O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
Meanwhile, in the United States… Prohibition of online betting games • Self-voluntary first • Then by law • Nota: regulated sector / limited effects / WTO 9
‘Best practices to address copyrightinfringement and the sale of counterfeit goods on the internet’ Filiation? Rarely used… 10
Wikileaks  “Since 7th December 2010 an arbitrary and unlawful financial blockade has been imposed by Bank of America, VISA, MasterCard, PayPal and Western Union. The attack has destroyed 95% of our revenue” - http://wikileaks.org/Banking-Blockade.html 11
Wikileaks • [Source: TechDirt, July 12, 2012] 12
First lessons Mechanisms do exist; they are limited • to a sector • geographically US legal framework • grants more power to the person who drafts • encourages self-regulation • creates legal uncertainty outside the borders ─ examples of sanctions against a website which unlawfulness remains to be established 13
Spam "VIAGRA® Official Site"K. Levchenko et al. (2010), Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain 19
A collection of contracts Debtor Creditor • Debtor Bank • Creditor Bank Bank Bank • Bank Electronic money issuer • Bank Payment service provider • Payment provider Technical operator Contractual restrictions are possible 20
3. (Modest !) recommendations Payment intermediaries Advertising intermediaries Limited number of actors Wide range of actors (at the center) (but Google a major one) Easy identification, Uneasy inventory prudential regulation e-commerce directive e-commerce directive Statu quo? Code of conduct Collaboration? (article 16 + preambles 32 et 49) Legislative intervention? 21
Towards a code of conduct in advertising? YearAdvertiser Accounts Suspended for Terms of Service and Advertising PoliciesSites Rejected for Site PolicyAds Disapproved2011824K610K134M2010248K398K56.7M200968.5K305K42.5M2008 18.1K167K25.3M [May 25, 2012] 22
• Notice to the payment intermediary (subsidiarity)• The payment intermediary informs its client• Evaluation of the notice by the intermediary?• Escrow of funds deriving from illegal activities• Account termination (if the intermediary finds it appropriate or justified) 23
Options Statu quo • Wouldn’t this short term fight contradict with long term identification of bad guys? ─IPS Study Collaboration • From de facto practices towards self- regulation? Legislative evolution • IPRED? 24
Limits Hybrid economy Encourages more private policing Geographical scope • Rights exhaustion ─ Discussable Visa provision: « a transaction must be legal in both the Cardholders jurisdiction and the Merchant’s jurisdiction » Efficiency? • Possible reaction of targets: multiple accounts, straw men, etc. 26
Interest of the Commission? [source : J. Bergevin, September 17, 2012] 27