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Internationalization and Global Value Chains: 
The Agenda for Cluster Initiatives 
Dr. Christian H. M. Ketels 
Institute f...
Cluster Organizations Looking Outside 
2 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter 
INTERNAL 
Creating Networks...
Local Buzz and Global Pipelines 
Strong internal 
cluster dynamics 
3 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter...
Internationalization: The Case for Joint Action 
Barriers for internationalization 
• Natural barriers through language an...
Types of Linkages between Clusters 
Joint services 
Policy 
learning 
Cluster participants Cluster participants 
5 Copyrig...
Evolution of Cluster Initiatives’ 
Internationalization Activities 
6 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter...
Some Facts About Internationalization (1) 
• Dramatic increase in trade volumes in prior to the global crisis; 
significan...
Some Facts About Internationalization (2) 
• Trade is dominated by large companies; there is a strong relationship 
betwee...
Some Facts About Internationalization (3) 
• Exports largely take place with neighboring countries 
• There is a significa...
Some Facts About Internationalization: 
Implications 
• Exporting remains a potentially attractive but also risky endeavor...
Value Proposition 
of your Cluster 
• What markets are you serving/competing in? 
• What unique value does your location o...
An Example: Locations’ Positioning in Footwear 
Romania 
• Production subsidiaries 
of Italian companies 
• Focus on lower...
Internationalization Strategy 
of your Cluster Organization (1) 
• What are the objectives of your internationalization ac...
Cluster Diagnostics 
14 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter 
Performance 
Patterns 
Profile of the 
Clust...
Internationalization Strategy 
of your Clusters Organization (2) 
• What services should you offer to whom in order to ach...
Internationalization Strategy 
of your Clusters Organization (3) 
• Which locations should you target in your activities? ...
Clusters and Cluster Organizations in Europe 
Cluster 
Collaboration 
Platform 
www.clustercollaboration.eu 
Cluster Obser...
Clusters and Cluster Organizations in the US 
18 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter 
Clusters 
Regions 
...
Cluster Organizations Worldwide 
19 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter 
www.tci-network.org 
Cluster Ini...
A Recap 
• You need to know your cluster 
• You need to have an internationalization strategy 
• You are not alone: draw o...
A Quick Outlook: Relating to other Sectors 
21 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter 
INTERNAL 
Creating Ne...
• Innovation is often happening at the intersection of 
technologies and industries; some within clusters, some 
between t...
An Example: Ten Broad Domains of Emerging Industries 
Adv. Logistics 
Creative 
Economy 
Experience 
Economy 
Downs. 
Chem...
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Cluster internationalization berlin 09 19-14 ck

  1. 1. Internationalization and Global Value Chains: The Agenda for Cluster Initiatives Dr. Christian H. M. Ketels Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness Harvard Business School President, TCI Network 2nd BSR Stars Cluster Conference 19 September 2014 Berlin, Germany 1 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  2. 2. Cluster Organizations Looking Outside 2 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter INTERNAL Creating Networks Launching Joint Actions EXTERNAL: Other Locations Technologies Global Value Chains Export Markets EXTERNAL: Other Sectors Technologies Emerging Industries
  3. 3. Local Buzz and Global Pipelines Strong internal cluster dynamics 3 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter 2. More attractive for international partners 1. Better able to take advantage of own capabilities 3. Better able to benefit from international partnerships
  4. 4. Internationalization: The Case for Joint Action Barriers for internationalization • Natural barriers through language and distance • Knowledge barriers through lack of information • Behavioral barriers through legacy effects and culture • Policy-induced barriers through funding rules and market differences • Barriers through differences between private and public benefits 4 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  5. 5. Types of Linkages between Clusters Joint services Policy learning Cluster participants Cluster participants 5 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter Cluster initiative Cluster initiative Commercial collaboration
  6. 6. Evolution of Cluster Initiatives’ Internationalization Activities 6 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter Export Promotion Policy Learning Commercial Collaboration
  7. 7. Some Facts About Internationalization (1) • Dramatic increase in trade volumes in prior to the global crisis; significantly lower export growth since then – Possible drivers include a slowdown in the reduction of trade costs and barriers • Trade remains dominated by goods, but service exports are growing much 7 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter faster • Significant increase in the number of locations engaged in global trade
  8. 8. Some Facts About Internationalization (2) • Trade is dominated by large companies; there is a strong relationship between MNC presence and exports – Only China and Germany are outliers, with much higher exports than predicted given their number of multinational firms (MNCs) • The growth in global trade has been driven by trade of intermediate goods within related companies, i.e. international trade between subsidiaries of an MNC – Exports and FDI are different options companies face in there internationalization strategy – Measures of Value Added incorporated in exports are increasingly used to analyze bilateral trade balances 8 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  9. 9. Some Facts About Internationalization (3) • Exports largely take place with neighboring countries • There is a significant relationship between a country’s stage of economic development and the profile of its exports • Exporting is risky; a large number of export attempts to new markets is discontinued after a short amount of time 9 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  10. 10. Some Facts About Internationalization: Implications • Exporting remains a potentially attractive but also risky endeavor • The market place of locations has become more competitive • While government agencies tend to separate between export promotion and FDI, for companies the two are integrally connected • The needs of companies in terms of internationalization differ significantly 10 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter by their size Successful internationalization efforts require: • A cluster with a clear positioning/value proposition in its respective market • A cluster initiative with an internationalization strategy that identifies objectives, target geographies, and services for specific segments of cluster participants
  11. 11. Value Proposition of your Cluster • What markets are you serving/competing in? • What unique value does your location offer? • What are other locations that you are competing with? Tools to use for an analysis of your cluster’s positioning • Five Forces analysis • Value Chain analysis • Market segmentation • Relative cost position • International cluster mapping tools 11 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  12. 12. An Example: Locations’ Positioning in Footwear Romania • Production subsidiaries of Italian companies • Focus on lower to medium price range China • OEM Production • Focus on low cost segment mainly for the US market Vietnam/Indonesia • OEM Production • Focus on the low cost segment mainly for the European market Portugal • Production • Focus on short-production runs in the medium price range United States • Design and marketing • Focus on specific market segments like sport and recreational shoes and boots • Manufacturing only in selected lines such as hand-sewn casual shoes and boots Italy • Design, marketing, and production of premium shoes • Export widely to the world market Brazil • Low to medium quality finished shoes, inputs, leather tanning • Shift toward higher quality products in response to Chinese price competition Source: Research by HBS student teams in 2002 – Van Thi Huynh, Evan Lee, Kevin Newman, Nils Ole Oermann CAMACOL11-02-07 CK 12 Copyright 2007 © Dr. Christian H. M. Ketels
  13. 13. Internationalization Strategy of your Cluster Organization (1) • What are the objectives of your internationalization activities? – Open additional markets for your firms – Strengthen access to critical knowledge or technologies – Collaborate with other locations to provide an integrate offering – Attract activities to strengthen your local cluster – … Tools to use for a fact-driven definition of objectives • Performance diagnostics • Cluster mapping • … Critical to engage cluster initiative stakeholders in this process; needs to reflect their needs 13 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  14. 14. Cluster Diagnostics 14 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter Performance Patterns Profile of the Cluster Quality of Cluster Participants
  15. 15. Internationalization Strategy of your Clusters Organization (2) • What services should you offer to whom in order to achieve your 15 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter objectives? – Needs-based segmentation of your market • Within the cluster/outside of the cluster • SMEs/large companies • … – Definition of your product/service portfolio • Information services • Joint activities • … Explore and leverage the offerings of the EU and national/regional agencies supporting trade and FDI
  16. 16. Internationalization Strategy of your Clusters Organization (3) • Which locations should you target in your activities? – Identify geographies based on you objectives – Look for intermediaries, often cluster organizations, in this location Tools to use for an identification of target locations • Company interviews • Mapping of current international linkages of your cluster • Cluster mapping • Networks of cluster organizations • … 16 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  17. 17. Clusters and Cluster Organizations in Europe Cluster Collaboration Platform www.clustercollaboration.eu Cluster Observatory: Organisations www.clusterobservatory.eu 17 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  18. 18. Clusters and Cluster Organizations in the US 18 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter Clusters Regions Organizations Project Background - Methodology - Data Sources - Partners Research - Policy Examples - Case Studies - News
  19. 19. Cluster Organizations Worldwide 19 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter www.tci-network.org Cluster Initiative Database Sector-Specific Networks of Cluster Organizations: Aerospace Chemicals Clean Tech Biotechnology Food Water …
  20. 20. A Recap • You need to know your cluster • You need to have an internationalization strategy • You are not alone: draw on the partners and tools available to support you 20 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  21. 21. A Quick Outlook: Relating to other Sectors 21 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter INTERNAL Creating Networks Launching Joint Actions EXTERNAL: Other Locations Technologies Global Value Chains Export Markets EXTERNAL: Other Sectors Technologies Emerging Industries
  22. 22. • Innovation is often happening at the intersection of technologies and industries; some within clusters, some between them • Combination with other sectors that are locally strong can provide a unique competitive advantage for your cluster 22 Copyright 2008 © Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter
  23. 23. An Example: Ten Broad Domains of Emerging Industries Adv. Logistics Creative Economy Experience Economy Downs. Chem Biopharma Adv. Packaging Med Dev Medical Devices Digital Mobility Environ. Services Plastics Upstr. Metal Light. Appl IT Downst . metal Transp. Autom Aerosp. Comm Bioph. Oil & Gas Prod. Tech Touris m Perf Arts Marke‐tng Music Bus Serv P&P Env Serv Video Wood Prod Metalw . Vulc. Mat. Agricult . Blue Growth Elect. Power Fishing Upstr. Chem More at the European Cluster Conference, Brussels, 20‐21 October
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