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Separation techniques and enterance to chromatography

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Separation techniques and enterance to chromatography

  1. 1. Separation Techniques and Enterance to Chromatography Prepared by :ABDULHAMID MOHAMED Student no: 1302d901 YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. Methods of Separating Components of Mixtures
  3. 3. Separation Techniques • The separation of mixtures may be done to enhance the purity of substances • Accomplished using different characteristic properties, such as density, boiling point, melting point, solubility, etc
  4. 4. Some Types of Separation Techniques – filtration – mechanical separation – floatation – centrifugation – simple distillation – fractional distillation – crystallization – chromatography
  5. 5. Filtration • Technique used to separate mixtures of an insoluble solid and a liquid.
  6. 6. Examples of Mixtures You Can Separate Using Filtration • Sand and water • Broken glass and water
  7. 7. Mechanical Separation • Physical separation methods that involve the use of tools such as forceps and sieves, to separate the components of a mixture. • Ex. Gravel and sand
  8. 8. Flotation Separation method in which some solids of a suspension mixture are allowed to settle and the less dense material is poured off. Ex. Panning of gold
  9. 9. Centrifugation • Speeds up the separation of a solid from a liquid through the centripetal force developed during the rotation of the centrifuge.
  10. 10. Distillation • This is the separation technique where two miscible liquids (liquids that mix together) are separated. • It is made possible due to the fact that each liquid has its unique boiling point.
  11. 11. Types of Distillation • Simple distillation • Fractional distillation
  12. 12. Simple Distillation • This is a technique used to separate a mixture of a soluble substance and a solvent. • E.g salt and water
  13. 13. Fractional distillation • This is the technique used to separate a mixture of two miscible liquids with different boiling points. • E.g. water and ethanol • The boiling point for water is 100 while for ethanol it is 78.
  14. 14. Fractional Distillation Demonstration
  15. 15. Fractional Crystallization • Crystallization is the process in which crystals are formed. • Fractional crystallization is done by lowering of temperature of a mixture or solution so that the more insoluble component crystallizes out first. (Uses solubility to separate substances)
  16. 16. Chromatography • Is the separation technique used to separate soluble substances using a media and a solvent. • It is mostly applied in identifying mixtures that are colored or pigments.
  17. 17. Some Types of Chromatography • Radial chromatography • Ascending chromatography
  18. 18. Radial Chromatography • In this type of chromatography, as the pigment separates, the different colors move outwards.
  19. 19. Radial Chromatogram
  20. 20. Ascending Chromatography • The solvent moves upwards on the separating media