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Use of Nanotechnology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer

Nanomedicine

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Use of Nanotechnology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer

  1. 1. Presented by:- ANAS HARUNA INDABAWA Department of pharmacy, SHIATS, Allahabad EMAIL:- anasindabawa7@gmail.com
  2. 2.  Nanotechnology is the creation of useful materials, devices, and systems through the manipulation of matter on this miniscule scale.  This emerging field involves scientists from many different disciplines, including physicists, chemists, engineers, information technologists, and material scientists, as well as biologists.  Nano refers to the 10-9 power, or one billionth. For comparison, a human hair is about 100,000 nanometers thick.  There are many interesting Nano devices being developed that have a potential to improve cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment  Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of application, such as in medicine, electronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. DNA Sample: Approx. 2 nm Human hair is approximately 1x105 nm
  3. 3.  There are two basic approaches for creating Nano devices. Scientists refer to these methods as:  The top-down approach  The bottom-up approach.  The top-down approach involves molding or etching materials into smaller components.  The bottom-up approach involves assembling structures atom- by-atom or molecule-by-molecule, and may prove useful in manufacturing devices used in medicine. Application of Nanotechnology includes:  Nanomedicine  Nano biotechnology  Green nanotechnology  Energy applications of nanotechnology  Industrial applications of nanotechnology  Potential applications of carbon nanotubes  Nanoart APPROACHES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
  4. 4.  Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malign ant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.  These growths are considered either benign or malignant.  Each type of cancer is unique with its own causes, symptoms, and methods of treatment. Like with all groups of disease, some types of cancer are more common than others.  Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body CAUSES OF CANCER Any agent that causes cancer is called a carcinogen and is described as carcinogenic. Some of these agents can be:  Chemicals  Diet and exercise  Infection  Radiation  Heredity  Physical agents  Hormone
  5. 5. There are over 100 different known cancers that affect humans,but the most common once are:-  Breast cancer  Lung cancer  Colon cancer  Prostate cancer STAGES OF CANCER  Stage I cancers are localized to one part of the body; usually curable.  Stage II cancers are locally advanced.  Stage III cancers are also locally advanced.  Stage IV cancers have often metastasized, or spread to other organs or throughout the body.
  6. 6.  Surgery:-Surgery can be used to diagnose, treat, or even help prevent cancer in some cases. Most people with cancer will have some type of surgery.  Chemotherapy:-Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of medicines or drugs to treat cancer.  Radiation therapy:-Radiation therapy uses high-energy particles or waves to destroy or damage cancer cells. It is one of the most common treatments for cancer, either by itself or along with other forms of treatment.  Immunotherapy:- Immunotherapy is treatment that uses your body's own immune system to help fight cancer.  Targeted therapy:-Targeted therapy is a newer type of cancer treatment that uses drugs or other substances to more precisely identify and attack cancer cells, usually while doing little damage to normal cells.  Stem cell transplant:- (peripheral blood, bone marrow, and cord blood transplant) use treat cancer.  Hyperthermia:-The idea of using heat to treat cancer has been around for some time, but early attempts had mixed results. Today, newer tools allow more precise delivery of heat, and hyperthermia is being studied for use against many types of cancer.  Blood Product Donation and Transfusion
  7. 7.  Nanotechnology can be used for better cancer diagnosis. One of the main usage fields of optical nanoparticles is to allow better cancer detection.  classical methods that are used in diagnosis have limitations. Classified methods such as X- rays, tomography or mammography require using mutagenic agents on cells that cause cancer, too.  To eliminate these concerns, optical nanoparticles in diagnosis is possible technique that can be used.  This technique works with special dyes to interact with tumor cells and optical nanoparticles can be detected.  NANOPORE  Scientists believe nanopores, tiny holes that allow DNA to pass through one strand at a time, will make DNA sequencing more efficient.  As DNA passes through a nanopore, scientists can monitor the shape and electrical properties of each base, or letter, on the strand. Because these properties are unique for each of the four bases that make up the genetic code, scientists can use the passage of DNA through a nanopore to decipher the encoded information, including errors in the code known to be associated with cancer.
  8. 8.  NANOTUBE  Another nanodevice that will help identify DNA changes associated with cancer is the nanotube.  Nanotubes are carbon rods about half the diameter of a molecule of DNA that not only can detect the presence of altered genes, but they may help researchers pinpoint the exact location of those changes.  To prepare DNA for nanotube analysis, scientists must attach a bulky molecule to regions of the DNA that are associated with cancer. They can design tags that seek out specific mutations in the DNA and bind to them.  Once the mutation has been tagged, researchers use a nanotube tip resembling the needle on a record player to trace the physical shape of DNA and pinpoint the mutated regions.  The nanotube creates a map showing the shape of the DNA molecule, including the tags identifying important mutations  Since the location of mutations can influence the effects they have on a cell, these techniques will be important in predicting disease.
  9. 9.  QUANTUM DOTS  Quantum dots are tiny crystals that glow when they are stimulated by ultraviolet light.  Quantum dots are tiny crystals that glow when they are stimulated by ultraviolet light.  Latex beads filled with these crystals can be designed to bind to specific DNA sequences. By combining different sized quantum dots within a single bead, scientists can create probes that release distinct colors and intensities of light.  When the crystals are stimulated by UV light, each bead emits light that serves as a sort of spectral bar code, identifying a particular region of DNA.  To detect cancer, scientists can design quantum dots that bind to sequences of DNA that are associated with the disease.  When the quantum dots are stimulated with light, they emit their unique bar codes, or labels, making the critical, cancer-associated DNA sequences visible.  Another advantage of quantum dots is that they can be used in the body, eliminating the need for biopsy.
  10. 10.  spherical, branched polymers that are silica-coated micelles, ceramic nanoparticles, and cross- linked liposomes, can be targeted to cancer cell.  This is done by attaching monoclonal antibodies or cell- surface receptor ligands that bind specifically to molecules found on the surfaces of cancer cells.  such as the high-affinity folate receptor and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) or molecules unique to endothelial cells that become co-opted by malignant cells  The nanoparticles are rapidly taken into cells
  11. 11.  DENDRIMERS  Dendrimers are highly branched, star-shaped macromolecules with nanometer-scale dimensions.  Dendrimers are defined by three components: a central core, an interior dendritic structure (the branches), and an exterior surface with functional surface groups  The varied combination of these components yields products of different shapes and sizes with shielded interior cores  Applications highlighted in recent literature include drug delivery, gene transfection, catalysis, energy harvesting, photo activity, molecular weight and size determination, rheology modification, and nanoscale science and technology.  dendrimers have been explored for the encapsulation of hydrophobic compounds and for the delivery of anticancer drugs.  There are three methods for using dendrimers in drug delivery:-  First, the drug is covalently attached to the periphery of the dendrimer to form dendrimer prodrugs  Second the drug is coordinated to the outer functional groups via ionic interactions  Third the dendrimer acts as a unimolecular micelle by encapsulating a pharmaceutical through the formation of a dendrimer-drug supramolecular assembly.
  12. 12.  LIPOSOMES  A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer.  The liposome can be used as a vehicle for administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs.  Liposomes can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes (such as by sonication).  Liposomes are most often composed of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine, but may also include other lipids, such as egg phosphatidylethanolamine, so long as they are compatible with lipid bilayer structure.  A liposome design may employ surface ligands for attaching to unhealthy tissue.
  13. 13.  NANOSHELLS  Nanoshells are miniscule beads coated with gold. By manipulating the thickness of the layers making up the nanoshells  scientists can design these beads to absorb specific wavelengths of light.  The most useful nanoshells are those that absorb near- infrared light, which can easily penetrate several centimeters of human tissue.  The absorption of light by the nanoshells creates an intense heat that is lethal to cells.  These gold nanoshells are shuttled into tumors by the use of phagocytosis  phagocytes engulf the nanoshells through the cell membrane to form an internal phagosome, or macrophage.  Nanoparticle-based therapeutics have been successfully delivered, taken up passively into tumors without the assistance of antibodies.
  14. 14.  NANOROBOT  A Korean research team has successfully developed bacteriobots that can diagnose and treat cancer.  This bacteria-based robot is expected to be utilized to develop new treatments for cancer and various microrobots or nanorobots for medical purposes in the future.  Bacteriobots are made up of bacteria and 3µm-sized microstructures filled with anticancer drugs.  Genetically-modified non-toxic bacteria move inside tissues or blood with flagella, and find tumors by pushing microstructures and targeting certain drugs secreted by cancer cells.  Upon the arrival of bacteriobots in the tumor region, anticancer drugs that come from microstructures are spread onto the surface of tumor
  15. 15.  Over the past 150 years, many innovative and groundbreaking techniques have been developed in order to treat cancer. But these approaches has its own series of undesirable side effects that are both dangerous and damaging to the overall health of the patient.  There have been significant improvements largely due to breakthroughs, both, in the bottom-up and in the top- down nanotechnology. we will make early detection, prevention and treatment with a high degree of accuracy and ease possible that is effective and can be made it safe.  Different types of Cancer cells have unique properties that can be exploited by nanoparticles to target the Cancer cells
  16. 16.  http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/modern- technology/gold-nanotech1.htm  https://www.google.co.in/search?q=liposomes&rlz=1C1AVNE_en IN613IN614&oq=lipo&aqs=chrome.5.69i57j69i59j0l4.6722j0j4& sourceid=chrome&es_sm=122&ie=UTF-8  http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/treatme nttypes/treatment-types-landing  http://www.pharmatutor.org/articles/nanotechnology-cancer- treatment-review  http://www.businesskorea.co.kr/article/2459/%E2%80%9Cbacteri obot%E2%80%9D-korea-develops-first-cancer-treating-nanorobot  http://www.omicsonline.org/nanotechnology-in-cancer-treatment- 2155-983X.1000107.pdf  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6UXxmTFsNf0  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RBjWwlnq3cA  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kgktS88hoyc  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ayteOA5VDRI

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