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American Family - Chapter 6

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American Family - Chapter 6

  1. 1. On a piece of paper…  List three feelings a person might have about his or her body’s appearance.  Then write down three factors that might influence these feelings
  2. 2. American Family Chapter 6 Managing Weight and Body Composition
  3. 3. Learning Objective and FCS Standards  Learning Objective: Students will identify how to determine a healthy weight, risks associated with being under or overweight, and healthy ways to manage weight. Students will also compare and contrast eating disorders and identify the physical and psychological effects of eating disorders. Students will also examine variations in the average diet.  FCS Standards:06-12.7.1, 7.B, 7.D, 7.E
  4. 4. Body Image and Weight- Calorie Connection  Body Image: The way you see your body.  Maintaining weight is a matter of energy balance.  The calories you consume must equal the calories you burn.  If you eat more than you burn=gain weight.  If you burn more than you eat=lose weight.
  5. 5. Determining Your Healthy Weight Range  Body Mass Index or BMI: A ratio that allows you to assess your body size in relation to your height and weight.  During the teen years, individuals grow at different rates and in different ways. There is no single size, shape, or growth pattern that is normal for everyone.
  6. 6. Overweight vs. Obesity  Overweight: a condition in which a person is heavier than the standard weight range for his or her height.  Obesity: having an excess amount of body fat.
  7. 7. Weight Related Risks  Overweight  Strains the muscular and skeletal system  Forces the heart and lungs to work harder  Increases risk of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, asthma, and some cancers.  Underweight: a condition in which a person is less than the standard weight range for his/her height.  Not getting enough nutrients may lead to fatigue, decreased ability to fight illness.
  8. 8. Tips for Managing Weight  Target appropriate weight  Set realistic goals  Personalize your plan  Put your goal and plan in writing  Evaluate your progress
  9. 9. Healthy Weight-loss Strategies  Eat 1,700 to 1,800 calories to meet your body’s energy needs. (less than 1,400 may cause you to miss nutrients)  Include your favorites in moderation  Eat a variety of low-calorie, nutrient-dense foods-foods that are high in nutrients as compared with their caloric content  Drink plenty of water
  10. 10. Healthy Weight-gain Strategies  Increase your caloric intake  Eat often and take second helpings  Eat nutritious snacks  Build muscle  No matter what weight management plan you choose, get plenty of exercise.
  11. 11. Risky Weight-loss Strategies- Fad Diets Fad Diets: weight-loss plans that are popular for only a short time. The problem with fad diets Hard to stick with. May be costly. May not get all of your nutrients. Weight loss is usually regained.
  12. 12. Risky Weight-loss Strategies- Liquid Diets  Liquid Diets: Replacing all food intake with a special liquid formula  The problem with liquid diets: Usually don’t meet the body’s energy needs Fatigue Don’t supply enough nutrients and fiber High-protein and low carb can cause serious health problems, even death.
  13. 13. Risky Weight-loss Strategies  Fasting: Abstaining from eating  Problem with fasting:  Deprives body of nutrients and energy.  May become dehydrated.  Body begins to break down protein in muscle for energy.  Diet Pills: Many work to depress appetite  Problem with diet pills:  May cause drowsiness, anxiety, racing heart  May be addictive  May cause dehydration
  14. 14. Weight Cycling  Weight Cycling: The repeated pattern of loss and regain of body weight  Common for fad dieters  May be harmful to the body-not proven yet.
  15. 15. Buyer Beware  Complete Buyer Beware
  16. 16. Activity  Complete Activity 20, Strategy Sessions.
  17. 17. Eating Disorders  Eating Disorder: an extreme harmful eating behavior that can cause serious illness or even death  Types of Eating Disorders:  Anorexia Nervosa  Bulimia Nervosa  Binge-Eating
  18. 18. Anorexia Nervosa  Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder in which the irrational fear of becoming obese results in severe weight loss from self-imposed starvation.  Psychological disorder with emotional and physical consequences.  Relates to self-concept, perfectionism, coping abilities, outside pressures, high expectations, need to be accepted, and a need to achieve. May also be genetic.  Usually develop in teenage girls
  19. 19. More on Anorexia Nervosa  Symptoms include:  extremely low caloric intake  obsession with exercise  emotional problems  unnatural interest in food  distorted body image  denial of an eating problem
  20. 20. More on Anorexia Nervosa  Health Consequences  may cause a woman to stop menstruating  loss of bone density  low body temperature  low blood pressure  slowed metabolism  reduction in organ size  heart problems  death.  Treatment: Psychological treatment, may need in-patient hospitalization.
  21. 21. Bulimia Nervosa  Bulimia Nervosa: A disorder in which some form of purging or clearing of the digestive tract follows cycles of overeating.  Binging: consuming large amounts of food  Purging: vomiting or taking laxatives  Other symptoms:  distorted body image  unnatural interest in food • Causes: • societal pressures • self-esteem issues • family problems • other mental health issues
  22. 22. Bulimia Nervosa  Health Consequences  Dehydration  kidney damage  irregular heartbeat  destroys tooth enamel  damages tissues of stomach, esophagus, and mouth  disrupts digestion and absorption-causing nutrient deficiencies.  Treatment: medication and psychological counseling
  23. 23. Binge Eating  Binge Eating: A disorder characterized by compulsive overeating.  Consuming huge amounts of food without purging.  May signal problems with emotional eating or depression.
  24. 24. Binge Eating  Health Consequences  unhealthful weight gain  leading to problems with type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke  gallbladder problems  high blood pressure  high cholesterol  increases risk of certain types of cancer.  Treatment: Psychological counseling, possibly medication.
  25. 25. Variations in Diet  Variations for those involved in sports.  Rehydration: restoring lost body fluids  Important when competing in sports  Helps maintain your electrolytes: minerals that help maintain the body’s fluid balance. These include sodium, chloride, and potassium.  Making Weight  Weight loss should only happen ½ to 1 lbs. per week  Gaining Weight  Get your nutrition from foods, not protein supplements.  Don’t gain more than 1-2 lbs. per week.  Definitely stay away from anabolic steroids.  Eat 3-4 hours before competition and drink plenty of water.
  26. 26. Vegetarianism  Vegetarian: a person who eats mostly or only plant foods.  Different types  Lacto-ovo: includes dairy and egg foods  Lacto vegetarianism: includes dairy, but no eggs  Ovo vegetarianism: includes eggs, but no milk  Vegan: only plant sources
  27. 27. Others who need variations in diet.  Pregnant women: greater need for folate, iron, calcium. Needs to consume about 300 more calories than normal.  Nursing mothers: Also need a few more calories and a balanced diet.
  28. 28. Dietary Supplements  Dietary supplements: a non-food form of one or more nutrients.  Can come in pill, capsule, power, or liquid form  Can be used for those that need a little extra of a certain nutrient-vegans, pregnant or nursing moms, people receiving certain medical treatment, those with anemia.  Risks of dietary supplements  Megadose: a very large amount of a dietary supplement  Herbal Supplement: a chemical substance from plants that may be sold as a dietary supplement.  Don’t be fooled, just because it’s natural.  Supplements to look out for include: ephedra, lobelia, yohimbe, chaparral.