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Adult nutrition powerpoint

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Adult nutrition powerpoint

  1. 1. ADULT
  2. 2. How many calories does an adult need?
  3. 3. <ul><li>Health is defined as the ability to function and live outside an institution. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Aging is a gradual process that reflects the influence of genetics, lifestyle, and environment over the course of the lifespan. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Adults generally need fewer calories with each passing decades. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stages of adults: <ul><li>Early years – 20s to 30s </li></ul><ul><li>Middle years- 40s to 50s </li></ul><ul><li>Older years - 60s to 70s </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest years- 80s and 90s </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>State of health at any age is influenced by what is eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>One cannot have the best of health unless one eats wisely. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and repair is the theme for nutrition and the adult. </li></ul><ul><li>Child grows taller as he matures, adult lose stature. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The cumulative effects of maturation, disease, medication and previous health practices influence the nutrient needs of adults . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The mechanism of aging is a decline in the number cells along with the changes within the cells that damage the cellular organelles and changes in the basic genetic material that affect cell replication. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The control of chronic conditions with medication and diet is a concern for many adults. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The total nutrients needed for replacement and repair of the mature adult are more than the total nutrient needs of children except for calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The reduction in basal metabolism observed as a change accompanying aging and a reduction in activity explain the reduction in the suggested caloric intake. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Average women with sedentary lifestyle CALORIES AGE 1600-2400 23-50 1400-2200 51-75 1200-2000 75 and above
  14. 14. Average men with sedentary lifestyle CALORIES AGE 2300-3100 23-50 2000-2800 51-75 1650-2450 75 and above
  15. 15. Adult <ul><li>1600 calories a day is about right for many sedentary women and some older adults. </li></ul><ul><li>2200 calories a day is about right for moderately </li></ul><ul><li>active women, and most men. </li></ul><ul><li>• 2800 calories a day is about right for active men </li></ul><ul><li>and some very active women. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Effects of aging ORGAN INVOLVED CAUSED BY EFFECT ON NUTRITION Tongue and nose taste buds ability to taste salt and sweets taste and olfactory nerve endings Palatibility of food Food intake Taste and smell Salivary glands saliva production Reduced sense of thirst/dry mouth esophagus Muscle contractions may malfunction Difficulty chewing Stomach HCl secretion and intrinsic factor Bioavailability of vitamins, minerals, proteins Liver production of drug-matabolizing enzymes Adrug doses (adjustments possible to avoid overdosing)
  17. 17. EARLY YEARS (20s TO 30s) <ul><li>Their lifestyles are more time-restricted and positive health behaviors such as regular meal pattern and exercise may fall by the wayside. </li></ul><ul><li>These years marks a transition from one stage of the life span to another; young adults separate from their family of origin; focus on personal goals, and often face reproduction decisions. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Women bear children during these years </li></ul><ul><li>For women , the recommended dietary allowance for energy is 2200 kcal daily. </li></ul><ul><li>For men, 2900 kcal. </li></ul><ul><li>This reflects the typical differences in body weight and lean body mass of men and women. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Vitamin and mineral needs do not significantly change. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium and phosphorus needs for men and women decline after age 18 because skeletal growth is almost complete. </li></ul>
  20. 20. MIDDLE YEARS( 40S TO 80S) <ul><li>Marked by a continuation of family demands and career involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Kcaloric needs decline as lean body mass is lost and replaced by body fat that is less metabolically active. </li></ul><ul><li>Body fat increases can be slowed by exercise and strength training to continue maintenance of lean body mass. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>After age 50, daily energy drop from 2200 to 1920 kcal for women. </li></ul><ul><li>From 2900 to 2300 kcal for men. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a challenge to meet the same nutrient needs with reduced kcaloric intake. </li></ul>
  22. 22. OLDER YEARS(60S, 70S AND 80S) <ul><li>As our life span increases in years, senescence (older adulthood) is for many a time of life for continued professional or career advancement and recreational enjoyment. </li></ul><ul><li>Others are in transition, adjusting to retirement and settling into new patterns of activities. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>During these later years, individuals may struggle with deaths of family members and friends and adjustment to retirement. </li></ul><ul><li>Disorientation or senility often associated with aging may be caused by improper use of medication, marginal nutrient deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturia (inability to get to the toilet on their own) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Fluid requirements in older adults remain the same as in younger adults ( about 8 cups a day) unless a medical condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition status may be affected by restricted access to food and ability to prepare meals. </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping may be difficult w/o transportation and mobility to walk through store may be limited. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Adults may no longer have interest in cooking. </li></ul><ul><li>Many continue to live in their own home with family members, some opt for retirement communities and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Change in ability of the body to either process or synthesize certain nutrients. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Adults need more exposure to sunlight. </li></ul>
  27. 27. OLDEST ADULT (80S AND 90S) <ul><li>Aging continue to reduce the ability of the body to absorb and synthesize nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition and underweight becomes concerns during this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Food preparation becomes physically difficult to accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>Kcaloric intake may diminish. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Illness accompanying medications may reduce appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition is associated with complications </li></ul><ul><li>Risk for dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease ability of kidney to concentrate urine </li></ul><ul><li>Limited movement </li></ul>
  29. 29. ADULT HEALTH PROMOTION <ul><li>Adequate intake of nutrients found in foods (rather than in supplements) </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between diet and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate kcaloric intake coupled with regular exercise for physical fitness and obesity prevention. </li></ul>
  30. 30. DETERMINE
  31. 31. Adults are risk for….
  32. 32. <ul><li>D isease </li></ul><ul><li>E ating poorly </li></ul><ul><li>T ooth loss or oral pain </li></ul><ul><li>E conomic hardship </li></ul><ul><li>R educed social contact </li></ul><ul><li>M ultiple medications </li></ul><ul><li>I nvoluntary weight loss or gain </li></ul><ul><li>N eeds assistance with self-care </li></ul><ul><li>E lderly person older than 80 years </li></ul>
  34. 34. HEART DISEASE <ul><li>Commonly considered a disease in men. </li></ul><ul><li>The increase of cholesterol increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. </li></ul><ul><li>A heart-healthy diet that is low in fat and saturated fat, ric in fruits, vegetables and whole grains. </li></ul>
  35. 35. CANCER <ul><li>2 ND leading cause of death. </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer are 3 leading causes of cancer deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>High intake of fruits and vegetables may protect against cancers. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains is protective against breast cancer. </li></ul>
  37. 37. DIABETES <ul><li>Diabetes increase the risk of heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity is implicated in the majority of cases of type 2 diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Weight management and a heart healthy diet are cornerstone of treatment. </li></ul>
  38. 38. OSTEOPOROSIS <ul><li>Osteoporosis is a disease that is characterized by a decrease in total bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue which leads to increased bone fragility and risk of fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 30 to 35 years of age, peak bone mass, the most bone mass a person will ever have is attained. </li></ul><ul><li>During the first 5 years or so after onset of menopause, women experience rapid bone loss that is related to estrogen deficiency. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>The vertebrae, hip, and wrist are most susceptible to fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in stature and deformity reduce lung capacity and abdominal volume, which may lead to chronic back pain, and decrease tolerance in activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight bearing exercise and calcium intake are important for building and strengthening bones. </li></ul>
  40. 40. PROSTATE CANCER <ul><li>Is associated with fat intake , particularly saturated fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Men plder than 40 should be encouraged to undergo an unnual digital rectal examination or other forms of prostate cancer screening because overt symptoms may not occur until cancer ia advanced. </li></ul>
  41. 41. ADULT DISEASES AND CONDITIONS <ul><li>Aging Eye (including cataracts, glaucoma and macular degeneration) </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s and Other Dementias </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Pressure (Hypertension) </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Kidney Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Lung Diseases (including COPD) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Loss </li></ul><ul><li>Menopause </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Urine and Bladder Problems </li></ul>
  44. 44. The key driver for eating is of course hunger but what we choose to eat is not determined solely by physiological or nutritional needs. <ul><li>Biological determinants such as hunger, appetite, and taste </li></ul><ul><li>Economic determinants such as cost, income, availability </li></ul><ul><li>Physical determinants such as access, education, skills (e.g. cooking) and time </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Social determinants such as culture, family, peers and meal patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological determinants such as mood, stress and guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge about food </li></ul>