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4th Presentation

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4th Presentation

  1. 1. BLOWOUT PREVENTER Why Blowout Preventer are used? • Kick : An influx of formation fluid into the wellbore • Blowout : An uncontrolled flow of well fluids and/or formation fluid from the wellbore or into lower pressured sub-surface zones (underground blowout) • Blowout Preventer : An assembly of valves attached to the casing head that allows the well to be sealed to confine the well fluids in the wellbore. Blowout preventer are of two types- i) Annular BOP ii) Ram BOP
  2. 2. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF BOP Selection of BOP determined by the following factors: • Maximum anticipated surface pressure. • Size of casing, casing hanger, bit and other drilling tools to be lowered through the BOP stack. • Space available between top of cellar pit and bottom of rotary table. • Matching flange connection according to the size and pressure rating of wellhead flange. • Service conditions.
  3. 3. BOP SPECIFICATION Standard Sizes of BOP: 71/16”, 9”, 11”, 135/8”, 16¾”, 18¾”, 21¼”, 26¾”, 28”, 291/2”, 30” Size refers to - ID, Nominal Diameter, Through bore Rated Working Pressure (RWP): 2M, 3M, 5M, 10M, 15M, 20M The maximum pressure that the equipment can withstand (contain) and control. Shell Test or Manufacturer Test or Body Test: •Only once in the factory •2M, 3M, 5M – 2 TIMES the RWP •10M and above – 1.5 TIMES the RWP
  4. 4. BOP SPECIFICATION • Closing Ratio = Well Bore Pressure Pr. Required to close RWP • Min. Pr. Required to close = Closing Ratio • Opening Ratio Well Bore Pressure = Pr. Required to open RWP • Min. Pr. Required to open Opening Ratio =
  5. 5. RAM BOP • Ram Preventers are designed to seal the annulus by forcing two front packing elements which make contact with each other and seal around the object in the well bore. • Pipe Ram : It seals around the well bore and the fixed size of pipe. • Blind Ram : It seals around the well if no pipe in the well bore. • Variable Bore Ram : It seals around several pipe sizes depending on the range of variable bore ram. • Shear Ram : It shear the pipe in the well and seal the wellbore simultaneously.
  6. 6. BASIC BOP OPERATION
  7. 7. CLOSING OF RAM BOP Top seal energized by well bore pressure at sealing surface of the ram body Front packer sealing against pipe Opening Closing chamber chamber Well Pressure
  8. 8. CLOSING OF RAM BOP TOP SEAL STEEL PLATE STEEL PLATE PUSHED BY OTHER SIDE PACKER STEEL PLATES RAM BLOCK PACKER RUBBER Well Pressure
  9. 9. BLOCK ASSEMBLY
  10. 10. BLOCK ASSEMBLY
  11. 11. HYDRIL RAM PREVENTER
  12. 12. CAMERON RAM PREVENTER
  13. 13. RAM BOP SPECIFICATION RAM BLOWOUT PREVENTER MAX. WORKING MAKE MODEL BORE SIZE(INCHES) PRESSURE(PSI) CLOSING RATIO(C.R) OPENING RATIO(O.R.) U-PIPE 7-1/16 ALL 6.90:1 2.20:1 11 15000 9.80:1 2.20:1 CAMERON 13-5/8 15000 10.60:1 3.60:1 U-SHEAR 11 15000 15.20:1 3.70:1 13-5/8 15000 10.80:1 4.50:1 7-1/16 3000/5000 4.80:1 1.50:1 7-1/16 10000 7.70:1 1.70:1 MANUAL LOCK PIPE 11 3000/5000 6.00:1 2.00:1 11 10000 6.90:1 2.40:1 13-5/8 3000/5000 4.80:1 2.10:1 13-5/8 10000 10.20:1 3.80:1 11 3000/5000 5.60:1 4.20:1 MANUAL LOCK SHEAR PIPE 11 10000 11.70:1 4.00:1 13-5/8 3000/5000 10.10:1 4.70:1 13-5/8 10000 10.20:1 3.80:1 MULTI POSITION LOCK PIPE 7-1/16 3000/5000 5.40:1 1.60:1 HYDRIL 11 10000 8.20:1 1.70:1 13-5/8 5000 5.20:1 2.10:1 13-5/8 10000 10.60:1 3.80:1 MULTI POSITION LOCK SHEAR PIPE 11 3000/5000 6.00:1 4.20:1 11 10000 12.40:1 4.00:1 13-5/8 3000/5000 10.60:1 4.70:1 13-5/8 10000 10.60:1 3.80:1 SL w/14" 7-1/16 10000/15000 13.90:1 7.14:1 11 10000 7.11:1 7.62:1 11 15000 7.11:1 2.80:1 13-5/8 5000 10.85:1 10.02:1 13-5/8 10000 7.11:1 2.14:1
  14. 14. ANNULAR BOP A large circular valve used to control wellbore fluid. • Rounded Elastomer with reinforced steel segments • Deforms the rubber radially inwards and seals • Can close around different shapes such as square and hexagonal kelly, drill collars, tool joint etc including wire line. • Can not close on stabiliser, bit and under reamer. • Can close on open hole.
  15. 15. ANNULAR BOP Piston Indicator Hole Wear Plate Element Segment Packing Element Latched Head Opening Chamber Piston Closing Chamber Piston Seals
  16. 16. CLOSING SEQUENCE OF ANNULAR BOP
  17. 17. ANNULAR BOP SPECIFICATION ANNULAR BLOWOUT PREVENTER MAKE MODEL BORE SIZE(INCHES) MAX. WORKING PRESSURE(PSI) 7-1/16 5000 MH KOOMEY N 7-1/16 10000 7-1/16 5000 7-1/16 10000 11 5000 GK HYDRIL 11 10000 13-5/8 5000 13-5/8 10000 GL 13-5/8 5000 7-1/16 3000/5000 7-1/16 10000 11 3000/5000 CAMERON D 11 10000 13-5/8 3000/5000 13-5/8 10000 7-1/16 3000/5000 7-1/16 10000 11 5000 SHAFFER S 11 10000 13-/58 5000 13-5/8 10000
  18. 18. FUNCTION TEST •Performed to verify the component’s intended operations •The test should be conducted when the drill string is inside casing •Function test should be carried out alternatively from main control unit/derrick floor panel/auxiliary panel •Actuation time of each equipment should be within the limits specified by API RP53 •Recorded final accumulator pressure after all the functions should not be less than 1200 psi or 200 psi above the pre charged pressure of accumulator which ever is maximum •At least once in a week
  19. 19. FUNCTION TEST PROCEDURE •Record initial Accumulator pressure •Turn off both electric and pneumatic pumps •Close Annular BOP and Pipe Ram BOP and open HCR one by one •Wait till pressure is stabilized •Record the closing time (closing time starts from turning the control lever till pressure stabilized) •Turn on electrical/Pneumatic pump and open all the preventer •Record the opening time •Record final Accumulator pressure •Record all the results in the prescribed format
  20. 20. BOP FUNCTION TEST REPORT RIG DATE WELL PROJECT BOP STACK DETAIL 1. Annular BOP 2. Single & Double ram type BOP 3. Upper pipe ram size 4. Lower pipe ram size Sl. No. Description Function Time Accumulator Accumulator Remarks Initial Pressure Final Pressure 1. Annular 2. Lower pipe 3. Upper pipe 4. Blind/Shear 5. Hyd. Valve on Choke line 6. Hyd. Valve on kill line
  21. 21. BOP PRESSURE TEST (i) Low Pressure Test : 200 – 300 psi should be applied for a low pressure test and the period is at least 5 minutes. (ii) High Pressure Test : High pressure test for RAMS and auxiliary equipment High pressure test to rated working pressure of RAMS BOP and auxiliary equipment OR rated working pressure of your wellhead. Select the lower number. For example, you BOP is rated for 5000 psi and your wellhead is rated for 3000 psi. Your high pressure test for the RAMS BOP and auxiliary equipment must be only 3000 psi. Pressure duration at least 5 minutes. High pressure test for Annular Preventer High pressure test should apply to 70% of rated working pressure or RAMS test pressure. Select the lower number. For example, you test your ram at 3000 psi and the annular working pressure is 5000 psi. You need to test your annular to 3000 psi (70% of annular RWP is 3500 psi).Pressure duration at least 5 minutes.
  22. 22. BOP PRESSURE TEST PRESSURE TEST •To check the integrity of all the joints in BOP stack, BOP seals and Valves. •Clear water is considered as the best test fluid •A stable low test pressure as well as stable high test pressure should be maintained for at least 5 minutes. PRESSURE TEST FREQUENCY •Prior to Spud or upon Installation •After repairs – Limited to the affected component •Not to exceed 21 Days
  23. 23. TEST EQUIPMENT
  24. 24. PRESSURE TESTING CUP TESTER TEST PLUG The cup of the tester gives Designed to seat in well head effective sealing in the casing and seal Limited to 70-80% of the burst Can be tested up to RWP of of upper part of casing Ram BOP Yield strength of drill pipe Different makes of well head may limit the test pressures. have different types of test rams plugs Can not be used to test blind/ Blind/ Shear Blind Rams can shear blind be tested.
  25. 25. BOP PRESSURE TEST 1. Run-in 2-3 stands of HWDP 2. Make-up Test Plug 3. Make-up 1 single of 5” D/P 4. Make-up Kelly 5. Open McEvoy valve and keep it in open position 6. Make-up 2” hole fill-up line 7. Close Annular or Ram BOP (whichever is tested) 8. Flushed all the lines(through choke manifold) 9. Start pump and raise pressure to 200 psi 10. Wait for at least 5 mins, observe if any pressure drop. 11. If positive, check for any leakage 12. If negative, increase pressure to 300 psi 13. Repeat step 10 and 11, if negative 14. Increase pressure in increment of 100 psi up to the desired value and repeat step 10 and 11 after every increment 15. Record the test readings 16. Bleed off pressure.
  26. 26. PROJECT: TEST FLUID- WATER/NITROGEN WELL NO.: RIG: DATE: TEST EQUIPMENT- TEST PUMP/CEMENTING UNIT Sl. TYPE OF BOP TEST PRESSURE & DURATION Rem No. Low Pressure Duration High Pressure Duration arks Annular BOP Upper pipe ram Lower pipe ram Blind/Shear ram Choke manifold Kill manifold Hyd Valve on choke line Hyd Valve on kill line HP Valves on choke & kill manifold UKC LKC FOSV Inside BOP
  27. 27. IMPORTANT POINTS • Prior to conducting Pressure Test inform every single person on Rig i.e. Pre-operation meeting • Do not allow any person to go near cellar area or below derrick floor • Before conducting test, discuss with DIC • Take care test plug properly sit on well head, preferably test plug and well head make are same. • Make sure McEvoy valve is opened before conducting test, as casing will get pressurized if closed and leakage is there. • Anchor 2” hole fill-up line properly before conducting test • Conduct test in presence of at least one experience person • If pressure test is conducted with test plug, take care of Riser(as test plug might get stuck during pulling out). Conduct test, if possible before R/up of Riser.

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