1. E n g l i s h 3.4: P r o d u c e a
s e l e c t i o n o f f l u e n t a n d
c o h e r e n t wr i t i n g wh i c h
d e v e l o p s , s u s t a i n s , a n d
s t r u c t u r e s i d e a s
Re s o u r c e r e f e r e n c e : En g l i s h
Re s o u r c e t i t l e : T wo f r o m On e
Cr e d i t s : 6
This activity requires you to create at least two pieces of fluent
and coherent writing using two different text types to explore a
single theme or idea. The texts you write can be of any types, for
example, poetry, narrative, personal
accounts, scripts, reports, essays, columns, editorials, or articles.
At least two pieces of your writing will be assessed. The
assessment will be based on how effectively your ideas are
developed and sustained and how language features are used to
create fluent and coherent writing.
Select a theme from which you could develop at least two
different pieces of writing using different text types. Resources A
and B provide suggestions of appropriate text types and
examples of how you could develop two texts from the same
Write a statement of intent that clearly explains:
• why you have chosen each text type
• how each text type meets your purpose
• how you are going to communicate your ideas in each text
• how you intend to engage your audience.
Over the year you could produce several pieces based around
the same theme. Your teacher will give you feedback during this
process. As you progress, compare your texts to your original
statement of intent and, if necessary, make changes. You may
decide to refine your statement of intent.
4. Task continued
From your collected writings, choose at least two pieces to
craft (rework, reshape) and submit for assessment. Make sure
that each piece of writing you submit:
• develops, sustains, and structures your ideas coherently
• demonstrates an understanding of the targeted audience and
• demonstrates your ability to produce controlled, fluent writing
by selecting and integrating ideas, language features, and
structure appropriate to your purpose and targeted audience.
You will be assessed on the quality of your structured ideas and
writing. Length is not the primary consideration. However, it is
unlikely that pieces shorter than 650 words will give you the
opportunity to demonstrate your skills in crafting fluent and
5. Text type A: Short story
Write a short story in which the teenage narrator’s perspective is a
significant feature. The narrator’s point of view on events, ideas, or
other characters will be developed throughout the narrative. The
perspective may well shift as the story unfolds.
The style and tone will be influenced by the narrator’s position.
Whatever the style and point of view adopted, the narrator’s
thoughts, feelings, and reactions will become evident as the story
develops. Before beginning your own writing, examine and discuss the
short story “I Hope They Feel Really Stink” (Excellence exemplar).
After reading the short story, consider how it is structured through:
• the introduction of characters
• the positioning of the narrator through her point of view on the
• the establishment of a situation – where and when the story occurs
• the way relationships are revealed
• the way tension and conflicts are set up
• the development of the story towards some sort of outcome.
6. Text type A: Short story
Consider how language features have been used to develop and
sustain ideas about adolescence from the narrator’s perspective.
How have the following been used to command the reader’s
• Sentence structure
• Diction choice
• Creation of mood and tone
• Selection of specific details
• The ending of the story.
7. Text type B: Play script
Write a play script that focuses on a conflict between an adolescent
and a parent. You may wish to develop a scene for an existing
television drama, for example, Shortland Street, Revenge, or Go
Girls, or create a stand-alone script. Ideas for this script may come
from another learning area, although all writing must be your own.
A play script differs from short story writing. Your focus is on the
dialogue. You may include some stage directions (actions).
Read the play script. Consider:
• how time and place are revealed through dialogue
• how relationships are introduced and developed
• to what extent emotions are shown through language
• how differences between Juliet and her mother are shown
• the characters’ differing attitudes towards love and marriage
• how a storyline is progressed through the dialogue
• how the scene ends.
8. Resource B
Chosen theme: There’s no place like home
Text type A: Travel writing
Travel writing can be about:
• exotic locations
• new experiences
• interesting sightseeing
• unusual characters
• appealing accommodation
• different food.
Writers can be travellers themselves, experiencing something for the
first time and writing with fresh eyes, or they can be locals, bringing
something familiar to the notice of others who have not experienced
it. The purpose of travel writing is to focus on the point of difference –
the aspect that makes this place or experience worthwhile or different.
9. Close read
Choose two to three travel articles and read them. Keep notes on the
1. Visual details
Travel is a very visual experience. Write down a selection of phrases
that show the writer’s use of small detail to bring the experience to life
for the reader. What poetic language techniques does the writer use
(such as simile, metaphor, alliteration)? How does the writer use
2. Being there
How does the writer place himself or herself in the context of the
writing (that is, personalise the experience)? Does the writer include
arrival and departure? Conversations? Impressions of other people?
3. Response versus the facts
Draw up two columns. In one column jot down phrases that include
words of personal response. In the other column write down the facts.
What conclusions can you draw about the balance of fact and opinion
in travel writing? Summarise the overall impression the writer gives of
this place or experience.
10. Choose your location
To choose the focus for your writing, you could brainstorm some
possibilities about your home town. You could focus on an
experience linked to where you live; something you know well and
believe visitors would enjoy. For example, if you lived in
Wellington, those experiences might include Courtenay Place on a
Friday night, the Sevens, a harbour cruise, a walk through the
town belt, Frank Kitts Park on a summer’s weekend, a morning on
Oriental Parade, Red Rocks, and so on.
Alternatively, you might like to write about someone else’s home
town. You could consider:
• a New Zealand experience you have had, for example, AJ Hackett
Bungy, white-water rafting, walking a track, hot-air
ballooning, tandem skydiving, surfing, snowboarding, a marae visit
• an overseas experience you have had that felt like home, for
example, visiting family overseas, experiences on the plane there or
on other transport, landmarks, people, food, occasions.
11. Get started
Once you have decided on your location, establish your point of
view. Are you a local or a visitor? Is it a positive or a negative
What frame can you give it? Consider the entry point and exit (or
arrival and departure, beginning and ending).
What are some of the factual details you can hang your response
on? You will need to research facts to make your travel writing
credible – place names, locations, details, and so on must be
How can you personalise the writing to take it beyond the factual?
How can you put yourself into the writing? Consider your own
12. Read student exemplars
Read the two extracts from student work. The first extract is
from a written text that was awarded Excellence. It describes a
holiday in the Gambia.
Compare and discuss with a partner the differences between
these two extracts. Based on these two extracts, think about
how you should write your own travel article.
13. Develop a final version
Using the information and ideas from earlier tasks, craft your writing so that it is
a fluent and coherent extended piece of writing. You may not include material
from this activity. You will need to consider the following points as you develop
and craft the writing:
• a strong narrative point of view
• a sense of a clear beginning and movement towards an end
• effective words and phrases that indicate time, sequence, and order
• speech to move the action along or to emphasise differences or similarities
• mood through appropriate word choice
• metaphor, allusion, alliteration, and other language devices to enhance visual
• a range of senses explored
• specific details to enhance the reader’s ability to visualise the situation and the
• a variety of sentence structures, for example, short sentences for
impact, longer sentences to develop ideas and images
• an apt title.
14. Text type B: First chapter
In this activity you will write the opening chapter for an original
piece in a fiction genre you have chosen. The first chapter
establishes the setting and atmosphere, introduces the main
characters, and initiates the plot.
Choose a novel from a fiction genre that interests you, for
fiction, fantasy, crime, romance, western, horror, adventure, spy, thr
iller, historical, war.
Read this student’s first chapter, which was awarded Excellence, and
consider the following points.
15. Text type B: First chapter
1. What happens in the first chapter?
2. What is the narrative point of view?
3. How is the writing divided between narrative, dialogue, and description?
4. How does the first sentence or the beginning hook you into the chapter?
5. How is setting established?
6. What is the initial incident?
7. Are there ideas that are suggested but not stated directly?
8. Are there vocabulary choices specific to this genre?
9. How does the pace of the extract reflect the content?
10. What mood/atmosphere is established, and how?
11. How are characters established
(name, appearance, dialogue, actions, relationships to others)?
12. What techniques does the writer use to guide our response to the characters?
13. What threads does the writer leave to be picked up and developed in later
Produce a selection of fluent and coherent writing which
develops, sustains, and structures ideas.
Fluent: Able to express oneself easily and articulately: "a fluent speaker and
writer on technical subjects". Your writing must flow well and the reader should
not have to continually re-read each sentence to make sense of it.
Coherent: Logical and consistent. Your writing must make sense. The reader
should not be asking, “what do they mean by that?”
Develop: To expand or enlarge. The ideas that you begin with in your writing
must go somewhere or grow. The reader should not e left thinking, “But what
about this idea, what happened next?”
Sustain: To keep up competently. The development of your ideas must
continue throughout your writing.
Structure: The arrangement and connectivity of the ideas in a text. Think
about the structure of your writing, will it follow a pattern? Will there be
techniques used in a certain order or way?
Produce a selection of fluent and coherent writing which
develops, sustains, and structures ideas and is convincing.
Convincing: causing one to believe the truth of something. Aim to
have the reader agree with what you are saying. Your writing is
believable and persuasive.
Produce a selection of fluent and coherent writing which
develops, sustains, and structures ideas and commands
Commands attention: your writing is striking and demands the