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Usa presentation

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Usa presentation

  2. 2. TECHNOLOGY IN U.S.A • First men who stepped on the moon in 1969 were American. • It is one of the largest nations in the world as well as the most technologically powerful nation in the world. • The availability of land and labor and the abundance of natural resources, fast transport and capital all contributed to America’s industrialization. IIPM 2
  3. 3. History of Train in U.S.A. • The De Witt Clinton was one of the first locomotives in America between 1820 & 1830. • The idea was came to connect New York and Philadelphia with carriages drawn by steam engines. • The mid 1830s several companies were using steam- powered locomotives to move train cars on rail tracks. IIPM 3
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  5. 5. • The early railroads were poorly integrated and it is mostly used to transport goods rather than traveling directly between cities.• The first line between the USA and Canada was the Atlantic & St Lawrence Railroad in 1853.• Thomas Davenport demonstrated a small, electrically powered locomotive engine in 1835.• Then streetcar system took place in 1888.• This became the prototype for trams in many cities of the USA and throughout the world. IIPM 5
  6. 6. Native Americans in U.S.A. • North America has been inhabited continuously and the earliest inhabitants were nomadic. • These first Native Americans relied upon chipped stone spearheads and boats clad in animal-hides for hunting in the Arctic. • These people dispersed in Pacific northwest where they began to make permanent settlements and build wooden houses. IIPM 6
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  8. 8. • People living on the plains remained largely nomadic and became leather workers as they hunted buffalo.• Tribes in the eastern woodlands and Mississippian Valley developed extensive trade networks, built pyramid-like mounds and practiced substantial agriculture.• The populations of these peoples were small and their rate of technological change was very low. IIPM 8
  9. 9. Factories and Mills in U.S.A. • In the mid 1780s, Oliver Evans invented an automated flour mill that included a grain elevator and hopper. • By the turn of the century, Evans also developed one of the first high-pressure steam engines and began establishing a network of machine workshops to manufacture and repair these popular inventions. IIPM 9
  10. 10. • Between 1800 and 1820, new industrial tools that rapidly increased the quality and efficiency of manufacturing emerged.• Simeon North suggested using division of labor to increase the speed with which a complete pistol could be manufactured which led to the development of a milling machine in 1798. IIPM 10
  11. 11. Turnpikes and Canals in U.S.A. IIPM 11
  12. 12. • As the country grew even larger with the admission of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio by 1803, the only means of transportation between these landlocked western states and their coastal neighbors was by foot, pack animal, or ship. Recognizing the success of Roman roads in unifying that empire, political and business leaders in the United States began to construct roads and canals to connect the disparate parts of the nation. IIPM 12
  13. 13. • Early toll roads were constructed and owned by joint stock companies that sold stock to raise construction capital.• Despite the new efficiencies introduced by the turnpikes and canals, travel along these routes was still time- consuming and expensive.• Then the idea of inventing a steamboat came into consideration and it is the north river steamboat. IIPM 13
  14. 14. • The north river steamboat made its first trip from New York City north on the Hudson River to Albany on August 17, 1807.• By 1820, steamboat services had been established on all the Atlantic tidal rivers and Chesapeake Bay.• The speed of the steamboats decreased travel times between coastal ports and upstream cities by weeks and costs for transporting goods along these rivers by as much as 90%. IIPM 14
  16. 16. Sleeping clock Using your iPhone to help you sleep
  17. 17. WIND ENERGY• Over 5,300 MW in January 2007.• Capacity of 16,904 MW December 2007.• Fastest growing technology IIPM 17
  20. 20. HISTORY OF EDUCATION• In 20th century, schools were well equipped.• Covers the trends in educational philosophy, formal & informal learning.• First school were opened in 17 th centuries.• Boston Latin school was founded in 1635.• People were taught by churches, families, communities etc. IIPM 20
  21. 21. SOUTH PART OF AMERICA• Planter class of people hired tutors or sent their children to schools.• In virginia,rudimentry schooling was for poor people.• In Georgia, more than 10 grammar schools were opened by ministers in1770.• Many of these were free for both for boys and girls. IIPM 21
  22. 22. EDUCATION FOR FEMALES• Tax-supported schooling for females began in 1767.• In school lacking places schooling was mainly for boys and few privileged girls.• For affair works men needed to read and write.• Females were needed only to read. IIPM 22
  23. 23. REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD• In early 19th century role of republican motherhood was developed.• It was the principle of equating a successful republic with vitreous family by U.S. families.• By 1840s few writers became models and advocates for female education.• This idea greatly enhanced the status of women and need of education for them. IIPM 23
  24. 24. TEXTBOOKS• Schools books were brought up in 17 th century• Webster’s Speller was blueprint for American text books.• This was very easy for both teachers and student.• This book only brought the concept of civics .• Reformation of American English was done to preserve republican purity and social stability. IIPM 24
  25. 25. GROWTH OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS• After revolution, emphasis was put on education in northern states.• By1870,all states had free elementary schools.• This time US population had highest literacy rates.• In 1821 Boston started first public school.• By close of 19th century private schools started coming into existence. IIPM 25
  26. 26. Secondary schools• In 1880, American high schools were preparatory academies for colleges,• But by 1910 they had been transformed into core elements of the common school system.• Number of students from 200,000(1890)to 1,000,000(1910), to almost 2,000,000(1920).• 7% of youths aged 14 to 17 were enrolled in 1890, rising to 32% in 1920.• Vocational education added(1910). IIPM 26
  27. 27. College preparation• In the 1865-1914 era high schools increased in number,• Adjusted their curriculum to prepare students for the growing state and private universities.• German was second, spoken language before World War I.• After war French was 2nd language.• 1960s,Spanish became popular. IIPM 27
  28. 28. Teachers• Teachers organized themselves during the 1920s and 1930s.• There were two groups formed to support the high school movement.• National Education Association (NEA)• American Federation of Teachers (AFT) IIPM 28
  29. 29. Higher education• There was an emphasis on literacy so that people could read the Bible.• Students were taught in Greek, Latin, geometry, ancient history, logic, ethics.• With few discussions and no lab sessions.• There were no schools of law in the colonies. IIPM 29
  30. 30. Impact of colleges in 19th century• Colleges helped young men make the transition from rural farms to complex urban occupations.• These colleges especially promoted upward mobility by preparing ministers, and brought development.• The elite Eastern colleges, especially Harvard (1636) played the most important role in bringing revolution in education system. IIPM 30
  31. 31. Education in the 1960s and 1970s• Inequality-Black schools were funded on a nearly equal basis by the 1960s, and that black students benefited from racially mixed classrooms.• Special education-In 1975 Congress passed Public Law 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act. IIPM 31
  32. 32. Reform efforts in the 1980s• In 1983, the National Commission on Excellence in Education• Increased the number of school days per year,• Longer school days• Higher testing standards. IIPM 32
  33. 33. 1990s• Gulf war.• Google was introduced.• Increase in school violence and drug addiction.• Focus shifted to technology.• Equal opportunities for disabled.• Decrease in no of students and their standards. IIPM 33
  34. 34. Education system today• Education is mainly provided by the public sector.• Funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local.• Child education is compulsory.• Three levels:• Elementary school,• Middle school,• High school. IIPM 34