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Behaviour modification ppt 1

  1. Behaviour Modification By: Anju Gautam
  2. What is a Behaviour?  “The actions or reactions of a person in response to external or internal stimuli; conduct; manners or deportment, especially good manners; general course of life; treatment of others; manner of action; the activity of an organism, especially as measurable for its effects; response to stimulus; the functioning, response or activity of an object or substance.”
  3. Root Causes of Behaviour Differences  Individual differences  Differences in family patterns  Impairment/disabilities  Environmental factors  Psychological factors
  4. Activity: Influences in Behaviour 1. What contribution did your family make to your behaviour? 2. What role should you play as a teacher to help develop acceptable behaviour? 3. Discuss your findings with a friend.
  5. Behaviour modification Principle  Systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals covert and overt behaviors in order to help them function more fully in society
  6. Characteristics of Behavior Modification  Emphasized defining and measuring behavior  Treatment focuses greatly on the environment.  Methods and rationales can be described precisely.  Most techniques are based on research on learning  Emphasizes scientific method  Accountability is placed on everyone involved
  7. Misconceptions about Behavior Modification  Rewards and reinforcement are nothing more than bribes.  It is drug  It only changes symptoms not underlying problems.  Can be applied to simple, but not complex problems  Behavior analysts are cold non- empathetic people.  Behavior modifiers deal only with observable behavior.  Behavior modification is outdated
  8. Areas Of Application: •Parenting •Educational institutions •Clinical settings •Self Management •Medical and Health care •Business, Government and Industry
  9. Identification of Behavior Modification Behavior modification principles and practices are used to assist individuals with developing new, desirable behaviors while eliminating behaviors that are no longer useful. The techniques used are based on a branch of psychology called behavioral theory. Behavioral theory is based on two areas of study that took place in the 20th century. Classical conditioning--developed by Ivan P. Pavlov--focused on stimulus-response patterns. Operant conditioning--developed by B. F. Skinner--added positive and negative reinforcement practices to the stimulus-response model.
  10. Stages of Behavior Modification  Behavior modification is based on two types of theories. One involves antecedents i.e. events which occur before a particular behavior is demonstrated and the other is observable behavior i.e. those events that occur after a particular behavior has been occurred. A behavior modification technique is applicable only after a series of changes. An inappropriate behavior is observed, identified, targeted, and stopped. Meanwhile, a new, appropriate behavior must be identified, developed, strengthened, and maintained.
  11. Techniques Of Behaviour Modification  There are five categories of activities that can be addressed with behavior modification techniques  Develop a new behavior  Strengthen a behavior  Maintain an established behavior  Stop inappropriate behavior, stop , stop….
  12. Techniques Contd…….  Class room monitoring  Role playing and modeling  Moral education  Social Problem Solving (SPS): Direct teaching of SPS skills (e.g. alternative thinking, means-ends thinking), dialoguing, self-instruction training
  13. Techniques contd……..  Successive Approximation Principle  Continuous Reinforcement Principle  Punishment  This technique is used to teach the child a new behavior or concept he or she has not learned, by rewarding successive steps to the desired behavior.  When teaching new behaviors or tasks that a child has not learned, use an immediate reward after each correct performance.This technique is much the same as the first, but this time you'll be expecting the behavior to be exact instead of something close to that  Process of reducing behavior by immediately presenting an aversive condition contingent upon a response that results in a decrease in the frequency of that response.
  14.  Negative Reinforcement Principle  Modeling Principle  Some children need more work than others to acquire good behavior, but this technique of behavior modification can be used for every child at times of resistance and normal childhood rebellion. By giving the child choices, you are teaching him to make good decisions by offering a choice of consequences for good and bad behavior  When the teacher notes a few of her students misbehaving, a good behavior modification technique is to verbally praise the children who are behaving appropriately.This sends a message to the ones you're trying to teach.This technique works very well with younger children who adore the attention of adults
  15.  Cue Principle  Decreasing Reinforcement  To teach a child to remember a learned behavior, give a cue for the correct performance or behavior, just before the action is expected. This helps to avoid misbehavior and especially with the child who is more likely to misbehave without reminding  This technique is also called, "extinguishing."You want the child to behave appropriately, even without a reward, so once the new behavior has been learned through its rewards, it's time to slowly decrease the rewards to encourage greater expectations.
  16.  Avoidance Principle  Extinction  To teach a child to avoid a certain type of situation, simultaneously present to the child the situation to be avoided and some aversive condition (or its representation).  The principle of extinction works by removing or changing what happens after the behavior takes place. In effect, the incentive or reward that motivates a person to carry out a certain behavior is taken away. When this happens over and over again, the motivation to indulge in a certain behavior begins to fade or extinct……
  17.  Systematic Desensitization (Fear Reduction Principle)  Biofeedback  Systematic desensitization is a behavior modification practice used to eliminate fears or undesirable emotions. An example of this practice would be removing a person's fear of public speaking. Speaking in front of a small group of friends or family might be a first step.The person then gradually works up to speaking in front of a larger group of strangers or associates.  Biofeedback is a method that provides immediate feedback on a person's physiological state, be it heart rate, breathing rate or blood pressure. Feedback is provided by a mechanical device that lets the person know when a particular symptom is present.
  18. Shaping the behaviour  Shaping behavior is the aspect of behavior analysis that is the “teaching of behaviors that are not in the student’s existing repertoire?. It involves clearly defining a behavioral objective with a target behavior, delivering or withholding reinforcement at the appropriate time, and thus, being able to shape the student into “gradual successive approximations of the target behavior
  19. Maintaining Discipline in the Classroom  Specify a clear and concrete set of classroom rules. In some cases, involve the students in the formulation of rules, so that they have a sense of ownership.  Specify a clear set of consequences for rule violations – 3 change plan (warning, warning, consequence)  Ignore the behaviour  Positive re- inforcement  Be Assertive  Consultation with therapists