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ZFS in 30 minutes

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William HathawayPrincipal Engineer em Comcast Converged Products

This is a presentation I gave to the Central PA Linux User's Group on 2010/01/12.

ZFS in 30 minutes

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In ~ 30 Minutes

                             bill.hathaway@gmail.com



Thursday, January 14, 2010                             1
What is ZFS?
                        A modern take on storage

                        Safe - transaction based, checksums
                        Simple - 2 main commands
                        Efficient - share resources well
                        Dynamic - change on the fly


Thursday, January 14, 2010                                                                     2

Zettabyte is 2^70 bytes

ZFS was developed in response to dealing with 20+ years of complexity and limitations
around storage. Todays disk drives are a roughly a million times bigger than the first
hard disks. File systems have all sorts of whacky limitations like the number of inodes
or items in a directory. Sysadmins have to make choices about how much space to
assign to volumes and file systems and then later shrink or add space if they were
wrong. Troubleshooting physical hardware, logical volume managers, and file systems
increases complexity. Fsck times mean outages can that take hours or days.


With filesystems, safety is a hard constraint. ZFS provides safety through two mechanisms
a Copy-on-Write architecture that uses transactions to keep the on-disk format consistent
and checksums that can tell if any data is corrupted. If you have redundancy, then the
problem can be fixed. No FSCK is needed. Ever.

ZFS is easy to administer because it simplifies the administration model. There are only 2
main commands. Each of these have sub-commands, but the usage is consistent and tries to
be intuitive.

ZFS is efficient in that it uses a concept called pooled storage. This means that disk space
and disk bandwidth can be easily shared among multiple file systems.

Dynamic - storage can be added, new file systems created, or properties changed all while
running
Where can I use ZFS?


                                                               zfs-fuse.net




                             Nexenta                code.google.com/p/maczfs

Thursday, January 14, 2010                                                                   3

The operating systems on the left all support ZFS natively.


Apple originally was porting ZFS to OS X, but apparently there was an unsolved licensing
dispute and that is no longer the case. A group of enthusiasts are continuing to work with
the code to make it available to Mac users.
KQ Infotech announced they would be porting ZFS to Linux and maintaining the port.

Blog at kqinfotech.wordpress.com
ZFS Basic Terms
                       Volume - block device
                       File system - standard POSIX FS layer
                       Snapshot - read-only copy of a FS
                       Clone - read-write copy of a FS
                       Dataset - any of the 4 terms above
                       Pool - logical set of vdevs
                       VDev - block storage (redundancy done here)


Thursday, January 14, 2010                                                 4



ZFS volumes are typically used to support iSCSI luns or for swap devices
Copy-on-Write
          1. Initial tree blocks               2. CoW some blocks




        4. Rewrite uberblock                  3. CoW indirect blocks




Thursday, January 14, 2010                                                   5

Using the copy-on-write mechanism allows ZFS to operate very safely.

In this example, the original data blocks are blue, and new data is green.
Pooled Storage


                              Manage disks
                               more like
                                 RAM

Thursday, January 14, 2010                                                                     6

Pooled storage means that as you add storage to ZFS you don’t need to worry about micro-
managing it. The storage is made available to all the file systems using the pool, similar to
how when you add DIMMs to a system you don’t need to reconfigure anything.

No dimmconfig

No /etc/dimmtab

No fdimm

You can create multiple pools of storage per server.

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ZFS in 30 minutes

  • 1. In ~ 30 Minutes bill.hathaway@gmail.com Thursday, January 14, 2010 1
  • 2. What is ZFS? A modern take on storage Safe - transaction based, checksums Simple - 2 main commands Efficient - share resources well Dynamic - change on the fly Thursday, January 14, 2010 2 Zettabyte is 2^70 bytes ZFS was developed in response to dealing with 20+ years of complexity and limitations around storage. Todays disk drives are a roughly a million times bigger than the first hard disks. File systems have all sorts of whacky limitations like the number of inodes or items in a directory. Sysadmins have to make choices about how much space to assign to volumes and file systems and then later shrink or add space if they were wrong. Troubleshooting physical hardware, logical volume managers, and file systems increases complexity. Fsck times mean outages can that take hours or days. With filesystems, safety is a hard constraint. ZFS provides safety through two mechanisms a Copy-on-Write architecture that uses transactions to keep the on-disk format consistent and checksums that can tell if any data is corrupted. If you have redundancy, then the problem can be fixed. No FSCK is needed. Ever. ZFS is easy to administer because it simplifies the administration model. There are only 2 main commands. Each of these have sub-commands, but the usage is consistent and tries to be intuitive. ZFS is efficient in that it uses a concept called pooled storage. This means that disk space and disk bandwidth can be easily shared among multiple file systems. Dynamic - storage can be added, new file systems created, or properties changed all while running
  • 3. Where can I use ZFS? zfs-fuse.net Nexenta code.google.com/p/maczfs Thursday, January 14, 2010 3 The operating systems on the left all support ZFS natively. Apple originally was porting ZFS to OS X, but apparently there was an unsolved licensing dispute and that is no longer the case. A group of enthusiasts are continuing to work with the code to make it available to Mac users. KQ Infotech announced they would be porting ZFS to Linux and maintaining the port. Blog at kqinfotech.wordpress.com
  • 4. ZFS Basic Terms Volume - block device File system - standard POSIX FS layer Snapshot - read-only copy of a FS Clone - read-write copy of a FS Dataset - any of the 4 terms above Pool - logical set of vdevs VDev - block storage (redundancy done here) Thursday, January 14, 2010 4 ZFS volumes are typically used to support iSCSI luns or for swap devices
  • 5. Copy-on-Write 1. Initial tree blocks 2. CoW some blocks 4. Rewrite uberblock 3. CoW indirect blocks Thursday, January 14, 2010 5 Using the copy-on-write mechanism allows ZFS to operate very safely. In this example, the original data blocks are blue, and new data is green.
  • 6. Pooled Storage Manage disks more like RAM Thursday, January 14, 2010 6 Pooled storage means that as you add storage to ZFS you don’t need to worry about micro- managing it. The storage is made available to all the file systems using the pool, similar to how when you add DIMMs to a system you don’t need to reconfigure anything. No dimmconfig No /etc/dimmtab No fdimm You can create multiple pools of storage per server.
  • 7. Pooled Storage Underlying storage is manipulated via zpool # zpool create # zpool list # zpool status # zpool add Thursday, January 14, 2010 7 There are also additional sub-commands for tasks such as replacing drives or scrubbing data. Redundancy is handled at the pool level. When you create a pool you can add drives in a striped fashion, as mirrors, or in a parity configuration similar to RAID5 or 6. You can also have multiple pools per a machine. An example is where you have a pool mirrored storage to support a high-performance database using 15k RPM disks and another pool that uses slower SATA based storage in a RAID5 like configuration holding archived data.
  • 8. Vdev Types Data Parity Non-redundant Redundant Single disk Mirror Striped RAIDZ Thursday, January 14, 2010 8 Here we are showing the types of vdevs that can be used as building blocks for ZFS pools. If we start with a single disk, we can expand it later either to a mirrored vdev by attaching a disk or we could change to a striped configuration by adding a disk. One common complaint with ZFS is that you can’t remove disks from striped or RAIDZ configurations, even if you have plenty of available space. This will be remedied when a feature called “block pointer rewrite” gets integrated. There are double and triple parity versions of RAIDZ called RAIDZ2 and RAIDZ3.
  • 9. Pooled Storage # zpool create data mirror c1t0d0 c2t0d0 # zpool list data NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT data 496G 164K 496G 0% 1.00x ONLINE - # df -h /data Filesystem size used avail capacity Mounted on data 488G 24K 488G 1% /data Thursday, January 14, 2010 9 Here we will create a pool consisting of mirrored storage and then run a zpool list command to see how much space is available. A file system mounted on the name of the pool will be available by default
  • 10. Pooled Storage # zpool status pool: data state: ONLINE scrub: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM data ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c2t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors Thursday, January 14, 2010 10 The status command tells us which drives are part of the pool and if they have had any errors
  • 11. Pooled Storage # zpool create data mirror c1t0d0 c2t0d0 # zpool list data NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT data 496G 164K 496G 0% 1.00x ONLINE - # zpool add data mirror c3t0d0 c4t0d0 # zpool list data NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT data 992G 164K 992G 0% 1.00x ONLINE - Thursday, January 14, 2010 11
  • 12. Pooled Storage # zpool status pool: data state: ONLINE scrub: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM data ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c1t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c2t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0 c3t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 c4t0d0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors Thursday, January 14, 2010 12 The status command tells us which drives are part of the pool and if they have had any errors
  • 13. Pool Evolution zpool create data c1t0d0 zpool attach data c2t0d0 zpool add data mirror c3t0d0 c4t0d0 zpool destroy data Thursday, January 14, 2010 13 Here is an example where we start with a single disk. Using the zpool attach command we can add a mirror to the original disk. If we want more space or better performance, we can also add another pair of mirrored disks. If we decide we are all done with the pool and want to remove all the data we can use the zpool destroy command to free up the disks
  • 14. File Systems FS manipulation done via zfs command # zfs create data/web # zfs set compression=on data/web # zfs snapshot data/web@before_upgrade # zfs create data/home # zfs create data/home/slaney Thursday, January 14, 2010 14 zfs has several sub commands, the most common used are create, set, get, and list
  • 15. ZFS Properties All objects have props that change behavior Properties are typically inherited # zfs set property=value $dataset # zfs get <$propname|all> $dataset # zfs set mountpoint=/apache data/web Thursday, January 14, 2010 15 All ZFS objects have properties that can control their behavior. Most inherit from their parent.
  • 16. ZFS Properties # zfs get all data/web NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE data/web type filesystem - data/web used 329M - data/web available 992G - data/web compressratio 1.75x - data/web quota none default data/web mountpoint /apache local data/web checksum on default data/web compression on local data/web atime off inherited from data Thursday, January 14, 2010 16 This example shows some properties for one of our file systems. The first few lines contain read-only properties and can’t be set. The compress ratio shows how much space is being saved by compression if it is active We can see that the mountpoint is set to /apache and the source is local, meaning it is due to a setting we did explicitly to this file system Lower we can see that the atime property is disabled and that the source shows it is inherited from a parent object
  • 17. File Systems # zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT data 131K 488G 23K /data data/home 21K 488G 21K /data/home data/home/slaney 21K 488G 21K /data/home/slaney data/web 21K 488G 21K /apache # zfs set mountpoint=/home data/home # zfs list | grep home NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT data/home 21K 488G 21K /home data/home/slaney 21K 488G 21K /home/slaney Thursday, January 14, 2010 17
  • 18. ZFS File Systems zfs set quota=10g data/home zfs set compression=on data/home zfs create data/postgres zfs set reservation=50g data/postgres zfs set atime=off data/home/slaney Thursday, January 14, 2010 18
  • 19. Snapshots A read-only copy of a filesystem Can be used to roll-back to a previous state # zfs snapshot $fs@$name # zfs snapshot data/web@pre_upgrade # zfs snapshot data/web@post_upgrade # zfs snapshot data/home@`date +%F` Thursday, January 14, 2010 19
  • 20. Managing Snapshots # zfs list -t snapshot NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT data/web@pre_upgrade 19K - 26K - data/web@post_upgrade 0 - 213M - data/home@2010-01-03 18k - 17M - # zfs rollback data/web@post_upgrade # zfs destroy data/home@2010-01-03 Thursday, January 14, 2010 20
  • 21. Clones A clone is a read-write copy based on a snapshot. # zfs snapshot data/postgres@for_test # zfs clone data/postgres@for_test data/pgtest # zfs set mountpoint=/postgres2 data/pg_test Thursday, January 14, 2010 21 Clones have a dependency on the snapshot they are built from.
  • 22. Data Replication 1. Take a snapshot # zfs snapshot data/postgres@2009-12-31 2. Use zfs send/recieve # zfs send data/posgres@2009-12-31 | ssh $remote_host zfs receive $dataset 3. Later .... use optional incremental update # zfs snapshot data/postgres@2010-01-02 # zfs send -i data/postgres@2009-12-31 data/postgres@2010-01-02 | ssh $remote_host zfs receive $dataset Thursday, January 14, 2010 22 The zfs send/receive stream can be piped over SSH or your transport of choice You can obviously also use rsync
  • 23. De-Duplication PAIN WARNING: Still in heavy development as of 2010/01/12 To activate: # zfs set dedup=on $dataset To view space savings: # zpool list $dataset NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT tpool 136G 33.7G 102G 24% 3.16x ONLINE - Thursday, January 14, 2010 23
  • 24. Solid State Disk Leverages SSD + standard drives SSD can be used as either (or both) • Write accelerator for intent log (ZIL) • 2nd level cache for reads (L2ARC) Thursday, January 14, 2010 24 ZFS uses the best parts of hard disk drives (large capacity) and the best parts of SSDs (fast access speed) A SSD can also be partitioned so that a small portion is used for the intent log and a larger section is used for L2ARC
  • 25. ZFS in OpenSolaris • Packaging system is ZFS aware • OS upgrades works on a clone of / • Adds extra grub entry • Reboot into new OS rev • If trouble, just reboot and pick previous rev Thursday, January 14, 2010 25
  • 26. ZFS Resources • LMGTFY “ZFS best practice guide” • LMGTFY “ZFS evil tuning guide” • zfs-discuss @ opensolaris.org • http://tinyurl.com/zfshome Thursday, January 14, 2010 26