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Psychological test

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Psychological test

  1. 1. .....
  2. 2. Presented By: Ammara Khan M.ED Student
  3. 3. Main Topic: Psychological Test Sub Topics: 1. Concept 2. Characteristics of Psychological test 3. Need of Psychological Test 4. Major classification of psychological test 5. Counselor's use of psychological test
  4. 4. Concept According to Freeman: “A Psychological test is a standardized instrument designed to measures objectively one or more aspects of a total personality by means of samples of verbal and non-verbal responses, or by means of other behaviors”
  5. 5. Characteristics of Psychological Test: 1. Validity: Ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure 2. Reliability: Test consistency; the ability to yield the same result under a variety of different circumstances. 3. Objectivity: Free of personal biasness in terms of scoring, interpretation of scoring, and in administration. 4. Standardization: In terms of time, place, material employed in a test, atmosphere, and in over all instructions, It would be standardized.
  6. 6. 5. Norms: Appropriate and accurate norms must be present in a quality test. Like age, grade, percentile rank, etc. 6. Simplicity: Administering, scoring of test should be simple and can be done in a available resources and experts. 7. Economy: It should be administer in short time for the ease of those persons which are involve in administering the test. 8. Interesting: Test should be interesting for the examinee that he or she does not feel boredom in attempting the questions.
  7. 7. Needs Of Psychological Tests
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION Man is a complex creature . He possesses different traits as intelligence, aptitudes, interests in different measures. His achievement also differs. There is also a great difference in the personality make-up of people. With the background of all these differences, the individual has to make various choices of courses and careers, choice of playmates and room-mates, choice of life-partners and life styles. To help him in all these and make his journey smooth and satisfying, there is an utmost need of some objective measurement. The psychological tests in different areas are supposed to meet the following pertinent needs:
  9. 9. (a) To help students at choice and critical points when they have to make a decision: The psychological test can provide the client or student with information about himself in relation to a series of choices where the decision would be his own . Objective quantitative data plus subjective observation and assessment are needed to enable him to make a correct choice . For instance , the single factor that Ahmad’s parents will be highly disappointed if he does not go in for architecture can decide Ahmad’s choice in favor of architecture. But if the quantitative data is also available signifying the capacity of Ahmad go in for architecture, the situation becomes simpler and satisfactory decision can be arrived at. Similarly, psychological tests can help a students to decide whether he should continue his studies or take up business. The scores on the interest inventories will enable him to find out whether his interests are those of a scholar or those of a businessman.
  10. 10. (b) To enable the counselor to have a broad- gauge look and uncover as many promising opportunities as possible for the counselee: It is important for the counselor to survey as many of the skills and abilities of his counselee as can in order to arrive at a judgment as to which areas of endeavor are likely to be most promising. It is not enough, in a guidance setting, to know that Daud has medical aptitude; if he also the makings of an electronics engineer, Daud and the counselor need to know that too.
  11. 11. (c)To enhance the client’s ability to make his own decision: Students in schools, colleges and universities have to make decision regarding the selection of courses, co-curricular and extra- curricular activities. Studies have revealed some disconcerting insights in to the ways such choices are made. Often such random factors as having friends in the field, the chance encounter with a particular course, the influence of a teacher who made the subject mean enough to merit further effort, were the determining ones.
  12. 12. (d) To help teachers to adapt teaching to the needs of students: If the teacher could get objective assessment of the interest and capacities of students with the help of psychological tests, he can adapt his teaching to the needs of students. He can also differentiate between the slow learners and under-achievers and help them according to their needs.
  13. 13. (e)To help the counselors: Modern schools provide individual counseling for pupils with respect to their educational and vocational plans. Many schools also provide for maladjusted pupils some sort of clinical service. The psychological testing is an integral and accepted part of the fact finding phase of counseling. Wise counselor use the meaningful and relevant data obtained from the tests as a partial basis for their client-centered interviewing and clinical judgments.
  14. 14. (f)To help in satisfying an administrative need for selecting the most promising pupils from among the applicants: True, in a democratic society, pupils should be allowed as much latitude of choice as possible. Also the selection of curricula should be based on sound counseling. But at time it does become Important to select the most promising pupils for the good of individuals and society. Psychological tests help here.
  15. 15. (g) To help establish homogeneous group: Psychological tests can be used to help establish homogeneous groups within elementary and secondary school system and college set-ups. Placement in a class appropriate to the student’s potential can accelerate development and improve self- concept
  16. 16. (h) To provide information for selection, classification and distribution of clients, To serve primarily the interests of the particular administrative system: Psychological tests can be used by admission committees in schools and colleges to sort applicants into groups. They can also be used by school and college system to classify and distribute students across various curricula. Thus if we could know that ability level A, interest pattern B, achievement level D and extra-curricular activities grading S , relate to successful performance in a professional college, then the college can use the test result in future too to assign students to either the medical or non medical group.
  17. 17. (i) To help in the selection of students for special schools for the award of merit-cum-means scholarships for residential schools in the country: There are so many schools in the country, to which children from weaker section of society can be admitted provided they possess the superior native ability. This can be found with the help of psychological and standardized achievement tests.
  18. 18. (j) To help in the selection of students for admission to special institution: There are number of special institutions as National Defense Academy, Military Academy, Air force Academy, Naval Academy etc. in the country. There are also a number of professional colleges and institutes. Psychological and standardized achievements tests are used for admission to these institutions.
  19. 19. (k) To help in the distribution of personnel in various branches of services: For example, the defense authorities would like to recruit person for the Armed Forces who are above average in intelligence and emotional stability; are of higher level in mechanical and clerical aptitudes; are fit and fine physically. Such person as are perfect from every angle are not easy to get. Thus the military psychologist is faced with the problem to find out the special qualities required for certain special jobs in army. Psychological tests are needed for measuring the special qualities or traits so that on the basis of the scores, the recruits could be sent for special jobs. The person who obtain high scores on mechanical duties; the person who can work with speed and accuracy, may be put in charge of the office work. That way the psychological tests can be of immense use for putting the right man at the right place.
  20. 20. (l) To help in the psychological diagnosis of students: In any school/college system there are a number of students who have moderate to severe emotional problems which impair their learning ability . The estimates of emotional problems usually run from 8 to 15 percent of almost any sufficiently large population or group; a school/college setting is no exception. There is an obvious need for differential diagnosis of these difficulties as a first step toward appropriate treatment or remediation. A careful analysis of the student’s intra-psychic balance, or a critical appraisal of the student in relation to the environmental pressure, is necessary. An identification of learning disabilities rooted in the student’s past experiences is essential. The pupil can be given a carefully selected battery of personality tests specifically designed to tap information about the personality make-up, with increasing emphasis on psychological dynamics. For example, the examiner may use an individual test of intelligence, a sentence completion test, a thematic Apperception test and the Rorschach Ink Bolt test. The results of such testing are essential for decision to be made about the pupil. The assumption is that the pupils difficulty or emotional adjustment is of such an order that he cannot make his own decisions.
  21. 21. (m) To help the teachers in dealing with scholastic and behavioral problems: For making decisions regarding pupils facing problems of conduct or scholarship, comprehensive measures of achievement, together with standard measures of achievement and the school record itself, provide factual bases of great importance for reaching a sound clinical decision regarding any boy or girl.
  22. 22. (n) To identify abnormal patterns in the personality of the client: For those students whose personality encumbrances place them outside the range of normal behavior, whose past experiences so significantly influence their present perception that they literally cannot accurately perceive reality for these students, accurate appraisal of their personality is essential. The power and initiative for decisions cannot be left to the students in the grip of emotional disturbance. Psychological diagnosis forms the basic data and the necessary information about the client which the psychological expert may use as a legitimate and systematic basis for selecting the appropriate course of action for the client.
  23. 23. (o) To help in the treatment of psychiatric problems: When a patient comes to a mental hospital or clinic, it is essential to find out what type of person he is and how will he respond to the treatment. Psychological tests can be helpful in taking this crucial decision carefully constructed and wisely administered psychological tests can provide good measures of the abilities, aptitudes, interests, attitudes and personality traits. They can help in diagnosis and prediction , selection and classification and are of immense use in many situations and jobs.
  24. 24. Classification of Psychological Test  Typical Performance and Maximum Performance Test Typical Performance: This test is used to know how and employee performs on regular basis. In test of typical performance individual performance is assessed on given situation. In this test answers are not right or wrong, but identity choices, preferences and strengthen of feelings. This test is designed to access the ways in which people differ in terms of personality, interest, motivation, styles of learning, believes, attitudes and values. Maximum Performance Test Assess: The individuals Performance effectively under standard conditions. In maximum performance test questions have correct or incorrect answers. Scores depends on how many questions the person being tested gets right. Example of maximum performance test are:  Aptitude test  Achievement test
  25. 25.  Individual Test Group Test Individual test A test can be said individual test in the sense that they can be administered to only one person at a time. Many of these tests requires oral responses from the examinee. Individuals intelligence tests are preferred by psychologist in clinics, hospital and in others setting where clinical diagnosis are made. Group Test: Group test can be administered to a group of a person at a time. Group tests were designed as not only to permit the simultaneous examination of a large group but they also used simplified instruction and administration procedures. Example: Individual Test: Wechsler adult intelligence scale Group Test: OTIS – Lennon School Ability test (OLSAT)
  26. 26.  Paper Pencil Test and Performance In Paper Pencil Test The subject is provided with a test form or test booklet which contains all these items. Responses are written by the subject on either the test form or on a separate answer sheet. Example: Raven’s progressive matrices test of intelligence. Differential aptitude test Battery are some of the example of Paper- Pencil Tests. Performance Test Require motor or manual response on the examine part generally but not always, involving manipulation of concrete equipment or materials. Performance test are specially useful for: o Deaf testers o Testes with speech defects o Illiterate testees o Foreign testees
  27. 27.  Language and Non-Language Tests Language Test: In a paper-pencil language test, the test content generally contains of pictures, diagrams and non linguistic symbols and the subject is required to respond by making relatively simple marks. Instructions are given by gestures, pantomimes and demonstrations involving charts and diagrams. Non-Language Test: In non-language tests language, neither written nor spoken, in neither the instructions nor the test items is required. Non-language tests areas specially designed for testees who are illiterate, unfamiliar with the native language, can either be a performance or a paper-pencil test.  Verbal and Non-Verbal Tests They can be designed as reading and non-reading tests. In the former reading and writing are required, in the latter neither reading nor writing is required but these tests make extensive use of oral instructions and communication on the part of time examiner. Such tests frequently measure verbal comprehension, such as vocabulary and the understanding with oral instructions to accompany each item. Unlike t] non-language tests, they are unsuited for foreign language speaking or deaf testees.
  28. 28.  Criterion-referenced And Norm-referenced tests: (a) In criterion-reference test the specific criteria is specified by authority. In such type of test the performance of every individual is compared with specific criteria Example: For clerical aptitude test the criteria is specified that typing sixty words in a minute. (b) In Norm-reference test No criteria is specified and the performance of every individual is compared with group. Example: The typing speed of roll no.3 is faster than whole class.
  29. 29.  Informal Tests and Standardized Test Informal Test: Informal Tests are constructed by class-room teacher. These tests are developed by class-teacher in order to assess the achievements of students in particular subject. Example: Achievement test in the subject of Biology for class 9th. These tests are useful for evaluating the learning outcomes and day –to-day progress of students. Standardized tests: Standardized tests are designed by test specialists, tried out experimentally (Pre-tested) standardized tests are scored and inter- preted under standard conditions. Standardized tests are used to evaluate complex learning outcomes.  Speed and Power Tests Speed Test: A speed test is one in which individual differences depend upon speed of performance. The item included in such tests have low difficulty level. The time limit is so short that no one can finish all the item. The individual’s score reflects only the speed with which he works. The test is intended to measure the speed of Response. Example: Clerical speed and accuracy in differential aptitude test battery is an example of speed test.
  30. 30. Power Test: A power test has time limit long enough to permit every one to attempt all items. The item included in such tests have high difficulty level. The test includes some items too difficult for any one to solve so that no body can get a perfect score.  Culture-Fair Tests These tests are language-free. They also attempt to eliminate skills and feelings that vary from one culture to another. Example: A classic example of such type of tests is the good enough draw person tests, which require only knowledge of human body.  Tests Measuring Traits in Different Areas Psychological test have been constructed for measuring traits in different areas as intelligence, aptitudes, interests, attitudes and personality etc. On this basis the tests can be classified into three categories. o Tests of general intelligence o Tests of special aptitudes o Tests for measuring personality
  31. 31.  Tests of General Intelligence: These tests are used to assess the general learning ability, ability to grasp instructions and underlying principles. Vocabulary, Arithmetic Reasoning and the Dimensional space are examples of General intelligence test.  Tests of Special Aptitudes: These tests are concentrates on ability in particular area. They reveal aptitude in specific area. These tests are most often used for vocational guidance. Mechanical Aptitude Test, Musical Aptitude Tests are examples of special Aptitude Tests.  Tests for Measuring Personality: Personality is composite of mental abilities, attitudes, interests, thoughts, feeling and behavior etc. Personality measuring tests are used to assess these reactions to the environments. Many techniques are used to assess the personality: o Interview o Check lists o Projective Techniques o Observation o Personality Inventories o Rating Scales
  32. 32.  Test for Special Use Psychological test can also be classified on the basis of the use to which they are put. Thus, There are tests for a comprehensive assessment of mentally retarded, and Tests for persons with diverse sensory and motor handicaps.
  33. 33. Counselor’s use of Psychological test: The counselor may use the tests to: 1. Keep the record of each student’s needs, interests, abilities and adjustment problems in regards of guiding them according to their personalities. 2. Know the student’s weaknesses and strengths properly that is helpful in guiding them accordingly. 3. Predict the future success and failure of students on the basis of results of these tests. 4. Help students in their carrier selection. 5. Help students in choosing suitable vocation and professions according to their talents. 6. Help in diagnosing students problems like social adjustment, and academic deficiencies. 7. Evaluate the effectiveness of guidance and counseling program and also recommend the further improvement plans.
  34. 34. Thank s