-- REFERS TO COOKING BY DRY HEAT
ESPECIALLY AN OVEN WHERE THE
TEMPERATURE IS UNIFORM AS HOT AIR
CIRCULATES TO COOK A CAKE, PIE,
COOKIE OR BREAD.
ALSO CALLED THE DRY METHOD OF
3. BAKING INGREDIENTS
• BUTTER and OTHER FATS:
In simple cakes, biscuits, and breads where
the flavor is important, always use butter. In
other cakes, margarine is acceptable. Soft
margarine should be used in all in one
mixture as it is made up of 80% fat and
blends easily. Low fat spreads are not
suitable for baking because of their high
water content, so check before buying. If oil is
called for, use a mild one such as sunflower
oil or vegetable oil.
4. BAKING INGREDIENTS
BOTH PLAIN & SELF RISING FLOURS
ARE USED IN BAKING. SELF RISING
FLOUR INCLUDES A RAISING AGENT,
SO IF YOU WANT TO SUBSTITUTE
PLAIN FLOUR ADD 2 TEASPOON
BAKING POWDER TO EACH 250 FRAMS
8. BAKING INGREDIENTS
• RAISING AGENTS:
BAKING POWDER AND BICARBONATE OF
SODA ARE USED IN CAKES, BREADS AND
BISCUITS. WHEN USING BAKING
POWDER, OR SELF-RISING FLOUR, BAKE
THE MIXTURE WITHIN 1 HOUR WHILE THE
CHEMICALS ARE STILL ACTIVE.
9. BAKING INGREDIENTS
There are different types of sugar; White or
Granulated, brown or coarse demarara, muscovado
or caster & powdered sugar or confectioner’s sugar.
For the most mixtures, it is essential to use a sugar
that dissolves easily, such as caster sugar or
muscovado. Granulated sugar can be used in
rubbed-in mixtures. Coarse demarara sugar can be
used in melted mixtures and is ideal for sprinkling on
top of cakes.
14. BAKING INGREDIENTS
Eggs at room temperature are more easily
aerated than cold eggs taken from the
refrigerator. Cold eggs can also cause some
cake mixtures to curdle.
15. BASIC STEPS IN BAKING
• Read the recipe to know if you have all the ingredients and
utensils needed and to know if you understand the entire
• Check if you have all the necessary ingredients then gather
• Prepare all the utensils you will need for measuring, mixing,
• Pre heat the oven. Set the oven knob at the desired
temperature. Hang an over thermometer on the center of
the rock. (for manual only). When the thermometer registers
the same temperature as the oven knob, then the oven is
ready for use.
16. BASIC STEPS IN BAKING
• Prepare the pan/s needed, making sure you use the
correct pan size. If it needs greasing, brush the
bottom of the pan with the little shortening. For baking
purposes, don’t use butter or margarine for greasing
because these burn easily and will produce a very
• Measure all the ingredients using correct utensils in
the amounts required in the recipe.
• Mix the batter or dough. When fillings pans, makes
sure you don’t overfill. Fill about 2/3 full to give
allowance for rising.
17. BASIC STEPS IN BAKING
• Bake in preheated oven. Put the pan at the center of the rack.
• Test for doneness. For butter cakes, prick the center of the cake with a
toothpick. If it comes out clean, then it is done. For chiffon and sponge
cakes, press lightly with fingers. If it springs back, then it is done. Pies and
pastries are done when the crust has turned golden brown, crisp, and flaky.
• Cool the baked products. For butter cakes, put the pan on a wire rack and
leave to cool for 10 minutes. After wards, invert the pan, remove the cake &
cool it completely. For sponge and chiffon cakes, invert the pans at once
and cool on racks.
• After the cakes have cooled, then it can already be assembled and
18. MEASURING INGREDIENTS
• One of the keys to successful baking is
the correct measurement of ingredients.
One should not only follow the amounts
stated in a recipe but also measure them
in a right way. Dry and liquid ingredients
are measured differently.
19. DRY INGREDIENTS
• Flour and sugar are measured nested
measuring cups which come in a set of 5 (1
cup, ½ cup, 1/3 cup, and ¼ cup).
• Sugar & all purpose flour are measured by
dipping the cups into the ingredients until
filled then leaving if off with spatula.
• For cake flour & confectioner’s, ingredients
are spooned onto the cup then leveled off.
20. LIQUID INGREDIENTS
• These are poured into spouted glass measuring
cups placed on a flat surface. Measurement is read
at eye level.
21. SMALL QUANTITIES
• Are measured using spoons measuring:
• 1, ½, 1/3, ¼, 1/8 tablespoon (T)
• 1, ½, 1/3, ¼, teaspoon (t)
• Dry ingredients are leveled off with spatula.