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Gamification - Defining, Designing and Using it

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A presentation that describes the concept of gamification, it's roots, design and application. Minimal words, lots of pics and lots of fun to present. :)

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Gamification - Defining, Designing and Using it

  1. 1. Gamification - defining, designing and using it Zachary Fitz-Walter Mobile Innovation Lab, QUT http://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02 http://zefcan.com
  2. 2. Today’s missions >> 1. What is gamification? 2. Designing gamification
  3. 3. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ramblingtraveler/3544734138/ Let’s say you caught the train this morning to work...
  4. 4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/5463240793/ ...and you know you should take the stairs, but the escalator is just so much easier.
  5. 5. How can we encourage people to take the stairs and get a little more exercise?
  6. 6. Odenplan, Stockholm, Sweden http://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircase Here’s an interesting idea...
  7. 7. Piano Stairs http://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircase Turn them into a piano?
  8. 8. Using play to motivate http://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircase
  9. 9. Gamification http://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircase Gamification is similar...
  10. 10. Gamification http://www.forbes.com/sites/danieltack/2013/01/02/world-of-warcraft-gearing-up-at-level-90 ...but it draws more specifically on video games rather than just play.
  11. 11. 1. What is gamification?
  12. 12. Gamification is a special word
  13. 13. It hasn’t been around for very long...
  14. 14. 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Web search interest in gamification trends.google.com
  15. 15. Foursquare really took off in 2011...
  16. 16. Text ...and was well known for the game elements it added
  17. 17. “By 2015, More than 50 percent of organizations that manage innovation processes will gamify those processes” Gartner Press Release - 2011 http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1629214 Gartner released this statement in 2011
  18. 18. Gamification became a buzzword
  19. 19. http://www.bogost.com/blog/gamification_is_bullshit.shtml And it’s made a bit of a name for itself both good... and not so good.
  20. 20. http://www.flickr.com/people/14516334@N00 It’s become a bit of a cure all for engagement problems...
  21. 21. “80 Percent of Current Gamified Applications Will Fail to Meet Business Objectives Primarily Due to Poor Design” Gartner Press Release - 2012 http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2251015 And then Gartner released this statement...
  22. 22. http://www.redherring.com/internet/gamification-platform-badgeville-raises-25m/ Yet still there is a lot of money in it...
  23. 23. Mixed Messages?
  24. 24. Gamification To understand it...
  25. 25. Games ...we have to go back to it’s roots.
  26. 26. http://laportecreative.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/nerdyrevenge.jpg The average gamer? Is a young, nerdy male who plays video games (often violent) all by themselves right?
  27. 27. Not really...
  28. 28. Video games have become mainstream
  29. 29. 92% of Australians live in a household with at least one device used for playing games Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012 http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
  30. 30. The average age of a gamer is 32 Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012 http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf (And 43% of people aged 51 or older are also gamers)
  31. 31. Gender of Australian gamers 53% Male 47% Female Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012 http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
  32. 32. Video games have become big business
  33. 33. The video game industry in Australia netted $1.161 billion in revenue last year Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012 http://www.igea.net
  34. 34. In the US consumers spent $24.75 billion on video games, hardware and accessories in 2011. Entertainment Software Association, 2011 - http://www.theesa.com/facts/index.asp The Numbers, 2011 - http://www.the-numbers.com/market/
  35. 35. Video games have become mobile
  36. 36. Mobile phones are used to play games in 43% of game households, tablet computers in 13% Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012 http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
  37. 37. Video games have become social
  38. 38. 1 in 5 gamers play social network games 1 in 10 play massively multiplayer games Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012 http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
  39. 39. Games are incredibly engaging
  40. 40. World of Warcraft One of the most engaging games out there is this one.
  41. 41. You create a character...
  42. 42. ...and then embark on quests and adventures in the world with other players.
  43. 43. You get quests.
  44. 44. Kill 3 boars Like this one.
  45. 45. You go off and complete them.
  46. 46. And then get a reward.
  47. 47. Wait... this is just like work After playing for 8 hours straight it hit me...
  48. 48. But it was really fun work
  49. 49. 12 million subscribers in 2010 Others think it’s fun as well, even many years after it was released.
  50. 50. So what is a game?
  51. 51. Most games boil down to solving a problem...
  52. 52. • Find a way to kill 3 boars • Find a way to get more points than the other team • Find a way to get to the finish line before the other players • Find a way to complete this level • Find a way to destroy the other player before they destroy you Last four examples are from The Art of Game Design, Jesse Schell, 2008
  53. 53. It’s how this activity is presented that plays an important part in creating a fun experience
  54. 54. "Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. In other words, with games, learning is the drug” - Raph Koster A Theory of Fun, 2005
  55. 55. Hang on, if games are so engaging...
  56. 56. ...could we use them to make other things engaging?
  57. 57. Gamification Now we’re seeing where this concept of gamification comes from...
  58. 58. Serious games ...but wait, the concept of serious games has been around long before gamification.
  59. 59. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/photos/uncategorized/2009/02/09/oregontrail.jpg Oregon Trail - 1971
  60. 60. http://www.whatisthe2gs.apple2.org.za/files/ReaderRabbit/ScreenGrab_1/reader_rabbit_shot.gif Reader Rabbit - 1986
  61. 61. Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego http://www.abandonia.com/games/13
  62. 62. Why gamification? Why now?
  63. 63. First, video games have become really popular...
  64. 64. ...and second there has been a change in technology like no other. In particular mobile devices, constant connection and sensors.
  65. 65. With our powers combined... The world is our playground
  66. 66. Gamification
  67. 67. Framing real life activities like a video game, in order to make these activities more engaging Gamification
  68. 68. Sustainability - Nissan My Leaf Sustainability Nissan CARWINGS
  69. 69. Sustainability - Nissan My Leaf Sustainability Nissan CARWINGS
  70. 70. Exercise Nike+
  71. 71. Exercise Nike+
  72. 72. Lifestyle Health Month
  73. 73. Lifestyle Health Month
  74. 74. Education Khan Academy
  75. 75. Education Khan Academy
  76. 76. Finance Mint
  77. 77. Finance Mint
  78. 78. Productivity Epic Win
  79. 79. Google Glass If technology continues to evolve... http://pctechmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/google-glasses.jpeg
  80. 80. Eran May-raz and Daniel Lazo, 2012, https://vimeo.com/46304267
  81. 81. But can it actually work?
  82. 82. 2. Designing Gamification
  83. 83. Gamification Blueprint
  84. 84. •Points •Badges •Leaderboards •Levels
  85. 85. Became popular with Foursquare
  86. 86. •Points •Badges •Leaderboards •Levels
  87. 87. •Points •Badges •Leaderboards •Levels = Rewards }
  88. 88. Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!
  89. 89. Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!
  90. 90. progresswars.com Otherwise this would be the best game out there...
  91. 91. So what’s missing?
  92. 92. "Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. In other words, with games, learning is the drug” - Raph Koster A Theory of Fun, 2005
  93. 93. Where’s the puzzle? Where’s the challenge?
  94. 94. So how can we design engaging gamification experiences?
  95. 95. Motivation There are two types...
  96. 96. Extrinsic Motivation http://2bgr8stock.deviantart.com/art/Money-Cash-113445826 Motivation for an external reward
  97. 97. Behaviour + Rewards = Extrinsic Motivation
  98. 98. Intrinsic Motivation Tim Pierce http://www.flickr.com/photos/48439369@N00 When an activity is performed for the internal satisfaction of under the activity itself
  99. 99. Intrinsic Motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/ The act of playing a game is generally considered an intrinsically satisfying activity
  100. 100. So what makes a game motivating to play?
  101. 101. • Autonomy - choice to play and choice over actions • Competence - ability to optimally challenge players • Relatedness - connection with others (Ryan, Rigby, and Przybylski, 2006) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8
  102. 102. Flow http://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/ Proposed by Csíkszentmihályi
  103. 103. • Intense and focused concentration • Merging of action and awareness • A loss of reflective self-consciousness • A sense control or agency over the activity • A distortion of time • Experience of the activity as being intrinsically rewarding Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Flow theory and research. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 195-206). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Factors of a flow experience
  104. 104. • A clear goal • Clear progress • Clear and immediate feedback • Balance of challenge and skill Conditions for flow
  105. 105. Based off a graph proposed by Csíkszentmihályi
  106. 106. These are important factors to consider when trying to design a game.
  107. 107. These are important factors to consider when trying to design gamification.
  108. 108. Designing gamification
  109. 109. Start with an activity http://www.flickr.com/photos/hoteldelapaixgeneve/5726470040/
  110. 110. Ask, do you really need gamification?
  111. 111. • Have you got an engagement or motivation problem, or is it something else? E.g., Usability • Ask yourself is this a problem that can’t be improved in any other way? • If motivation is lacking... looking towards game elements and theory might be worthwhile.
  112. 112. Ask why is this activity boring? What’s missing?
  113. 113. • Clear and interesting goals? • Feedback? • Interesting and playful mechanics? • Challenge? • Progression and Mastery?
  114. 114. Determine the goals The goals of the activity you’re trying to encourage (e.g., getting fit)
  115. 115. Derive goal metrics Work out how you can measure these goals
  116. 116. Sensors? http://www.wired.com/reviews/2012/10/fitbit-zip/
  117. 117. People http://gamingtheclassroom.wordpress.com/syllabus/
  118. 118. Design the gamification
  119. 119. Design like a game http://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02
  120. 120. Think of the player http://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/ What are their demographics? What do they like playing?
  121. 121. http://bizfest.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/bartle.png
  122. 122. Test and playtest! http://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02
  123. 123. Dangers of Gamification
  124. 124. Games get boring What happens after your user gets bored of the gamification? Will they keep using it?
  125. 125. Cheating http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheating.JPG People cheat, it’s a challenge. How will cheating affect your underlying activity?
  126. 126. Cheating http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheating.JPG
  127. 127. Real life dangers http://www.flickr.com/photos/ellenm1/6050529448/ In games you get many lives... however in real life you only get one. Gamify carefully.
  128. 128. A good example...
  129. 129. • Clear and interesting goals • Feedback • Interesting and playful mechanics • Challenge • Progression and Mastery • Aesthetics and Narrative •Handles potential dangers Billie Weiss, Original uploader Rschuman at en.wikipedia http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zombie_Chase.jpg
  130. 130. Wrapping it all up
  131. 131. Gamification is more than just badges
  132. 132. Design it like a good game
  133. 133. It’s easy, so start trying it!
  134. 134. •Name: Zac Fitz-Walter •Class: PhD Candidate from QUT •Abilities: Research, Teaching, iPhone Development •Weaknesses: Cats and Mangoes <Replay?> Zac Fitz-Walter •Email: z.fitz-walter@qut.edu.au •www: http://zefcan.com •Newsletter: http://gamificationweekly.com •Twitter: @zefcan

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