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G & D Ch. 6

Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

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G & D Ch. 6

  1. 1. CHAPTER 6 Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
  2. 2. Self-Development <ul><li>Resolving Psychosocial Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative v. Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Preschool-age children face a conflict between desire to act independently & to do things on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt comes when efforts fail </li></ul><ul><li>They see themselves as a unique person & begin to make decisions on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can help resolve conflict by providing them with opportunities to act self-reliantly while still giving guidance & encourage initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Set of beliefs about what you are like as an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Their self-descriptions are not necessarily accurate </li></ul><ul><li>They frequently overestimate their skills & knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>They have an optimistic view of the future because they haven’t begun comparing their performance against others’ </li></ul>
  3. 3. Morality <ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The environment produces prosocial behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Not all prosocial behavior needs reinforcement to be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules & principles </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy & Moral Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy: the understanding of what another feels </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers attempts to avoid negative emotions can lead them to act in a moral manner </li></ul>
  4. 4. Morality <ul><li>Moral Development </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in one’s sense of justice & what’s right & wrong, & the behavior related to moral issues </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s 3-stages of Moral Development </li></ul><ul><li>1. Heteronomous morality (4 – 7 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Rules are seen as unchanging & unchangeable </li></ul><ul><li>Immanent justice predominates around this time </li></ul><ul><li>2. Incipient cooperation (7 – 10 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Games become more clearly social with formal rules as to “right” & “wrong” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Autonomous cooperation (Around 10 years +) </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness that rules can be changed & modified if there is agreement </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gender Identity <ul><li>Established by Preschool </li></ul><ul><li>Shows up in play </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers same-sex playmates & games </li></ul><ul><li>They have strict ideas about how boys & girls are supposed to act </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-appropriate behavior more stereotyped than many adults </li></ul><ul><li>Become less rigid by age 7 but never disappears </li></ul><ul><li>They have expectations about male & female behaviors </li></ul>
  6. 6. Views of Gender Identity <ul><li>Social Learning View </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn gender-related behaviors & expectations from others </li></ul><ul><li>Involved imitation, modeling, reward, & punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive View </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a gender identity used to form a sense of identity </li></ul><ul><li>To establish a gender identity gender schema (cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender) is developed </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-specific rigidity is partly a reflection of preschooler’s understanding of gender </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by beliefs about sexual differences & these differences are based on appearance, not biology </li></ul><ul><li>By 4 or 5 a sense of gender constancy (awareness that people are male or female depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender stereotyping: assuming certain behaviors are appropriate & others not </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gender Roles & Gender Identity <ul><li>Differences in males & females </li></ul><ul><li>verbal ability </li></ul><ul><li>Girls have larger vocabularies than boys </li></ul><ul><li>Girls read, write, & spell better than boys </li></ul><ul><li>Boys have more reading & other language-related problems </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Boys get higher grades on math achievement tests </li></ul><ul><li>Girls get better grades in math courses </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Males respond more rapidly & accurately on tests of visual manipulation of images </li></ul><ul><li>Social influence </li></ul><ul><li>Girls more readily comply with directions of adults </li></ul><ul><li>Girls more readily influenced by others in a variety of situations under group pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Girls value group harmony more than boys and give in more readily </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Boys more physically aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Girls more relationally aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Will attempt to hurt others by dam-aging their relationships with peers </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Girls better able to express emotions & interpret others’ emotions </li></ul><ul><li>In most other intellectual & social domains, boys & girls are similar </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gender Roles & Gender Identity <ul><li>Gender Typing </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Gender Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn gender roles through reinforcement & observational learning </li></ul><ul><li>Parents shape appropriate gender roles in children </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn what their culture considers appropriate behavior for males & females by watching adults & peers </li></ul><ul><li>Parents interact equally w/sons & daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions to comparable treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Parents respond differently to sons & daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Certain behaviors are encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers talk differently to sons & daughters </li></ul><ul><li>More supportive & more commands to daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Parents give different chores to sons & daughters </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gender Roles & Gender Identity <ul><li>Father’s Treatment of Child </li></ul><ul><li>Treats sons & daughters differently </li></ul><ul><li>Responds more to gender stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>More gender-related play </li></ul><ul><li>Punish sons more </li></ul><ul><li>Accept daughter’s dependence more </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Influences </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers critical of peers engaging in cross-gender play </li></ul><ul><li>Once child learns rules of cross-gender play tend to punish harshly violators </li></ul><ul><li>Early segregation of playmates based on child’s sex means boys learn primarily from boys & girls from girls </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gender Roles & Gender Identity <ul><li>Gender Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of the self as a male or female </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in 3 steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender labeling </li></ul><ul><li>By 3 understand that they are either boys or girls and label self accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Gender stability </li></ul><ul><li>During preschool, begins to understand boys will become men & girls will become women </li></ul><ul><li>Gender constancy </li></ul><ul><li>Between 4 & 7, most children understand that maleness & femaleness doesn’t change over situations or according to personal wishes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gender Roles & Gender Identity <ul><li>Gender-schema Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Children first decide if an object, activity, or behavior is female or male, then use this information to decide whether they should learn more about the object, activity, or behavior </li></ul><ul><li>After children understand gender they see the world through gender-typical eyes allowing only specific behaviors, activities, or objects </li></ul>
  12. 12. Parenting Styles <ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>High control w/little warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Fair degree of parental control while being warm & responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Give & take as well as giving reasons for rules, punishment, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive-indulgent </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth & caring but little control </li></ul><ul><li>Readily agrees to child’s requests </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely punishes </li></ul><ul><li>Uninvolved-indifferent </li></ul><ul><li>Provides neither warmth nor control </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative best for children </li></ul><ul><li>Children tend to be responsible, self-reliant, & friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian seems to work best for children growing up in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Strict obedience can protect children from violence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cultural Considerations <ul><li>Collectivistic Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Asian societies generally promote the notion of interdependence, blending in, & being interconnected. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a value on group effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualistic Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Western societies emphasize personal identity, uniqueness, and competition. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a value on individual effort. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Racial & Ethnic Awareness <ul><li>For Many Preschoolers, Racial Awareness Comes Early </li></ul><ul><li>Infants can distinguish between skin colors </li></ul><ul><li>Later children begin to attribute meaning to racial characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>By 3 or 4 they begin to identify their self as a member of a particular racial group </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic identity comes later than racial identity </li></ul><ul><li>Race dissonance: minority children indicating preferences for majority values </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Edible Complex
  16. 16. Social Lives <ul><li>Developing Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Around 3 friendships develop </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with peers are based on the desire for companionship, play, & fun </li></ul><ul><li>With age ideas about friendship evolve </li></ul><ul><li>Younger preschoolers friendships are based on doing things together </li></ul><ul><li>Older preschoolers friendships are based on trust, support, & shared interests </li></ul>
  17. 17. Play <ul><li>Two Kinds of Play </li></ul><ul><li>Functional play </li></ul><ul><li>Simple repetitive activities typical of 3-year olds </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive play </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation of objects to produce or build something </li></ul><ul><li>Gives children the chance to test developing physical & constructive skills & practice fine muscle movements </li></ul><ul><li>They also learn cooperation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Four Types of Play <ul><li>Parallel Play </li></ul><ul><li>Children play with similar toys in a similar manner without interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Onlooker Play </li></ul><ul><li>Children simply watch others at play </li></ul><ul><li>Associative Play </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more children actually interact & share or borrow toys or materials </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Play </li></ul><ul><li>Children play with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests </li></ul><ul><li>Associative & cooperative play occur in the latter part of preschool years </li></ul>
  19. 19. Child Abuse <ul><li>Forms of Maltreatment </li></ul><ul><li>1. Physical abuse (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Assault leading to injuries, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sexual abuse (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Fondling, intercourse, other sexual behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>3. Psychological abuse (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Ridicule, rejection, humiliation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Neglect (60%) </li></ul><ul><li>No adequate food, clothing, medical care </li></ul><ul><li>1 million children maltreated or neglected </li></ul>
  20. 20. Child Abuse <ul><li>Abusing Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t be distinguished from other parents </li></ul><ul><li>Countries that condone capital punishment have higher child maltreatment than the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Social conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>More common because of lack of money creating stress </li></ul><ul><li>2. Social isolation </li></ul><ul><li>When isolated from relatives or neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>Does not occur in all poverty families or in middle- & upper-class families </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing odds of abusing children </li></ul><ul><li>Abusing parents tended to be abused children </li></ul><ul><li>Sees abuse as a normal part of childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective parents </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. inconsistent discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic expectations for children </li></ul><ul><li>Parents’ interactions unpredictable, unsupportive, & unsatisfying to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Children may inadvertently contribute to their own abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Young children can’t regulate their own behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently ill children abused more </li></ul><ul><li>crying, whining, & annoying parents </li></ul>
  21. 21. Child Abuse <ul><li>Effects of abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive & academic performance disturbed </li></ul><ul><li>Get lower grades in school, score less on standardized achievement tests, tend to be held back a grade </li></ul><ul><li>Also disruptive in class & unable to regulate emotions </li></ul><ul><li>75% sexually abused had psychiatric disorders or adjustment problems: depression, anxiety, substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Type of peer & father-child relationship can help mitigate long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing abuse & maltreatment </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty-stricken families will continue abuse as long as physical punishment is considered acceptable & effective behavior control </li></ul><ul><li>Parents need counseling & training skills </li></ul><ul><li>Several years of intervention programs helps </li></ul><ul><li>Having parents become more involved in child’s education </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to more success in school, reduces stress, enhances parents’ confidence in child-rearing skills, & reduces maltreatment </li></ul>
  22. 22. Understanding Others <ul><li>Theory of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to see the world from the perspective of others </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concept of “pretend” but not the concept of “belief” </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological disorder producing significant language & emotional difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>4 in 10,000 born autistic, mainly males </li></ul><ul><li>They lack a connection with others & avoid interpersonal situations </li></ul>
  23. 23. Aggression & Violence <ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Intentionally inflicting injury or harm on to another person </li></ul><ul><li>Usually decreases through preschool years </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Capability to adjust emotions to a desired state & level of intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal </li></ul><ul><li>Rational aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Nonphysical aggression Intended to hurt another’s feelings </li></ul>
  24. 24. Television Violence <ul><li>Exposure to Models </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive behaviors more likely with exposure </li></ul><ul><li>TV violence leads to higher levels of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Key to understanding moral development is to understand a preschooler’s interpretation of others’ behavior in the environmental context </li></ul>