O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
The History of Instructional Design and Technology<br />William B. Clark<br />
First school museum opens in St. Louis, Missouri, signifying the first use of media for instructional purposes.<br />1905<br />The “visual instruction” or “visual education” movement continues to gain interest. Keystone View Company publishes Visual Education, a teacher’s guide to lantern slides and stereographs.<br />1908<br />
The first catalog of instructional films is published in the United States. The public school system of Rochester, NY becomes the first to adopt films for regular educational use.<br />1910<br />Significant growth in the visual instructional movement:<br /><ul><li> 5 national professional organizations established
5 journals on visual instruction begin publication
>20 institutions established for teacher training</li></ul> in visual instruction<br /><ul><li> Approximately 12 large-city school systems develop visual education bureaus</li></ul>1914 -1923<br />The National Education Association (NEA) establishes the Division of Visual Instruction (DVI).<br />1923<br />
The University of Nebraska offers college credit courses by radio.<br />1923<br />Technological advances in radio broadcasting, sound recordings, and sound motion pictures mark the evolution from “visual instruction” to “audiovisual instruction.”<br />1924 -1930s<br />The Division of Visual Instruction (DVI) merges with two other national professional organizations to form a lasting organization. This is known as “the coalition of 1932.”<br />1932<br />
Audiovisual instruction is employed in the United States military and industry. The United States Air Force alone produces over 400 training films and over 600 filmstrips. In 1941, the United States federal government establishes the Division of Visual Aids for War Training.<br />1939 - 1945<br />Training films play an important role in preparing US civilians to work in industry.<br />
Edgar Dale develops the “Cone of Experience” which outlines the hierarchy of instructional strategies and their effects on learner retention. <br />1946<br />The Division of Visual Instruction (DVI) changes its name to the Department of Audio-Visual Instruction (DAVI).<br />1947<br />In response to the growing interest in television for instruction, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) issues its Sixth Report and Order, reserving 242 channels for non-commercial, educational use.<br />1952<br />
DAVI publishes its inaugural issue of Audio-Visual Communication Review<br />1953<br />B.F. Skinner publishes his article, “The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching” which revolutionizes the field of education by focusing on “programmed” instruction.<br />1954<br />Benjamin Bloom publishes Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, classifying learning objectives by the type of learner behavior.<br />1956<br />
Instructional television continues to grow throughout the 1950s and IBM researchers begin developing computer-assisted instruction.<br />The launch of Sputnik prompts the United States to invest millions of dollars into improving math and science education, greatly impacting the instructional design process.<br />1957<br />Robert Mager publishes Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction, which describes how to write learning objectives that include descriptions of desired learner behavior, the learning conditions, and the criteria by which the behavior is evaluated.<br />1962<br />
In the early 1960s, the concept of criterion-referenced testing emerges as an important factor in the instructional design process.<br />Robert Gagne publishes The Conditions of Learning in which he describes his five domains of learning and the nine events of instruction.<br />1965<br />DAVI changes its name to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT).<br />1970<br />Instructional design processes continue to flourish in the 1970s, and the terms educational technology and instructional technology begin to replace audiovisual instruction.<br />
Computers are increasingly being used for instructional purposes in more than 40% of all elementary schools and in more than 75% of secondary schools in the United States.<br />1980-1983<br />During the 1980s, there is growing interest in how cognitive psychology principles can be applied to the instructional design process. This applies to the business, industry, military and international arenas.<br />1983-1989<br />There is increasing interest in the use of microcomputers for instructional purposes.<br />
Cognitive learning theories continue to evolve and new movements emerge such as human performance technology. <br />1990-1999<br />Constructivist approaches that focus more on the learner and real-world applications begin to emerge.<br />As new innovations in technology emerge and instructional design strategies are refined, the future of the field will become more sophisticated and robust. <br />The New Millennium<br />