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HACCP Plan for Food Products (Apple Jam)
Presentation · January 2019
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LIST OF CONTENTS
S.No Contents Page No.
1. Abstract 1
2. Introduction 1
3. HACCP – general principles and steps 1
4. Elaboration of HACCP for apple jam 4
5. Traceability, validation, verification and documentation 6
6. Elaboration on microbial hazards- sources, proliferation, effect of microbes or
its toxin on final consumer
7. Monitoring and use of rapid methods 10
8. Conclusion 11
9. References 11
Apple jam is a gelled product made by boiling crushed apples with sugar and water.
Production of such a ready-to-eat food which is usually not refrigerated requires that all food safety
risks are eliminated. The use of the HACCP system has thus been applied as food safety tool. These
both ensure production of safe products and compliance with basic regulations on food hygiene.
The major sources of contamination, and the possible pathogens and their toxins such as patulin
form moulds, Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli must be analysed and effective preventive
Several definitions for jam are available depending on who is doing the definition (i.e.
background of the person). From a legal standpoint, the EU directive on preserves (EC, 2001)
defines jam as '... a mixture, brought to a suitable gelled consistency, of sugars, the pulp and/or
purée of one or more kinds of fruit, and water... the quantity of pulp and/or purée used for the
manufacture of 1000g of finished product must not be less than 350g as a general rule.
In general however it is accepted that jam is produced by taking mashed or chopped fruit
pulp and boiling it with sugar and water. It is also a widely accepted notion that jams are from the
pulp and juice of one fruit, rather than a combination of several fruits. The traditional understanding
of jam was that of a self-preserved cooked mixture of fruit and sugar. The degree of preservation
related to the final water activity of the product but there are other factors affecting spoilage. These
include soluble solid content, pH and titratable acidity, as well as other unknown intrinsic indices
related to the fruit used (Broomfield, 2001). Commonly when the mixture reaches 105o
C, the acid
and pectin in the fruit react with the sugar forming the gel which sets on cooling.
Apple jam will thus be made of chopped apple fruit and apple purée and sugar. The use of
apple is advantageous because apple is on of the few non-citrus fruits known to have a high level of
natural pectin, thus the production can proceed without addition of commercial pectin. Its acid
levels are however low, but can be supplemented by natural screened lime juice. The use of the term
'organic' in food circles is gaining more grounds in this age as people become conscious of what
they eat. Organic has generally been used to refer to an ecological system that at its core relies on
health rich soil to produce strong plants that resist pests and disease; it generally prohibits the use of
pesticides, genetically modifies organisms (GMO), synthetic preservatives and
antibiotics/hormones. In the production of food products such as jam, there is ''... the restriction of
the use of food preservatives, of non-organic ingredients with mainly technological and sensory
functions and of micronutrients and processing aids, so that they are used to a minimum extent (EC,
2007). Also, processed foods are only allowed to be labelled organic if all or almost all the
ingredient of agricultural origin is organic. The hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP)
system has over the years become one of choice as reliable way to ensure safety at all levels in the
food chain. Thus its implementation in the production of a ready-to-eat product such as apple jam
will be most appropriate.
HACCP- Principles and Steps
Since its initial use by the Pillsbury Company in the 1950's as part of the food safety efforts
in the NASA/ US military space program, HACCP has gradually proven to be the food safety tool
of choice in most food establishments. It has been recognised and approved for use in the food
industry by national and international bodies such as the NACMF of the US, WHO/FAO (Codex),
ICMSF, as well as several governments as the basis for legal framework on food safety. The EU
regulation 178/2002 (EC, 2002) requires entities in the food chain to have a safety system in place
based on HACCP. The ISO standard ISO 22000 on food safety is also largely built on the principles
HACCP is an analytical tool that enables a food entity to implement and maintain a system
for ensuring food safety. It generally involves assessment of all steps in the particular
manufacturing process, while identifying those steps that have a major effect on the safety of the
food (Burrow, 2001). The identification of the eventual critical control points (CCP) along with
monitoring and control parameters is then the results of the analysis and culminates in the creation
of the safety system.
The HACCP system is based on a universally recognised set of seven principles that are used to
design a safety plan for the food. These principles:
1. Conduct hazard analysis
2. Determine CCP
3. Establish critical limits
4. Establish monitoring procedures
5. Establish corrective action procedures
6. Establish verification procedures
7. Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures
However the Codex Alimentarious Commission has created a logic sequence for the
implementation or application of HACCP. This sequence essentially adds 5 preceding steps to the
seven principles in the implementation phase. These steps are:
1. Assemble a HACCP team
2. Describe the food product that the HACCP plan will address
3. Identify the intended use of food product
4. Construct a flow diagram of the process that is used to produced the product
5. Conduct on-site verification of the process flow diagram
HACCP for Apple Jam Plant
In the light of the above, the paragraphs below will try to follow the codex logical sequence
to elaborate on a HACCP system for an apple jam production plant.
A team of company personnel with a good knowledge of food safety management is
assembled. In some cases there may be the need to include a consulting expert in the initial process
but this person may not be a permanent member of the team. The team will typically include the
Quality Manager (team leader), Production Manager/Supervisor, a senior member of production
staff and the Maintenance Manager. The team is responsible for the planning, implementation and
general documentation of the HACCP system. Documentation of general management
responsibility and support for system should be clear and evident in the general quality manual of
the company as the quality policy. Management support is crucial for the success of such a program.
The Product (Apple Jam)
As explained in the introductory section, apple jam is a gelled ready-to-eat product. It may
be used as spread for bread and also as filling for other pastries and bakery products. When packed
in the normal glass containers, the product should have a shelf life of about 4 months prior to
opening. It has a total soluble solids content of about 66% (refractometer solids), pH of between 3.5
and 3.8, and water activity of 0.76-0.78. After opening the product ideally should be refrigerated at
C although this may not be necessary. It is however important that the product is tightly closed at
Figure 1: Flow Diagram of Apple Jam Production
Receipt of Raw apple &Sorting
Washing and Cleaning
Mixing in vessel
Boiling in Chamber
Holding in Vessel
Filling into Jars
Sanitizing of Jars
An on-site verification of the diagram is made by the HACCP team.
It is generally accepted no HACCP plan can be effectively rolled out without a well established
HACCP prerequisite program in place. Prerequisite programs or good manufacturing practices
(GMP's) are programs that ensure general hygiene and sanitation in the plant. Prerequisite programs
may come under broad categories such as:
Equipment maintenance and sanitation
General sanitation and cleaning
Personnel training on hygiene and related issues
Transportation: receiving, storage and shipping of material and products
Detailed manuals for the execution of all these functions should be available and strictly followed.
HACCP Plan Summary
Each of the steps involved in the production is analysed by the HACCP team and all
possible hazards identified. Hazards are further streamlined based on probability of occurrence and
consequence of customer exposure in the event of lost of control. Based on such a matrix and using
a typical CCP decision tree (Ali, 2004), the CCP's in the process are identified. Critical limits for
these CCP's were set for the identified possible hazards based on available scientific literature and
research information. Monitoring procedures are also elaborated to ensure that the parameters are
always within the set limits. Corrective action procedures are also clearly stipulated on how to
handle the production or product in event of limits being exceeded (non-conformity).
Table 2 below shows a summary of the above processes and the resulting basic HACCP plan.
Validation, Verification and Documentation
As part of the HACCP system, a documented procedure for validation of the effectiveness of
control measures and monitoring and measuring systems must be in place. Also internal audits by
qualified personnel of the HACCP team are done monthly to ascertain the implementation and
effectiveness of the system. Such audits are planned according to documented procedures and
schedules by management and the HACCP team. Records of such audits are submitted to
management for review and corresponding action.
Documentation of the entire system and the day to day activities done in implementation is very
important in a HACCP system. For instance at the top any document in the system is control box
showing the function and line of authority such as one below.
Table 1. A control box
THE COMPANY- (document type) Revision: x
(Document Tile) Date: xx/xx/xxxx
The Company- aaa-cc-x Authorized by:
Page x of z
Table 2: HACCP Plan Summary for Apple Jam Production
Step (CCP) Hazard Critical
Control Measure Monitoring System
fresh apple and
lot (accept or
pH level of 6
to 8 and
Sensory and on-
site kit test (for
analysis of water
Instant test kit
Daily Inform water
Boiling of Jam
Each batch Rework- reheat
Holding of Jam Cross
by bacteria and
mould in air
in holding room
holding room as
high rick zone
such as red)
filter in air
in rinse water.
ATP kit swabs.
Elaboration on Microbiological Hazards and Prevention
Generally the important bacteria worthy of note in fruit products is Listeria monocytogenes
which is a common contaminant in the food processing plant, though the faecal coliform
Escherichia coli may also be important. Control of microbial hazards should thus include ensuring
that water supply is free from contamination and that hygiene and sanitation programs for premises
and staff are strictly implemented, as these may be routes for contamination (Beatie and Wade,
For the raw apple, the major food safety problem is that of mycotoxins produces by
contaminating mould such as Penicillium expansum. This fungus produces the blue mould rot with
the inherent toxin patulin. Patulin is also known to be produced similar moulds that grow on apple
jam in storage, especially when exposed in the home after initial opening (Lindroth et al, 1978,
Lindroth and Niskanen, 1978). The important spoilage organism for apple jam is the yeast
Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, but Toruluspora delbrueckii may also be found. These fungus cause
spoilage by fermenting the jam, with production of gas. The conditions thus created may invite
other pathogens such as lactic acid bacteria and others to invade the jam, causing further disease on
Especially with regards to organically produced apples for the jam, which are not treated
with fungicides, contamination by mould and the subsequent production of patulin is the major food
safety index. Care should be taken in the initial receipt step to ensure that the apple lot is in good
condition, free of rotting/rotten fruits as much possible. Any fruit observed not to be of sound
quality should be removed. Sorting should continue during the washing process. Re-use of water for
later washing should be avoided unless substantial treatment regimes have been applied. With good
storage conditions, the sugar should not be a source of worry with respect to pathogenic infection,
provided certification of conformance to GMP is received form supplier. Care should be taken to
avoid wetting and storage contamination. This could be due to the presence of such pests as ant,
cockroaches and rodents (rat and their droppings).
The water source is very important in the manufacturing environment as it is used in the pre-
processing steps, the cleaning and sanitation of the plant, as well as being a composite part of the
final product. Samples of the water should be taken periodically for laboratory analysis to ensure
bacteria counts are as low as possible. Positive result trends should be investigated and required
action taken. It will be advisable to pass water to be incorporated into the jam pass through a filter.
This filter must be checked frequently for efficiency and soundness. As a general rule (of thumb),
water used in the processing plant should be of drinking water quality.
Processing Equipment and Personnel (Hygiene).
Equipment used in the manufacture of jam and other preserves have been known to harbour
certain spoilage yeast unless thoroughly freed of sugar residues and then disinfected. The common
spoilage yeast of jam, Z. rouxii, may be enriched and carried from one production run to the next if
these ‘sugar-rich localities’ in the plant are not eliminated (Seiler, 1977). Apart from being the
growth substrate for yeast, these areas may also attract pests such as insects and rodents with the
pathogens they carry around.
Faecal contamination and the introduction of soil may bring bacteria such as E. coli,
Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. The elimination of these bacteria is paramount in any food
production establishment. Important sources of such contamination include pests on the plant,
personnel clothing and footwear as well as improper general hygiene. The inclusion of an integrated
pest management program in the pre-requisite program is thus stressed here. The highest level of
plant and personal hygiene should be practised by personnel, who should be adequately educated on
the need for this and measures and the consequences of default. An important tool that may be used
to reduce the spread of contamination is zoning of the processing area. The creation of colour coded
higher levels/zones will thus be used in this plant. Personnel must also as a rule be made to wear
appropriate clothing including hair covering. Foot baths and other such facilities for hand washing
and other hygiene practices must be provided and sited at vantage points where their use is crucial
to prevent contamination.
Packaging and Storage (Including Storage at Home after Opening)
The temperature at which filling of the jam is done is important for both quality and safety
reasons. Filling at an elevated temperature ensures jam will set properly in the jar. However an
elevated temperature is also essential to create an environment that excludes air borne bacteria.
Sanitation of the glass jars and covers is to ensure removal of all possible contaminants as the jar
can be important in cross contamination of the product, especially from bacterial spores and some
moulds. Temperature of the washing water and the time of contact should be adequate to have
desired lethal effect on targeted microbes. If a washing trough is used, the water should be
frequently changed to avoid concentration of removed contaminants.
After packaging and labelling, handling and storage at less than 5o
C through shipping and
sale display (in supermarkets) should keep jam safe within stipulate shelf life. In the home however,
contamination may occur if precautions are not taken. Growth of moulds and the subsequent
production of patulin in the jam is likely if the jam is not covered properly after initial opening.
Contamination by faecal bacteria such as E.coli and Salmonella are possible if there is negligence in
Monitoring and Use of Rapid Methods
Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or observation of a CCP for compliance with the
target levels and the specified tolerance ranges established for each control measure. Both on-line
(time temperature) and off-line (soluble solid, pH) measurements are important indications of the
performance of the HACCP system. The use of rapid method that yield results fast enough to allow
decisions to be taken are evolving at a fast rate in the industry. For instance after a cleaning
exercise, the effectiveness of the cleaning may be required, before further processing on the surface.
Rapid test methods are available as ready-to-use kits, for instance ATP-bioluminscence.
These tests examine organic remains on a surface which poses an indirect risk for microbial growth.
ATP-bioluminscence detects ATP from microorganism and organic residues. (Vogel, 2007). These
tests expose results very quickly (within seconds or minutes) making it possible to carry out
corrective actions in response to poor test results, e.g. before production starts. They are sensitive,
safe, easy to use - no specialized knowledge or laboratory facilities are required - and a helpful tool
in monitoring the general hygiene. However, they are not a replacement for microbiological testing,
as they give no evidence of bacterial contamination. (Vogel, 2007)
Characteristics and Effects of Microbes and their Toxins
The mould P. expansum is known to cause extensive damage and loses in apples in countries
such as the US, Canada, France, Sweden and Germany. It produces the blue rot disease in the apple,
with dissightful blue, and brown colouration in advance stages. However even more damaging can
be the ailment caused by the mycotoxin, patulin which it produces. Patulin is generally stable in
acid solutions as low as pH 2, though unstable in alkali. Ingestion of patulin, also known in some
literature as clavacin, penicidin, or myocin C, may produce effects such as abdominal pains, dypsea,
restlessness, and even death, which is preceded by convulsions. Chronic effects may include
ulceration and other carcinogenic effects (Deshpande, 2002). The estimated lethal dose (LD50) for
patulin ranges from 25-46mg/kg body weight for oral ingestion to 5-15mg/kg body weight for
intraperitoneal administration. The World Health Organisation has suggested a tolerable weekly
intake of about 7ug/kg body weight (WHO, 1991).
Listeria is ubiquitous in nature, occurring in soil, vegetation and water (Coyle et al, 1984). It
can survive long periods in both soil and plant material. L. monocytogenes can grow in the pH
ranges of 4.3- 9.4 and up to 10% sodium chloride (ICMSF, 1996). It may survive pasteurization at
C for 30 minutes. However exposure at above 72o
C for 15 seconds has been known to destroy it.
Hence in the apple jam, post cooking (105o
C for about 20 minutes) and post filling (54o
contamination will offer more serious Listeria threat. Listerosis is a very serious and often fatal
infection affecting mostly the elderly and immunocompromised. Gastrointestinal illness is one
effect. Listerosis has been known to cause abortions, fatigue, encephalitis, abscesses and meningitis.
In humans, as few as 1000 ingested cells of the bacteria produce diarrhoea, mild fever and malaise
(FDA/CFSAN, 2003). Other faecal coliforms such as Salmonella and E. coli can also cause serious
conditions such as enteric fever which even may be life threatening. As few as 15 cells of
Salmonella for instance can cause illness (FDA/CFSAN, 2003).
The production of organic apple jam, especially on a commercial scale requires careful
planning to ensure that all the food safety issues of concern are adequately addressed. The use of a
well thought through HACCP plan can be a good way to ensure this desired level of food safety.
Apart from fulfilling basic legal requirement on food safety, this can also be used to ensure
customer confidence in the final product on the shelf.
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made and Commercial Apple Products. Journal of Science.
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