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The Evolution of Comics
"Since its inception, the comics reflect society."
Over nearly a century of existence, the comics (Comics) have undergone many
changes as a result of social values present in each season: lost characters, gained new
scenarios, new plots, changed uniforms, formed leagues and suffered reproach. The
history of comics is composed of ups and downs, and since the '30s, his characters
portray figures and social concerns.
Initially, the comics were produced in order to bring the humor, laughter to people. So
they leave a bit of problems and conflicts faced daily, and to have fun, simply. But time
passed, and new ideas have emerged. Those stories banal themed comic, no longer did
the public taste. It was there that the adventure genre was born in the comics. This new
theme design brought a more realistic and more engaging stories.
The adventure was just a complement of humor, at first. The adventure genre,
exactly as we know it today, was only appearing in 1924 with Washington Tubbs II,
Roy Crane. And this introduced in the comics continuity of stories, ie, it was not
necessary to write a story a day, but a bit of history every day. This was a very
important change in the comics.
The characters that appeared later (Captain Easy, Tarzan, Buck Rogers, etc.) lived
great adventures in forests, cities and even in space. So the comics adventure gained
the attention of readers, who have to follow the stories as if they too were part of them.
With all this success, the comic only tended to grow, adding new topics within the
adventure genre, such as police and science fiction adventure.
But like everything is dynamic, and the comics could not be otherwise, in the 30s the
adventure was "set aside" to make way for a new genre: the super heroes.
Since Superman, created in the 30s to raise the morale of the American people during
the Great Depression, superheroes populate the comic. Separated by ages, according to
his creation (the Golden Age in the 30s, to the Modern Era in the 90s), they reflect, to a
greater or lesser degree, the real world.
The Adventure genre
The Super Heroes
The Horror Genre
The Adventure genre
As we know, the first comic books were mostly humorous, with stylized designs. The
comic books most serious, the so-called "realistic drawing" only appears in the comics
were almost thirty years after its popularization in the United States. Therefore, it is
very common to hear comments that the comic book adventures appeared in 1929, with
the publication of the adventures of Tarzan, initially designed by Harold Foster and
then by Burne Hogarth, and Buck Rogers in Phyl and Dick Nolan Calkins.
This is only partly true: in fact, these authors have brought to comics drawing
naturalist and not exactly the adventure genre itself. For some years before them, the
taste of adventure had invaded the comics, leading readers to follow their favorite
characters on their journeys to places far distant and picturesque, watching them come
and go from different difficulties and hoping to reach their goals.
The difference between these early comics and Raymond, Nolan and Calkins is the
fact that in the first, the adventure appeared primarily as a complementary element to
the humor, this happened both in regard to the development of the plot, as in that
related the same form of drawings, which always ressaltavam cartoonish elements.
Although some authors had a trait that bordered the realism, especially in relation to
landscapes, machinery and furniture, this characteristic often passed unnoticed by
readers, who was wrapped in the theme feuilletonistic with humorous garb.
The narrative continuity was not a feature of comics at its inception as mass
communication. At that time, the first decades of the 20th century, the continuity was
found more in pulps - mass distribution of books made from paper second category,
sold at very low prices and in which appeared emblematic figures of popular fiction as
Doc Savage, The shadow and Conan, among others - than actually in the comics.
These generally confined to retract humorous episodes following the model often
known as gag-a-day (a joke per day). Still, even so a bit shy, the narrative continuity
will appear in the stories of the great masters of comics, among which stands out
Winsor McCay, Little Nemo doing each week, soak in the dream world just at the
moment that had awakened the previous week, living a dream seemingly endless.
Continuity was also exploited by George Herriman Krazy Kat in, in George McManus
Bringing up Father, Frank King in Gasoline Alley and on Harold Gray Little Orphan
Annie, with long narratives in the episodes that drew press for weekly or daily.
However, in all of them, continuity represented more specifically to a complementary
element to the center of the plot. Before anything, their stories were humorous comic
that, rather than the emotions of fear or anxiety, sought awaken in the reader the easy
laughter, fun. Centralizing the thematic aspect of the narrative itself adventurer would
only begin to be outlined, albeit timidly at first, with the work of Roy Crane in
Washington Tubbs II.
Begun in 1924, the series protagonist Crane had a couple of limited physical attributes
but with great personal pretensions, both in terms of economic fortune as loving. She
began to not significantly, little there, then, to point it out as the vanguard of a new
genre. Quickly, though, the young Wash Tubbs would engage in trips around the world
and faced with stunning women and dangers of leaving standing hairs readers more
insensitive. For five years he would reign supreme in the series, until the appearance
of a character in a short time he would steal stardom in the series. It was the Captain
Easy (Captain Cesar, Brazil), a soldier of fortune, professional adventurer who
embodied the key attributes of the heroes of the adventure pulps, as physique, chivalry,
daring, detachment from material goods and courage. With it, the adventure would
reign in the comic periodic press.
However, when there was the appearance of the Easy series Crane, Tarzan and Buck
Rogers several months ago had begun to live their adventures in American
newspapers, which, in a way, allows you to return to the claim have been through them
that comics adventure is set in the middle. Certainly, both represented an irreversible
modification in the daily issues that readers found in the pages of comic books.
Gradually, the predominance of stereotyped figures caricaturescas and was decreasing
in the comics, going to become increasingly common to propose realistic characters.
Made up of hand anecdotes closed themselves to give way to the hook, the moment of
suspense at the end of the strip and Sunday page element that aimed to ensure the
return of the reader to the same story, to find out what happened to their characters
favorite (a formula that would be thoroughly explored in the Universal film series and
novels radio and television).
In the comics during the 1930s, the loneliness of space, the mystery of the jungle, the
danger of urban life took the spotlight in the readers' attention and they began to
follow the adventures of the characters as if they themselves were part of the plot. They
dived into the collective unconscious of the readers responding to their innermost
yearnings, even those which did not realize. Readers identify with their heroes in such
a way that often tenuous separation between fiction and reality were destroyed, the
character being seen as a real person. In this sense, there are several episodes in which
the comic readers reacted emotionally to a fact narrated in comics: for example, the
death of a popular character, many readers came to send letters of condolence to the
author, lamenting the sad loss ...
Discovered the mother lode, it only tended to increase. In the wake of the exotic
atmosphere opened by Tarzan came Terry and the Pirates, Milton Caniff; Jungle Jim
by Alex Raymond and Prince Valiant, Hal Foster, among dozens of others, not to
mention the many imitators of Man-Monkey decades following would produce. In the
comics that explored science fiction, including Buck Rogers occupied the forefront,
creative heights would be hit by Flash Gordon by Alex Raymond or Brick Bradford by
William Ritt and Clarence Gray, Europe later emerged as an insatiable cultora the
To these two modalities would soon join a third, it also directly derived from pulps:
adventure police. In the backdrop of gangsters and police pontificates figure designer
American Chester Gould, with his incorruptible detective Dick Tracy, an author who
has practically set the parameters for this type of comic. Besides it can also be deployed
in that area Alex Raymond, with Secret Agent X-9 and Rip Kirby; Lyman Anderson,
with Inspector Wade, Will Gould, with Red Barry, Alfred Andriola with Charlie Chan
and Will Eisner, The Spirit with between others.
From these three other types of adventure comics began to emerge, a variety of hard to
be quickly described, encompassing from the western to the sword and sorcery, all of
them always bringing new vitality to the genre to comics and ensuring the necessary
energy to cross the 20th century as a medium of great popularity and they all certainly
deserving of special attention.
Even today, the comics are still grown worldwide because they respond to the need to
escape and catharsis of being human. In Brazil, authors like Jaime Cortez (Sergio
Amazon), Flávio Colin (The Angel), Getúlio Delphin (Large Brim) and many others
they engaged, doing a great job. In Europe, characters like Tintin by Hergé, Blake and
Mortimer, Jacobs, and Lieutenant Blueberry, Jean Giraud nothing are due to their
But in the comics everything is dynamic movement. At the end of the 30s, the kind of
adventures would be expanded considerably with the rise in medical journals - also
known as comic books - a hero flying with fabulous powers, which would totally
transform the characteristic of comics as a medium of communication mass. In the
wake of the success of this first flying man, several others emerged, introducing the
genre most characteristic of the industry producing the comics, superheroes, perhaps
largely responsible for the penetration of the medium obtained in contemporary
society. But that's another story ...
Some characters who started the adventure genre:
• Wash Tubbs and Captain Easy
In comics history, few names have attained perfection graphical
Royston Campbell Crane.Após serve some time in the New York World, where he
primarily worked on finishing illustrations, got the chance to work in the Newspaper
Enterprise Association, sponsored by his former teacher of the course correspondence,
Charles N. Landon. From there, with dedication and expertise, Roy Crane became a
cop, who had originally been conceived as humorous, the great forerunner of a whole
genre of comics, the adventure.
An initial question arises when attempting to focus on the main job of the U.S. Roy
Crane in comics. It involves a decision about how to identify their best-known series:
Wash Tubbs by his first lead or Captain Easy, who pontificated on it for longer.
In a way, the question arises quite naturally, since the creation of Crane is, in many
ways, a comic before his own time. Thus, by identifying with a creative phase shifted in
time, Wash Tubbs (in Brazil, Tube) lost most of prominence that might have had,
contrary to what happened with Easy, which came later, when the comic lived the
predominance of a another narrative format, with which he held more closeness.
In fact, emerged in 1924, some years before Tarzan and Buck
Rogers comics initiate in the daring aventurescas that became known as the
introducers of genre adventures in between, Wash has developed, albeit timidly and
disguised form, broadly purposely caricaturescos the same level of depth and
continuity narratives that would later characterize the Lord of the Jungle, graphically
created by Hal Foster on the text of Edgar Rice Burroughs pulp, and interplanetary
adventurer of the 25th century, Philip F. Nowlan and Dick Calkins. At the time, few
may have been aware that these were realistic narratives, in which the suspense and
exoticism mingled in a way rarely equaled (except maybe readers who followed the
adventures of the character - and yet, intuitively ...).
Maybe they were there, the narrative development, the reasons for the wide acceptance
of the series, originally called Washington Tubbs II, who, in a short time, fell in love of
comic readers of his time, however, not necessarily just in this aspect. Much of their
success can also be attributed to the virtuoso illustrator responsible for the story, a
Texan who had studied briefly at the Academy of Fine Arts in Chicago and worked at
various newspapers before turning to the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA).
As the protagonist of a daily series, Wash Tubbs was, physically, what is known today
as a true anti-hero: softly, glasses, her hair disheveled always a crumpled suit and a
guy who always seemed silly bear an eternal smile . Firmly convinced that was
irresistible to women, he had no outstanding attributes, not even an intelligence level
above normal. While it is up to a pretty friendly and nice, the humorous elements in it
have always been predominant. Wash was an adventurer who does not take himself too
seriously. Initially working as a helper in a warehouse, soon moved to start this activity
instead of an endless and unbridled pursuit of fame and fortune. Then began to
engage in the recovery of lost treasures in the sea and meet the most varied types of
bandits, in general completely picaresque living situations.
Wash Tubbs remained the absolute protagonist of the series for several years, backed
possibly by meteoric characters that never reached him overshadow the brightness or
even to withdraw the grace of small, indomitable frontiersman. This situation
remained unchanged until 1929. This year, during an adventure in the wilds of the
Sahara desert, Wash., to face another of its many vicissitudes, was imprisoned and was
without many chances to escape, finally managed to get rid of these difficulties, as
always, but this time, only due to the unexpected appearance of a character initially ill-
considered, whose features some advocated for their future. Thus, as in many other
series, for example, in The Thimble Theatre, where the sailor Popeye would debut that
same year - the newcomer were aimed the spotlight. Sai Wash Tubbs, Captain Easy
Since its inception, even as a secondary character, Easy
proved to be the antithesis of Wash Tubbs: tall, athletic, good at fighting, usually
serious face and a sharp intelligence to solve mysteries (though not always hit him in
his investigations .) Fell rapidly in public taste, soon becoming the definitive
companion of the protagonist and then, in 1933, starring in his own series Sunday,
Captain Easy, Soldier of Fortune (in Brazil, Captain Caesar). Times were so ripe for
adventure in comics: that year and the next, debuted in newspapers some of the main
series of the genre, like Brick Bradford (William Ritt and Clarence Gray), Flash
Gordon, Jungle Jim and Secret Agent X-9 (all with art by Alex Raymond, one of the
greatest artists who have dedicated themselves to the comics), Red Barry (Will Gould);
Radio Patrol (Eddie Sullivan and Charlie Schmidt) and Terry and the Pirates (the
great Milton Caniff ), among others.
Hal Foster was the first artist to draw the hero: in 1929
were published sixty daily strips of "Tarzan of the Apes", Foster would not return to
the character in 1931, drawing color Sunday pages. He is responsible for several
innovations inspired film: field and cross-field, big plans and a backlight. He faithfully
followed the Burroughs books and never used balloons and yes, texts incorporated into
comics. Since 1937, Foster was replaced by Burne Hogarth, the greatest illustrator of
the hero. Influenced by Michelangelo and the German expressionism, Hogarth used
his knowledge of anatomy to show an explosion of muscle, a flurry of moves, but
tormented vibrant landscapes, jungles and ghostly roots with monstrous forms. He
would draw these pages until 1950, when it was replaced by Bob Lubbers also
important, but returned in 1972 with a new version of the Tarzan story in book form.
Rex Maxon began a long series of adventures of Tarzan still in 1929, when Foster
refused to draw "The Return of Tarzan". Owner of a trait hard, which improved with
time, Maxon drew daily strips, distributed to newspapers around the world, but also
took charge of Sunday pages during twenty-eight weeks in 1931, while Foster did not
return. Maxon Tarzan drew until 1947.
Since 1968, however, both the dailies as the Sunday pages were delivered to another
genius artist: Russ Manning, who also designed the stories of Korak, Son of Tarzan.
Absolute master of black and white, Manning has developed a modern hero, without
barroquismos Hogarth. Several other designers devoted themselves to the character,
often anonymously: Joe Kubert, Dan Barry, John Lehti, Reinman, Ruben Moreyra,
Jesse Marsh, John Celardo, John Buscema, Bob Lubbers etc.. Among the authors,
there is Gaylord DuBois. Few artists can capture the essence of the human figure in
action sequences as Joe Kubert. Their impressive talent is fully exposed in the Tarzan
comics of the 1970s.
Tarzan has appeared in many comic books in various publishers. In 1947, the
character was published by Dell Publishing / Western Publishing.
The Dell Tarzan had little to do with the Edgar Rice Burroughs books, it was more like
the Tarzan movies.
In 1962 the partnership between Dell and Western was undone, logo was created by the
Western, the seal Tarzan Gold Key Comics was one of the titles published by Gold Key
In 1972, the DC can license Tarzan and launches a comic series produced by Joe
Kubert, the first edition of the magazine is the number 207, continuing the numbering
In 1977, DC published its latest edition of Tarzan, closed in issue 259, the same year
the character happens to be published by Marvel Comics, Marvel in the numbering is
restarted, the magazine had 29 editions and possessed the art of John Buscema.
• Buck Rogers
Was the first hero of science fiction comic, having
first appeared in 1928, the story Armageddon 2419 AD, written by Phil Nowlan and
published in the magazine Amazing Stories. Nowlan himself adapted the story for the
comics in 1929, and as an artist Dick Calkins. In the story, Buck Rogers was trapped in
a cave, where a mysterious gas left in a state of suspended animation for 500 years. He
awoke in the future on a completely different planet than she knew.
The character achieved much success and gained his own radio series: Buck Rogers in
the 25th Century, which lasted from 1932 to 1947.
In addition to film the show in 12 episodes produced in 1939 (which was interpreted by
the "King of Series" Buster Crabbe), the character also had two TV series.
The first series was Buck Rogers, produced between 1950 and 1951, a total of 35
episodes (Ken Dibbs and Robert Pastene interpreted Buck). Between 1979 and 1981
was produced the most popular series character, Buck Rogers (Buck Rogers in the
25th Century), which initially started in Brazil by Globo Network and then by
Headline. There were 37 episodes in which Gil Girard played Captain William "Buck"
Rogers, an astronaut who is frozen in his space shuttle, launched in 1987, coming to
awaken centuries later.
In the wake of the success of this second series was produced a new comic series that
lasted from 1979 to 1983. Developed by Gray Morrow, Jim Lawrence and Cary Bates
this series was launched in Brazil by Editora Bloch. Until recently, the rights belong to
Buck Rogers RPG game company TSR Inc, which created a new comic book series
and several books and games based on the universe of Buck Rogers.
Is producing a new series, this time to the Internet. The "webseries" has 20 episodes of
40 minutes per year and will debut in the second half of 2010. The series is in charge
of James Cawley ("Star Trek: New Voyages"), which bought the rights to produce this
• Terry and the Pirates
(above, the character designed by Milton Caniff)
This is the title character of the series "Terry and the Pirates" (1934). It is an
American boy who inherited his grandfather's a map of a mine located in China. To
help him, he has the adventurer Pat Ryan and chinezinho with a funny name, George
Webster Confucius (better known as Connie), who was the cook boat carrying our
The curious thing is that Terry was aging along with the series. And also changed
location. He joined the U.S. Air Force and, in 1943, became a pilot in the war.
"Terry and the Pirates" debuted on 10.22.1934, in the form of daily strips (black and
white). And on December 9 of that year came the Sunday page (color), which was
published alongside the daily strip. Initially, the daily and Sunday brought separate
stories, with independent adventures. But, as of August 25, 1936, the stories have
become linked, ie, the adventure in black and white published Saturday continued on
the following Sunday, in color. Thus, for convenience, all the adventures of "Terry and
the Pirates" are often listed on a single number (1) as if they were one combined
The creation of Milton Caniff quickly became one of the favorite anecdotes of the
American public and led, in 1940, the show "Terry and the Pirates" ("Terry and the
Pirates") directed by Albert S. Rogell and William Tracy as Terry, Jeff York as Pat, and
Joyce Bryant (Normandie Drake), Allen Jung (Connie) and Sheila Darcy (Dragon
Lady). In 1952 came the TV series, with John Baer as Terry, Gloria Saunders as
Dragon Lady and Sandra Spence as Burma.
Caniff left "Terry" in 1946 after clashes with "Chicago." His last Sunday (29.12.46),
is a favorite of the author: the thrilling farewell between the hero and the beautiful
Jane Allen at the airport. Thereafter, the HQ was continued by George Wunder.
• Jungle Jim
Comics Jungle Jim let horrified environmentalists today: one of the first adventures,
the hero kills several wild animals, among them a tiger, contributing to the extinction
of several species of local fauna. Besides wildlife, Jungle Jim used to tackle smugglers,
pirates, slave traders, and during the war, Japanese soldiers.
At that moment, the hero fighting against Japanese imperialism (responsible for a
series of atrocities in the East, comparable those committed by Nazi Germany in
Europe), but was ideologically advocate of continuity of British imperialism and the
U.S. in Asia and the Pacific.
To compete with the comic Tarzan, King Features Syndicate, agency distributor of
strips for newspapers, commissioned the creation of a new series of adventures in the
jungle acclimated. An internal competition was held to choose the designer would be
responsible for the art series that was published in the newspapers on Sundays.
The winner was Alex Raymond (1909-1956), considered by the beauty of its trace one
of the best designers of the era. The series created to compete with Jim was Tarzan of
the Apes (the original, Jungle Jim), which debuted in newspapers in 1934, along with
other series also designed by Raymond Flash Gordon, hero whose adventures take
place on other planets.
Despite the signing of Raymond is the only one to appear in the strip, the adventures
were written by another professional, writer Don Moore, who was never received credit
for their work, while remaining anonymous. Moore was also responsible for the
screenplays of Flash Gordon. Alex Raymond was an exceptional designer, who
inspired legions of imitators, but Don Moore was far from being a screenwriter above
The texts of Moore seemed more appropriate for film subtitles for silent film that
comic. Still, thanks mainly to the drawings of Raymond and several assistants not
credited, Jungle Jim was a success. So successful that even produced a television series
which premiered in the United States in 1954.
• Dick Tracy
Dick Tracy is a detective of comic strips and a
popular character in American pop culture. The character is a police detective difficult
to be shot, which shoots fast, and highly intelligent who faced a variety of sometimes
grotesquely ugly villains. Dick Tracy was created by cartoonist Chester Gould in 1931
for a newspaper comic strip which is also called Dick Tracy. The strip, which
premiered on October 4, 1931, was distributed by the Chicago Tribune Syndicate.
Gould wrote and drew the strip until 1977.
Chester Gould strips initially presents in their urban violence reflected in its time and
place, the city of Chicago in the 1930s. Gould tried to keep up, showing the latest
techniques to fight crime, used forensic science and stereo electronics even with the
cases of the detective usually ending in gunfire. In the 50s he addressed issues like
corruption, juvenile delinquency and television. At that time Gould suffered some
criticism by showing familiar elements of Tracy, showing the form of ostentatious
living in a large house and being even a Cadillac owner. He even created a story in
which Tracy was accused of corruption and explained his possessions, which did not
diminish the criticism. In the 60s, the strip went through a "space" with Tracy
participating in adventures on the moon and spacecraft using magnetic propulsion. In
1969 Tracy was offered the post of police chief Valley Lunar, a human community of
the Moon, perhaps indicating a trend change of character for a sort of "space hero".
But after the lunar missions that year revealed the Moon as a satellite sterile strips
returned to the terrestrial environment. In 1970 Tracy won a mustache (discarded
soon) and let the hair grow.
Tracy stared at each episode as a "case" with the straps showing criminals committing
the crime and the subsequent relentless pursuit of Tracy. The villains were arguably
the greatest appeal of the strips.
Used in other subjects, own "film noir", Gould reflects on how small crimes lead to
bigger ones. The events unfold without control and show how life can be unpredictable
and cruel. Betrayals succeed in the stories: goons are killed by employers, they are
betrayed by girlfriends and good people are killed for being in the wrong place and
Sunday strips in the late 1940s, Gould included a text guide for amateur crime fighters
("Dick Tracy's Crimestoppers"), presented by Junior Tracy. This addendum lasted
until 1977. Then it was replaced by the section of the "Gallery of Villains" ("Dick
Tracy's Rogues Gallery") to be reinstated in the current strips by Max Allan Collins.
• Inspector Wade
In 1934, King Features has decided to add one more line to his police HQ (which
already had "Secret Agent X-9", "Thief Takers" and "Red Barry"). The famous
American distributor then made an agreement with the family of the English writer
Edgar Wallace (died two years earlier) to adapt their stories in the form of daily strips.
The King appointed Sheldon Stark for the scripts, while Lyman Young was in charge
of the drawings. The premiere of the new comic, "Inspector Wade" was then scheduled
for December 1934. However, the release was interrupted when the King found that
the British newspaper "London Mirror" was producing a strip called "Keep Terror",
based on the series "Mr. Reeder "Wallace. After some arrangements, the British
newspaper canceled its takes to finally "Inspector Wade" could debut in the English
language, on May 20, 1935.
However, three weeks before being published in the United States, "Inspector Wade"
premiered in Italy on May 1, 1935, the group Mondadori. That's because the
representatives of the King in Europe had already sold the rights to the country of the
boot, not waiting for the United States and Britain understand.
The character is a detective from Scotland Yard, in the traditional British style, with
pipe and everything else. Having an assistant faithful Donavan, Wade fought crime
throughout England, Europe and even in Africa, sometimes in conflict with the more
exotic elements such as societies of assassins.
On July 4, 1938, Young was replaced by Neil O'Keefe, who improved to strip, to
"Americanizing" the character.
The daily strips of "Inspector Wade" (no pages Sunday) were canceled on May 17,
Comics: Super heroes, activate!
The first superhero, Superman, was created to lift the spirits of Americans, passing
through a difficult period during the Great Depression. Hunger and unemployment
triggered a strong wave of violence, the super man "came" to fight crime using his
powers. Following in the footsteps of the first hero, Batman comes to hag criminals.
But the masked hero is human and makes use of various weapons, other than
While the world was the Second World War, comics gained a new hero: Captain
America. He fought the Nazis with a shield-shaped diamond (after he got round),
uniform bandeiroso and iron will to end the enemies of democracy. Although dated
March 1941, its first edition was distributed in December 1940.
Before you even begin feminism worldwide, Wonder Woman, which appeared in the
same month as the Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, already
gave beating villains.
Starts Silver Age (50s), and the creation of the atomic bomb awakens the fear of a
conflict. It is time for heroes technology. Bathed in chemicals and struck by an electric
discharge, Barry Allen becomes Flash (this actually is the second Flash. The first is
In the midst of the Cold War, the Soviet Union and Usa begin a kind of space race,
and the comics reflect that too: the Fantastic inaugurates the Marvel Age, in which,
instead of aliens or masked vigilantes, heroes were ordinary human beings who
acquire superpowers. In the case of the Quartet, they came upon exposure to cosmic
rays occurred in spaceflight.
The X-Men come in 1963, when Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, black leaders
that polarized crusade for racial tolerance in the 60s. Here, the new generation of
heroes is born superpower, provided with a mutated factor in their genes that makes
them hated and persecuted by humanity. They suffer racial prejudice in the skin which
then divided Americans between whites and blacks.
The Vietnam War shatters the dream of world peace, while the oil crisis and the
Watergate scandal cast Americans in a period of discredit politicians. A hero born
cynical and violent, as befits these times of crisis: Wolverine, the mutant politically
incorrect equipped with a healing factor that makes him invulnerable to any kind of
The fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of communism in the Soviet Union begin the
globalization. Near the new millennium, apocalyptic prophecies and mysticism
explode. Spawn arises. Former CIA agent Al Simmons dies, and in hell, is recruited to
fight in the army of Lucifer against the forces of heaven. Caught between two worlds,
Simmons acts as a tormented hero.
The ages of comics :
• Platinum Age of Comics (1897-1937)
Evolved from the comic strips and newspapers were first sold as magazines of comics
during the early 1930s, ushering in the era of platinum.
Between 1933 and 1937, icons like Mickey Mouse, Flash Gordon and Dick Tracy
created their brand, and artists like Will Eisner, Bob Kane, Jerry Siegel and Joe
Shuster began his career.
The year 1937 marked the debut of the comic theme. The comic focused police crime
stories and thrillers and would present later in Batman. Then the comic cops shortened
his name, keeping only the initials DC. The comic policemen set the stage for the
beginning of the Golden Age of Comics.
• The Golden Age of Comics (1938-55)
The golden age began in 1938 when Action Comics # 1 had his first superhero,
Superman. Inspired by the success of Superman, Bob Kane developed a darker super-
hero, Batman. Although Batman does not have powers, his dark tales and villains
became his manic comic a success.
Between 1938 and 1945 the superheroes flourished. Spirit, Captain Marvel, Flash,
Human Torch, Sandman and many others were born in various publications. In 1940,
the war comics allowed the debut of all patriotic heroes. Captain America created by
Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, he became the first hero to win his own title before
appearing in another comic. In 1945, with the end of the war, the Golden Age of
comics began to decline and the comic science fiction gained popularity.
• The Silver Age of Comics (1956-69)
While sales of superhero comics continued to fall, horror comics, such as The Crypt of
Terror, Weird Fantasy and The Vault of Horror became increasingly popular during
the era of silver. However, in the mid-1950s, super heroes like Superman, Captain
America, Human Torch and Flash were revived and got new titles and stories.
The comics of this period feature modern slang, quirky personalities and problems
people beyond salvation of the world. The Fantastic Four was the first of a new wave
of Marvel heroes, which also included The Incredible Hulk and Thor. However, was
the appearance of Spider-Man in Amazing Fantasy # 15 which established the Marvel
This was also the age group of heroes. The Avengers a Justice League revived and the
X-Men appeared at that time. While the superheroes grew in power, the comic science
fiction remained popular Marvel and combined them with the Silver Surfer.
At the end of the Silver Age, the magazine of comics looked very much like what they
are today: plenty of heroes, each with its own magazine, and many characters who met
double shifts in a group of super heroes.
• The Bronze Age of Comics (1970-79)
Reflecting the times, the Bronze Age of comics began to address issues more modern.
While the heroes of comic books popular classics continued, new heroes like Conan
the Barbarian and stories like Star Wars changed the rules and announced the modern
• The Modern Age of Comics (1980-Today)
During the 1980s, the rise of the graphic novel set in the popular heroes more adult
storylines that have become more common during the modern era. Notable among
them are Watchmen, Alan Moore, and Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller.
The 1990s was marked by the breakdown of the publishers of comic books. In an
industry previously dominated by Marvel and DC, many independent and alternative
comics such as Dark Horse and Image, were born.
Some major superhero comics:
Created by two teenagers in 1933 and launched in 1938 in the comics, Superman was
the first superhero created on the planet. Therefore, it is the longest serving, most
exploited across all media and what else has changed throughout its history. Partly this
was to maintain and attract readers, but changes were also made because the hero has
become an icon of American society and thus it was natural that change according to
the values of Americans also altered.
When it was created, the character was more visually austere (with black eyes
"inputs" in the hair indicating an older man), did not have the same powers - instead
of flying, for example, jump tall buildings with a single bound - and was a sort of mix
between a super-aggressive cop and a super social worker: while that bound bandits,
repressed those who disregarded the rules moral, ethical and even labor in the United
Drunken, sexist who beat their wives and even a mine owner who exploited their
workers irregularly suffered the wrath of Super these beginnings. In the 40s,
Superman helped, in comics, the investees allied against the Nazis, to the point of
incurring the wrath of Hitler's propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, who ordered
the newspaper Der Stumer did an article against the hero under the title "Superman is
Jewish." After the war, the hero of time assumed the nickname "escoteirinho of
While some stories that appeared in naive and with high doses of psychedelia,
defended above all American interests, so that their motto (used both in comics and in
the radio) was modified to "The Champion of Justice , the truth and the American
Super also arrived to defend the Americans in the Vietnam War and against the
dictatorship of Lubânia, a reference to the former USSR. At the end of the 70s, with
the release of the first film, Super stories changed a bit and took a more naive. In the
'80s, he continued to work in the United States, but acting more for citizens and
abandoning speech governamentista aside. Often, even Superman acted under the
auspices of the UN and showed their HQs in the two sides of the coin: both the actions
of terror dictators as ideological faults U.S..
Still, Superman continued to believe in the system, so often naive, that earned him the
role of government soldier in historic HQ Dark Knight, Frank Miller, in 1985.
In the 90s, the character became stronger psychologically, not letting it handle both,
but was so physically disfigured (beaten by anyone, had increasingly weaknesses hurt
until shaving), the writers decided to kill it and - even more approaching the various
decals history with Jesus Christ - the resurrected hero.
Still in the same decade Super married Lois Lane, changed powers and procedure (a
fearsome phase "electrical" in which the hero until the skin was blue), and his 50th
birthday (1999) returned to the original powers .
Creation: In 1939, a year after the appearance of Superman, the then director of
National Periodical Publications Vincent Sullivan asked the cartoonist Robert "Bob"
Kane who created a hero to the editor following the trail of success of Man of Steel .
Kane was 22 years and produced strips of humor as "Cleo and Clancy," two police-
style Laurel and Hardy. Using a figure of Superman as a model and sketches of
Leonardo Da Vinci that a man appears with wings on the back similar to a bat, Kane
created a hero who had wings, dressed in a bright red uniform and wore a Zorro style
mask, and called the Bat-Man (Batman).
Kane then asked the opinion of friend and cartoonist Bill Finger, who suggested some
changes: extend mask for a kind of hood, with pointed ears like a bat, replacing the
rigid wings glued on the back of a character hood with cut tips evoking the figure of
the flying mammal, and exchange red uniform for a blue-gray, more suited to the
nocturnal adventures of the character.
Kane also added boots, the symbol of the bat on the chest and utility belt. In May
1939, in Detective Comics number 27, Batman (the hyphen was eventually abandoned
with time) made his debut with the story "The Case of Chemicals", written by Bill
Finger and artist Bob Kane.
Batman is one of the characters more multimedia on the planet (and therefore one
that raises more money), having been transposed into TV series, numerous feature
films, video games, CD-ROMs, cartoons, toys and trinkets in general. The character
still belongs to DC Comics.
In Brazil most of the stories the hero is published by the publisher Panini. Crossovers
Hero and alternate histories are also published by other publishers, no defined
Creation: Beside X-Men, it is the flagship of the Publisher Marvel in sales. But unlike
mutants in general, that divide opinions, Spidey is touted as the most beloved character
from the publisher at all times. Moreover, established a new level of heroes to be
created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko in 1962.
Lee, who originally conceived the character as "Man-Fly" to see one of these insects
on the wall (and luckily he changed his mind because he thought flies unpopular),
created with the arachnid hero genre "human heroes."
Not that the others were all aliens, but the young Peter Parker has always been a
character sensitive, full of typical problems and anxieties of humanity, and especially
And carry all this emotional baggage for under the mask of Spiderman. However, the
Spider has nothing nostalgic, the contrary is the low maturity or as a defense
mechanism, the hero will not shut up a minute while fighting, shooting jokes infamous
at the same speed of their webs.
With all its popularity, the character has starred in several films (with Stan Lee pouting
as secondary characters), cartoons, video games and TV series (one of them was a
former member of the Von Trapp family as Peter Parker ...) besides having the figure
stamped on countless toys. The opening song of the cartoon came to be recorded by the
group Ramones shaped heavy rock.
Watchmen is a comic book series written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Dave
Gibbons, originally published in twelve monthly issues published by DC Comics U.S.
between 1986 and 1987. The series was later reprinted in paperback (or trade
Watchmen is considered an important milestone in the evolution of comics in America:
introduced approaches and languages previously linked only to so-called alternative
comics, besides dealing with thematic guidance more mature and less superficial when
compared to commercial comics published in that country. The critical and public
success that the series had helped popularize the format known as graphic novel (or
"visual novel"), hitherto unexplored by the same market.
It is said that Watchmen was, in the context of the comics of the 1980s - along with
Murdock and The Fall of The Dark Knight Returns, Frank Miller, and Maus, by Art
Spiegelman - one responsible for awakening the public's interest to adult a format
hitherto considered juvenile.
The series was galardeada with various Kirby and Eisner Awards, plus a special honor
in the traditional Hugo Award, dedicated to literature: it is so far the only graphic
novel to achieve such feito.2 Watchmen is also the only comic on the list the 100 best
novels chosen by Time magazine since 1923.
The plot of Watchmen is located in the USA 1985, a country in which costumed
adventurers would be reality. The country would be living a delicate moment in the
context of the Cold War and in the process of declaring a nuclear war against the
Soviet Union. The same plot involves episodes experienced by a group of super-heroes
of the past and present and the events surrounding the mysterious murder of one of
them. Watchmen depicts superheroes as credible individuals who face ethical and
psychological problems, fighting neuroses and failings, and avoiding the archetypes
and super powers typically found in traditional figures of the genre. This, combined
with its innovative adaptation of cinematic techniques, the frequent use of symbolism,
layered dialogues and metafiction, so influenced the world of film and comics.
A film adaptation was released on March 6, 2009.
The Horror Comics
EC Comics: the cradle of horror comics
The publisher Max Gaines was one of the precursors of the comic book industry in the
United States in the 1930s and is considered a key figure in the consolidation of
American comics. Was the pioneer responsible for introducing changes in the way
journals, was Max who invented the famous "American format" comics, adopted as
standard today and introduced the first colored comic, like that gathered Famous
Funnies comic strips in newspapers magazines 64 pages. Max had a small publisher,
All American, and through it, produced and co-edited the All American Comics comic
book for the National (now DC), which published su-famous heroes such as Green
Lantern, Wonder Woman and Flash per ( their versions Golden Age, of course).
In 1944, Max sold to All American National, abandoned superheroes and embarked on
another segment of sequential art: comics world history, science and the Bible. The
latter were a real find! Did so successfully that were launched in several countries and
sold over five million copies! To christen the new label, the name Educational Comics
(EC Comics) was chosen. Nothing more appropriate and in line with the editorial line
of the company.
But the contract was made at a difficult period for the country, which was plunged into
World War 2. In 1947, with the war ended, the sales were not good and the EC was not
right legs. To make matters worse Max died suddenly, the victim of a boating accident,
and left the publishing company to his son William "Bill" Gaines, who was then 25
Before his father's death, Bill had returned from the army to form a professor at the
School of Education of New York and had no interest in the family business. In fact,
Max believed that their offspring was not very smart and was away from doing
something that prestasse. The relationship between the two was complicated and Bill
preferred to stay away from the path of the parent business.
However, with the sudden change in your life, Gaines filhoviu in front of a legacy that
was weak and needed revigorização. At this time the EC was diversifying its audience
and had several titles conventional western, romance, war and crime, but the
performance of all the stalls was wrong. But in 1950, Bill listened to the radio fan of
suspense and terror, designer and writer Al Feldstein, who had the insight to transpose
the stories she heard on the radio to the language of comics. As Bill was desperate to
get out of the crisis, decided to venture into the idea. The decision could not have
yielded better fruit! Had been born a new genre, one of the most influential in the
comics: The Horror!
Education and Entertainment
Armed with voracious appetite, Bill was on medication to control greed. The side effect
was insomnia which provided time to read everything and get back to work quickly
with ideas written down on paper for magazines short stories Tales from the Crypt, The
Vault of Horror and Tales of Fear. The function was to develop those ideas Feldstein
noted by Bill and turn them into stories that have a beginning, middle and end.
Quickly covers plenty of blood and gruesome images invaded the newsagents and
pharmacies in the U.S. (which also sold comics at the time) and attracted the young
audience that consumed 250 000 copies of each of the three main titles! Bill also held
the titles of suspense, crime and fantasy, which did not give much profit but helped
boost Entertaining Comics. That's right! The publisher changed his name, after all,
the publications have totally changed the direction and deserved a better name!
Not that the new stories were exempted from the EC instructional content. They were
no biblical or innocent as before, designed with didactic purpose. Now they brought
werewolves, vampires, mummies, undead, murderers and criminals stealing, killing,
cutting and slashing. The change was drastic, from water to wine or better for blood -
and most infamous. However, a lesson was taught always to the end of each story,
always the same, told in different ways. Basically, the writers showed that the world
turns and that what is done here, pay here. Were tales of good and evil with ironic
twists and outcomes that put evildoers in their place: the coffin, the seabed beneath the
earth or something sharp and deadly spiked in vital parts of the body.
The EC Comics went through two generations of the same family and the editors of
both phases, completely opposite, revolutionized the world of comics! The first creating
the standard format of comics and comic books developing educational and religious
who invaded American homes. The second, creating a new genre shocking and
aggressive comics and investing in the quality of the plots and designs, inviting elite
artists as Frank Frazetta, Jack Davis, Bill Elder, Joe Orlando, Wallace Wood, among
others, which came to market original of their work for thousands of dollars, size
success that his art reached in comics.
The educational comics of EC were overpowered by the entertainment, this is fact. To
get an idea of the new trends of the market in 1953, a quarter of all that was produced
by the industry of comics was the horror genre!
Despite all the violence, sensationalism and negative feelings such as revenge and
hatred, Bill described the horror as something harmless and pleasurable for those with
stomach, of course! Many behavioral and social criticism of the era came wrapped in
pounds of viscera could even disguise the purpose of the tale, but always came
intelligible moral at the end. A famous example of this way of working with the horror
is the director of cult zombie movies George Romero, author of Night of Living Dead
and Dawn of the Dead. Creator of an anthology that uses the undead as a prism to
examine society, Romero is avowed fan of EC and says influenced by the material
released in the middle of the last century.
But the success of magazines Terror EC also had its downside: it generated many other
publishers imitating his style, which made the market extremely fierce and competitive.
To make things worse, the McCarthy era had arrived and April 22, 1954, Bill Gaines
testified voluntarily Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency Research because
moralists believed that comics could influence children to commit crimes similar to
those found in the pages they read. The hearing scheduled by Senator Kefauver,
famous for worshiping self-advertising, and with the participation of the psychiatrist
Fredric Wertham, author of Seduction of the Innocent, which disparaged comics and
negative parts of exalted art, devoted himself to crush Bill, the only " publisher "of
horror that gave face to slap and called all the scolding for you to say it was the first to
print that kind of story.
With this, the EC has come to symbolize the "Evil" printed and bonfires were lit to
literally burn your comic books in the public square. The code of censorship Comics
Code Authority came into force deciding what could be shown or not in Comics
Americans. Bill refused to adopt the new "norm" and continued doing that well
understood, but the distributors for fear of stranding or any retaliation, refused to buy
their publications. When Bill finally relented to censor code, the horror genre was
already "burned" and was unable to revive him as before.
Censorship in HQ
When it comes to censorship, the first thought that comes to mind are the years of the
Brazilian Military Dictatorship in which journalists had to pay with his life for
freedom - none exists - press. The infamous censorship, however, also hit several other
vehicles of mass communication at various times. And among them, not even the comic
The history of censorship on the comic begins in 1938, in Italy, with the dictator Benito
Mussolini. Claiming "issues of national sovereignty", Mussolini banned throughout
Italy magazines comic books - most at the time was U.S. origin - claiming that they
were a 'corrosive counterculture' that hindered the formation of young Italians.
"At this time, the very Getulio Vargas, who was President of Brazil, learned of the
measure and considered doing the same here. This did not happen because the then
Minister of Justice, Francisco Campos, was a comic book fanatic," says researcher
and journalist from Gazeta Mercantil Gonçalo Júnior, author of The Incredible War of
Brazil is not entered in the wave, but France did. In 1949, citing the same reasons
stated by Mussolini, France adopted the posture Italian. Soon after, in 1954,
censorship has earned a great enhancement to justify their actions against comics: the
book Seduction of the Innocent psychologist Frederick Wertham. In the book (about
which you have read here in HGB), Wertham argued that comics inciting delinquency
and homosexuality - which in the eyes of society at the time was seen not only as a
misconduct, but as a legal and moral crime.
Because of this, thousands of comics ended up in the fire and was created in the
United States, the Comics Code, which established rules of "ethics" for comics.
Were prohibited, for example, scenes that present terror, torture, cannibalism,
vampires and werewolves - what did the market for comic horror sank in the USA. The
word crime could not appear in securities and criminal acts could never be shown in a
friendly (always a crook stole someone because it was bad and not to quench your
hunger, for example). Also, the stories, no authority could be shown committing a
crime (police, judges, mayors, school directors and other people were always 100%
Nude, then no way. Look at the image above, for example, removal of a comic Archie's
Gang. The comic left with the girl in green blouse, is the original art. However, the
"code" found very sexy girl to be with nothing underneath her blouse. Conclusion:
Censorship released the drawing after adding one (right frame).
Even where there was nudity censor saw. A muscular arm of a hero, for example, came
to be cut because, in a certain framework, censors found that muscles formed an
image resembling the legs of a woman.
Once approved by the code, the comics were given the official seal (top of page),
without which the owners of stalls refused to trade the comics.
In the U.S. today, the seal of the "code of ethics" still exists, but it is very little used. As
the Frederick Wertham admitted having spoken a series of blunders in his book,
American censorship rolled off of comics. Still, the comic very "strong" bring the
callsign "suggested for mature readers" (Suggested for mature readers) - which by the
way was also incorporated for much of the Brazilian comics.
Still, there are some restrictions, often by the publishers themselves. DC Comics, for
example, reached a cut scene of lesbianism in the series Camelot 2000, published in
the late 90s 80/início. In another magazine, a scene in which Swamp Thing
contracenava with Jesus Christ was also eliminated.
Here in Brazil, in 1997, Editora Abril Jovem put a stripe on, say, buttock Wolf
character that appeared in the miniseries exposed Wolf Is Dead (above). The staff in
April secured at the time, though, it was just a joke ...
Already cartoonist Glauco had several of his comic character Geraldão (which
appeared in the "bimbão" Geraldão's or mother's character taking a bath and being
spied on by him) vetoed by Brazilian newspapers early in his career. The same
happened with strips of Angeli. When both achieved success, however, no complains
that resist ...
Como vimos, os quadrinhos mudaram muito desde sua criação até os dias
de hoje. Mas uma coisa não mudou : eles sempre refletiram o mundo em
que vivemos. Fosse por meio das histórias cômicas,das mais realistas, ou
as mais violentas, os quadrinhos traziam um significado.
Em seu início, o principal motivo de se fazer histórias em quadrinhos era
o entretenimento. Só que eles foram tão bem aceitos pelo público, que
convencionou- se dar aos quadrinhos um valor maior.
Porém, não foi de uma hora para outra que os quadrinhos conquistaram o
lugar que mereciam e merecem. Hoje são considerados uma arte,
antigamente eram considerados prejudiciais à formação das
crianças,como se eles incentivassem o crime, a violência e tudo o mais. É
claro que os quadrinhos tinham esse lado ruim, mas o que ninguém
percebia era que eles também tinham o seu lado bom.
Mas o que realmente importa é que depois de tantas "lutas" as hqs
chegaram aonde sempre foi o seu lugar.
Para finalizar, quero dizer: quadrinhos é cultura, é imaginação, é
realidade, é o fruto do que plantamos em nosso mundo.