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Sentence structure

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Sentence Classification
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Sentence structure

  1. 1. Basic Sentence Structure Cansu SÜER
  2. 2. A typical English Sentence Subject + Verb + Complement/Object - A highly influential politician supports my project.
  3. 3. The Subject Form Example Noun Ece is a student at METU. Pronoun She studies management. Det.+Noun+Pr ep. Phrase The management courses at METU are highly demanding. Gerund Phrase Acquiring managerial skills is important for her.
  4. 4. The Subject Form Example Infinitive Phrase To become a manager requires a good theoretical background as well as practical experience. Noun Clause What she learns at the university is relevant to her future career. Det.+Noun+Relativ e Clause The courses that she takes at the university will enable her to become a good manager in the future. Det.+Noun+Reduc ed Relative Clause A manager capable of making sound decisions at the right time is certain to succeed.
  5. 5. The Subject Form Example Determiner + Noun + Reduced Clause Ece, a highly motivated management student, studies her lessons regularly.
  6. 6. Structures Used in the Subject Position Form Example Det.+Adv+Adj+Nou n Det+ Noun 1. This extremely interesting invitation should please Mary. 2. George’s invitation should please Mary. Infinitive 1. To be invited by George should please Mary. 2. For George to invite her should please Mary. Gerund 1. Being invited by George should... 2. George’s inviting her should…
  7. 7. Structures Used in the Subject Position Form Example Noun Clauses 1. That George has invited her should please Mary. 2. The fact that George has sent her an invitation should please Mary. Det+Noun+Relativ e Clause 1. The invitation, which is a sign of George’s sincerity, should… 2. The invitation, which demonstrates George’s sincerity, should… 3. The invitation, which was sent by George,… 4. The invitation, which is from George,….
  8. 8. Structures Used in the Subject Position Form Example Det+ Noun+Reduced Relative Clause 1. The invitation, a sign of George’s sincerity, should please Mary. 2. The invitation, demonsrating George’s sincerity, should... 3. The invitation, sent by George,… 4. The invitation, from George,… - ever Clauses 1. Whatever George says, seems to please Mary. Pronoun 1. George has sent Mary an invitation. It should please her.
  9. 9. Identifying the Subject A highly ambitious project has been prepared to create new jobs. These extremely sensitive issues must be dealt with urgently. A democratically elected government is now ruling the country. Many newly married couples are willing to participate in the special program. An incredibly beautiful woman opened the door. The woman in the car parked in front of the bank across the street is our history teacher.
  10. 10. Identifying the Subject A highly ambitious project has been prepared to create new jobs. These extremely sensitive issues must be dealt with urgently. A democratically elected government is now ruling the country. Many newly married couples are willing to participate in the special program. An incredibly beautiful woman opened the door. The woman in the car parked in front of the bank across the street is our history teacher.
  11. 11. The Verb Subject Noun Phrase Verb Phrase Notes Ece Studies management at METU. Has been studying at METU for 3 years. Willi have graduated from METU by next July. Took German 201 as an elective course last term. Active verbs in different tenses Hopes to go to Germany to improve her German. Enjoys studying management. V+ to V1 Gerund
  12. 12. The Object Noun I like Ali. Pronoun I like him because he is so kind Adj+noun I like kind people. Gerund I like singing songs. Infinitive I like to sing songs. Noun Cl. I don’t remember what I did. I admit that I make mistakes. I don’t know whether I’ll be able to get permission from my parents. You can do whatever you want. Det+Noun+ Relative Cl. Det+Noun+ Reduced Relative Cl. I hate people who don’t keep their promises. The man kissed the woman, a well-known model. The man kissed the woman dressed in a striped shirt. The man kissed the woman sitting next to him.
  13. 13. The Compliment Noun+Noun Det+Noun+Prep.Phase One problem we are faced with is air pollution. The principal problem facing many developing countries is the lack of capital to finance large- scale projects. Adj+Noun+Relative Cl. The main problem confronting us today is environmental deterioration, which has reached dangerous proportions. Infinitive One of th aims of education is to train the personnel needed by different sectors. Gerund My hobby is collecting stamps. Noun Clause The problem is that the available resources are inadequate. What is not clear is what caused the fire. What seems uncertain now is whether he will become a candidate.
  14. 14. Verb Patterns Verb + Ving/V1 1. hear - I heard him cough. (once) - I can hear him coughing. (repeatedly) - I heard someone unlock the door/unlocking the door.
  15. 15. Verb Patterns Verb + Ving/V1 2. see - I saw him cross the street. (I saw the whole action) - I saw him crossing the street. (I saw only part of the action) - I saw him (being) taken away by the police.
  16. 16. Verb Patterns Verb + Ving/V1 3. watch - I watched the crowd gathering in the street. - I watched him cut the grass. 4. observe - We observed them making preparations for an experiment. - We observed her teach a lesson.
  17. 17. Verb Patterns Verb + Ving/V1 5. notice - She noticed him looking out of the window. - I noticed him enter the room. 6. feel - I felt something moving on my left leg. - I felt someone touch my shoulder.
  18. 18. Verb Patterns Verb + Ving/V1 5. notice - She noticed him looking our of the window. - I noticed him enter the room. 6. feel - I felt something moving on my left leg. - I felt someone touch my shoulder.
  19. 19. Verb Patterns Verb + Ving 1. find - I found the child sleeping. 2. catch - The teacher caught him cheating in the exam. 3. keep - He kept us waiting for a long time.
  20. 20. Verb Patterns Verb + sth/sb + adjective 1. make - Believe me that I’ll make you happy. 2. prefer - Do you prefer your coffee black? 3. report - Newspaper reported him dead.
  21. 21. Verb Patterns Verb + sth + adjective 1. drive - The noise was driving us all mad. 2. declare - The chairman declared the meeting official.
  22. 22. Verb Patterns 1. let 2. make 3. have 4. help Verb + sb + V1 :My father doesn’t let me go to the movies with my friends. :You should make these boys behave themselves. :The judge had the witness repeat his statement. He helped (us) (to) carry the boxes.
  23. 23. Verb Patterns force They get us to carry the boxes. allow know : I have never known him tell a lie. Verb + sb + to V1
  24. 24. Verb Patterns - He let it be known that he wouldn’t tolerate any chance. - We were made to carry the boxes. - He has never been known to tell a lie. Verb + sb + V1/to V1 (Passive Form)
  25. 25. Verb Patterns 1. give 2. tell 3. show 4. send 5. lend 6. read 7. write : I gave a book to him. : She told a story to the children. : I showed the pictures to my friends. : He sent documents to his friend. : She lent her dictionary to me. : I read the letter to him. : I wrote a letter to her. Verb+direct obj.+preposition+ indirect obj.
  26. 26. Verb Patterns 8. bake 9. buy 10. reserve 11. get 12. cook : She baked a birthday cake for us. : I’ll buy a camera for him. : I reserved a double room for them. : Could you get a chair for me? : She cooks dinner for her family. Verb+direct obj.+preposition+ indirect obj.
  27. 27. Verb Patterns Verbs +sth+ to+ V1 bring hand owe send tell give lend promise show throw grant offer read teach write He offered me to go out. She taught me to cook. They gave a dictionary to look up the words. He promised me not to leave.
  28. 28. Verb Patterns Verbs +sth+ for+ indirect object buy find leave order reserve spare cook get peel make save He cooked a meal for the whole family.
  29. 29. Verb Patterns Verbs +noun + adjective/noun 1.keep 2.leave 3.think 4.consider : Chris kept his marriage a secret. : The army left the building empty/ a ruin. : He thought me stupid/ a fool. : We consider it important/ an important step.
  30. 30. Verb Patterns Verbs +noun + noun complement 1.appoint 2.choose 3.make 4.elect 5.name 6.call 7. nominate : They appointed him chairman. : They’ve chosen her as the new president. : They made him captain. : We elected him the chairman. : They named the child Tekin. : They call her ‘Princess’. : The board nominated him as the new president.
  31. 31. Verb Patterns Some verbs with that clause can be reduced to infinitive. That Clause Infinitive We believe that it was a mistake. We believe it to have been a mistake We consider that money is important. We consider money [to be ] important. They have proved that they are worthy of promotion. They have proved themselves [to be] worthy of promotion. We know that he is highly ambitious. We know him to be highly ambitious. Experts estimate that it costs $50. Experts estimate it to have cost $50.

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