education following the elementary level below college level corresponding to four (4) years of high school • Can be attained through alternative learning system OBJECTIVES: • To continue to promote the objectives of elementary education • To discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of the student so as to equip him with skills for productive endeavor and/or prepare for tertiary education
  21. 21. Basic Statistics (2004-05) • Schools – 42,013 (elementary) - 8,072 (high school) – Public schools: 37,492 (E); 4,729 (HS) – Private schools: 4,521 (E); 3,343 (HS) • Enrollment – 13,049,134 (Elementary) - 6,440,312 (High school) – Public: 12,089,365 (E); 5,043,776 (HS) – Private: 959,769 (E); 1,396,536 (HS) • Teachers – 340,231 (Elementary) - 123,074 (High school) - Public: 340,321 (E); 123,074 (HS) - Private: no data
  22. 22. Basic Statistics (2004-05) • Completion Rate – 62.20% (E); 58.22% (HS) • Dropout Rate – 8.90% (E); 14.30% (HS) • Teacher-student Ratio – 1:36 (grade 6) – 1:41 (4th year)
  23. 23. Achievement Rate Subject Grade 6 4th Year Math 59.10 50.70 Science 54.12 39.49 English 59.15 51.33 Hekasi 59.55 50.01 Filipino 61.75 42.48 Passers 73.21% 94.76%
  24. 24. Learning Areas for Secondary Education • Filipino: 1 hour 4x a week, 1.2 unit credits • English: 1 hour daily 1.5 unit credits • Mathematics: 1 hour daily 1.5 unit credits • Science: 1 hour 20 min daily, 2 unit credits • MAKABAYAN – Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies): 40 minutes daily, 1 unit credit – Technology & Livelihood Education: 1 hour 4x a week, 1.2 unit credits – Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga (Values Education): 1 hour, once a week (Years 1-3), 0.3 unit credit; 1 hour twice a week – Music, Arts, Physical Education, Health (MAPEH): 1 hour 4 times a week (Years 1-3), 1.2 unit credits; 1 hour, 5 times a week (+ CAT in Year IV), 1.5 unit credits
  25. 25. Medium of Instruction • ENGLISH for English, Science, Mathematics,Technology and Home Economics (TLE) and Music, Arts, PE and Health (MAPEH) • FILIPINO for Filipino, Araling Panlipunan and Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga
  26. 26. Filipino English Scienc e Math Makabayan SK, , HKS AP EPP/TEP P THE PEHMA GMRC, VE, EP Grade 1 80 100 Within English & Makaba - yan 80 60 Within Sibika at Kultura Within every learning area Grade 2 80 100 80 60 Grade 3 80 100 40 80 60 Grade 4 60 80 60 60 40 40 30 Grade 5 60 80 60 60 40 50 30 Grade 6 60 80 60 60 40 50 30 1st year 60 60 60 60 240 mins. per week Or 60 mins. for 4 days 240 mins. per week Or 60 mins. for 4 days 60 mins. each for PE, Health, Music and Arts per week Within every learning area plus 60 per week 2nd year 60 60 60 60 3rd year 60 60 60 60 4th year 60 60 60 60 Learning Areas and Time Allotment
  27. 27. EDCOM Assessment (1991) • Disparities in access to education in favor of rich, urban, high income. • Achievement levels are low – TIMSS (1999) • Drop out rates are higher in rural and less developed communities. • Muslim and cultural communities suffer from benign neglect • Class interruptions and length of the school year reduce learning • Science and technology education is inadequate • Values educations in schools are ineffective
  28. 28. EDCOM Assessment • Irrelevance of education to individual and social needs • Teachers are inadequately trained • Same findings were found in the Monroe survey in 1965 indicating no significant improvement in Philippine Education for over 65 years
  29. 29. Key Problems (Gonzalez, 2000) • Rate of annual population growth • Survival rate is unsatisfactory • Inefficiency in teaching • Problems with the teaching/learning conditions • Lack of English speaking community
  30. 30. Issues • In formulated educational policies, the governing body uses western orientation for Filipinos undermining our own set of standards. • Appropriateness of competencies for specific ages • Subsequent revisions of the curriculum • Continues underachievement results among students • Poor teaching conditions and inefficiency in teaching-teachers are weak in content and liberal education skills • Deficit in the quality of education: Developing elites that can be showcased or improving the lives of the many.
  31. 31. Objectives of Higher Education 1. Conservation of knowledge and values 2. Interpretation and transmission of knowledge and ideas and values 3. The quest for truth through scholarly research 4. The preparation for professions by intelligent and thorough training in the principles underlying the profession.
  32. 32. Commission on Higher Education • The Commission on Higher Education is the governing body covering both public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-granting programs in all tertiary educational institutions in the Philippines. The CHED was established in May 18, 1994 through Republic Act 7722 or the Higher Education Act of 1994.
  33. 33. Mandates of CHED • Promote quality education • Take appropriate steps to ensure that education shall be accessible to all • Ensure and protect academic freedom for the continuing intellectual growth, the advancement of learning and research, the development of responsible and effective leadership, the education of high level professionals, and the enrichment of historical and cultural heritage. • There are 1,605 higher education institutions in the country
  34. 34. Philosophy • Realization of Filipino identity and strong sense of national pride • Cultivation and inculcation of moral and spiritual foundations • Attainment of political maturity, economic stability and equitable social progress • Preservation and enrichment of the historical and cultural heritage of the Filipinos, as a people and as a nation
  35. 35. Goals The CHED ensures the attainment of empowered and and globally competitive Filipino through: 1. Quality and Excellence - the provision of undergraduate and graduate education that meets international standards of quality and excellence; 2. Relevance and Responsiveness - generation and diffusion of knowledge in the broad range of disciplines relevant and responsive to the dynamically changing domestic and international environment; 3. Access and Equity - broadening the access of deserving and qualified Filipinos to higher education opportunities; and 4. Efficiency and Effectiveness - the optimization of social, institutional, and individual returns from the utilization of higher education resources.
  36. 36. Targets • Updated and regionally comparable standards in priority programs • Increase in the number of faculty with MA/MS • Increase in the number of accredited programs • Improved performance in licensure examination in priority areas • Increase in the number of intakes and graduates in priority fields • Reduced dropout of lower income groups • Significant increase in the number of beneficiaries of scholarships and other forms of student financial assistance • Proportionate increase of total costs raised from non- public sources
  37. 37. Research Agenda • Rationalization studies • Benchmarking and comparative study of Policies, Standards, and Guidelines in priority disciplines in Asia, Europe, and the US • Establishment of quality indicators • Impact study on liberalizing entry of foreign universities/colleges via satellite campuses in the country • Evaluation of graduate programs in Teacher Education and Business Education • Demand-supply studies • Graduate tracer studies • Evaluation studies on the feasibility of full cost tuition and socialized tuition fee schemes • Equity impact study on the provision of government subsidy to SUCs • Study on the Madaris system towards possible integration into the higher education system • Development study on establishing national core competencies for ICT graduates and performance standards for ICT institutions as bases for national accreditation, validation, and certification • Impact study of ICT-driven curricula on student learning and academic performance • Evaluative study on the ICT readiness of college and university faculty • Study on impact of ICT professionals
  38. 38. Long Term Higher Education Development Plan • Tri-fold function: teaching, research, extension service • Mission – Offer programs that meet the demands of the of an industrializing economy – Nurture an academic environment that fosters an integrated learning, creative and critical thinking – Conduct research to support instruction – Undertake extension programs that facilitate the transfer of technology, leadership and self- reliance
  39. 39. Long Term Higher Education Development Plan • Strategic directions – systematic reform, emplacement and operationalization of structures and policies. – Efficiency and effectiveness – Quality and Excellence – Relevance and responsiveness – Access and equity
  40. 40. Issues • Quality - For example, the results of standard tests conducted (National College of Entrance Examination) for college students, were way below the target mean score. • Affordability - There is also a big disparity in educational achievements across social groups. For example, the socioeconomically disadvantaged students have higher dropout rates. And most of the freshmen students at the tertiary level come from relatively well-off families. • Budget - The Philippine Constitution has mandated the government to allocate the highest proportion of its budget to education. However, the Philippines still has one of the lowest budget allocations to education among the ASEAN countries. • Mismatch - There is a large proportion of "mismatch" between training and actual jobs. This is the major problem at the tertiary level and it is also the cause of the existence of a large group of educated unemployed or underemployed.
  41. 41. Graduate Education • Preparation of candidates for advance studies • Masters Degree • Doctor of Philosophy • Law, medicine etc.
  42. 42. Graduate Education in the Philippines • Graduate education in the Philippines is characterized by imbalance (Patalinhug, 2000). • 1987-1988: 92.02% graduate enrollment • 1994 – 1995: 91.11% concentrated in only three disciplines: teacher education, arts and sciences, and management. • the percentage (30.27 percent and 10.68 percent) reported for "arts and sciences" is heavily weighted in favor of enrollment for liberal arts degrees because few students are reported to enroll in science and mathematics. • Graduate management program has the third largest enrollment
  43. 43. • Graduate training in science and engineering is limited. • Because of this situation, the DOST embarked on the Engineering and Science Education Project (ESEP) in 1992 through a World Bank loan. • ESEP is a manpower development program for increasing the number of MS and Ph.D. degree holders in science and engineering, and developing the research capability of scientists and engineers. Graduate Education in the Philippines
  44. 44. Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) • Graduate education is mediocre for it fails to create research-based knowledge needed in generating more jobs and raising the value of production. • The Philippine educational institutions are poorly managed.
  45. 45. Recommendations of EDCOM for Graduate Education • Recommendation to ensure that government support for higher education should go only to priority courses and programs and that their curricular programs are more relevant to the communities they serve. • Ex. UP-Davao City, Master in Business Program • The creation of a better fit between higher education and employment (or reducing the mismatch between graduates and jobs). • The strengthening of graduate education and research – greater research productivity
  46. 46. Future Prospects • Increasing reliant on innovative educational technology • Academic linkages among the external community and industry needs to be strengthened. • Undertake a collaborative project (research, instructional materials development, or the establishment of manufacturing industry linkage programs)
  47. 47. Issues • Strengthen the research orientation of professors • High unemployment of the educated members of the labor force • Mismatch between degree finished and actual job • Need to qualify carefully what is meant by quality education
  48. 48. Technical and Vocational Education • Technical Education – learning activities dealing with the development of technical skills, knowledge and attitudes relative to production or service occupations for effective citizenship (Camarao, 1991). • Vocational Education – specialized education programs or courses intended to prepare students for employment as skilled workers in a particular sector or area, to upgrade the work skills of those who are already employed (Camarao, 1991).
  49. 49. Goals and Objectives of Technical Education • Development of basic technical skills, knowledge and attitudes • Development of understanding and interest in the technological sector of society • Development of trained manpower • Enhancement of creativity, innovation, productivity and entrepreneural skills • Development of new and appropriate technology
  50. 50. Technical Education Courses • Agricultural arts • Business and distributive arts • Fishery arts • Industrial arts • Homemaking arts
  51. 51. • Formal education – structured and well organized educational system, starting from the elementary to the secondary school curricula and the various post secondary courses offered by schools, colleges, and universities • Nonformal education – organized instructional activity offered to develop skills, knowledge or attitudes of a particular group and conducted over a short period. • Informal education – learning through own effort, initiative and ability
  52. 52. Need for Technical Education • Preparation for the world of work • Meeting the needs of Filipino youth and adults • Meeting manpower needs • Solving unemployment and underemployment • Enhancing transfer of technology
  53. 53. Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) • To encourage the full participation of and mobilize the industry, labor, local government units and technical- vocational institutions in the skills development of the country's human resources. • Provides direction, policies, programs and standards towards quality technical education and skill development.
  54. 54. Mandate - TESDA • Integrate, coordinate and monitor skills development programs; • Restructure efforts to promote and develop middle-level manpower; • Approve skills standards and tests; • Develop an accreditation system for institutions involved in middle-level manpower development; • Fund programs and projects for technical education and skills development; and • Assist trainers training programs.
  55. 55. Issues on Technical/Vocational Education • Students commonly would prefer formal education • Ensuring adequate qualified technology teachers • Upgrading of facilities/Rapid increase of technology • Adequate and stable financial support- budgetary limitations of the government • Competitiveness of the Filipino worker overseas • Needs research and development
  56. 56. References • Camarao, F. (1996). Technology education in the Philippines. National Bookstore: Manila. • Ofreneo, R., Leogardo, V., & Baldemor, R. (1996). Human resources development and major tech-voc issues and concerns. TESDA study on ILO Convention 142 and Recommendation 140. TESDA. • Espiritu, S. C. (2000). Philippine educational system: Information technology. Katha Pub.: Quezon City. • Gonzalez, A. (200). Philippine basic education 1999-2004: Analysis, recommendations, and plans. In Philippine Human Development Report 2000. Human Development Network: Philippines. • Vergel, V. (2004). The educational system of the Filipinos. A Giraffe Book: Quezon City. • Manalang, P. S. (1992). Philippine education: Promise and performance. University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
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