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A A R O N ’ S 4 T H G R A D E An educational publication made by Aaron’s 4th graders Fall/Winter 2012Tribes of NC Overview Tribes of NC Culture Creation Myth Anetsa Variety Maps Read and discover Experience what its like Compare and contrast Learn about where Enter a world whereabout native american to live with native two different beliefs in native americans lived you can feel the paintribes americans pg 3 how your world was and live today and and victory of a cerated. Start reading answer some questions dangerous native here and then turn to american ball gamePage 2 Page 4 Recipes, drawing and Page 8 Page 7 watercolors pg 5 Phase 4:we decided what layout and design we were How we Made This Paper Why We Are Learning going to use. About Native Americans It all started when our teacher Phase 5:we downloaded our told us we were making a In 4th grade every kid in NC work on the computer and put newspaper. learns about the history of our it in to this newsletter. state. Part of that is Native Phase 1:we each chose a piece Phase 6:we edited again and Americans. We are learning of writing about native made it look nice. about Native Americans americans to do and would because it is intellectually research about their tribes and Phase 7:WERE DONE!! stimulating. It is also a big part culture. of the evolution of our state. The Native Americans who Phase 2:we chose the art pieces lived here have already taught such as native american us a lot. drawings, advertisements and photography. phase 3:we edited our work and made nice ﬁnal drafts. 1 Continued on page 8
A A R O N ’ S 4 T H G R A D ETribes of NC Overview Tuscarora by Sam Powhatan by Ellen Lumbee by MylaCatawba Cherokee by Joe The Tuscarora tribe The Powhatan tribe were There are many tribes lived deep in Eastern and still are well known for in North Carolina but a The Cherokee tribe interacting so much with North Carolina but we really interesting tribe lives in western Europeans and famously do not what year they is the Lumbee tribe.by Kimberly North Carolina, interacting with Jamestown started to live in this North Carolina was Tennessee, South Colony. They mainly lived inThere were a land. Tuscarora is one originally the home of Carolina, and Virginia and a little bit inlot of Native American tribe the Croatan and Sioux Kentucky. Did you North Carolina. Because theyamazing out of many. The tribes but many Indians know they were the lived near water their mainNative died when the only tribe with an source of transportation wasAmerican Tribes in North Europeans arrived. alphabet? To get called a dugout canoe thatCarolina , but the Catawba around they made Some of the survivors they made by hollowing out came together andwas one of the most canoes out of large trees. The Powhatan formed a new tribeinteresting! The Catawba hollowed logs. As a woman planted and called the Lumbee tribe.Tribe spoke a special tradition they told harvested corn, squash and Lumbe means “darklanguage called the Catawba stories about how the beans, the men hunted deer, water” and Lumbee islanguage. They traded a lot world was created. turkey, small game and also the name of a riverwith the British, but after The tribe was forced Tuscarora tribe speaks fished. From these foodsthe British came they fought to move to Oklahoma English today but they that runs through their they made soup, cornbread homeland. Mosta lot with Native American in the 1800s. They first spoke a complex and stews. Today very few Lumbees live intribes because of their called it the Trail of language called the Powhatan still live in North Robeson County. If youtrading with the British. The Tears because a lot of Tuscarora language Carolina. Most of them live know where FayettevilleCatawba lived by rivers and people died. The which almost nobody in Virginia, Pennsylvania is, it is close to there.believe it or not Catawba Cherokee tribe is knows about. The tribe and New Jersey but theirmeans “fork in the river.” The Lumbees aren’t important to North now lives in New York importance to us still holdsCatawba men wore deer skin Carolina’s long recognized by the because the British true.breech clothes, women wore history. Federal Government kicked them out of their If you want to learn morewraparound skirts and skin but they have wanted native land. They have a about the Powhatan tribeshirts, they also wore and tried to be reservation on a piece of you can visit your localmoccasins. If you liked recognized for a long land in New York Statelearning about Catawba try Cherokee Alphabet so the spirit of the tribe library and get The time. Lumbee Indians Powhatan Indians, have been around for areading about different on page 6 will live on. Powhatan Life ways or long time and they’reNative American tribes! Pocahontass People. still around today. strong as ev2
T H E O R I G I N A L C A R O L I N I A N STHE LUMBEE SCHOOLING SYSTEM knowledge of their entire community. Children are taughtby Natalie through informal learning- for example, storytelling and The Lumbee tribe has a lot of rich culture, but I observation.found their schooling system the most historical and Among the Lumbee, grandparents play a key part in ainteresting. Lumbee tribes agree that formal education is childs overall development. Grandparents are oftennecessary because it provides skills that are needed to get responsible for taking care of their grandchildren while theirgood jobs. But most Lumbees also think that todays non- parents are at work and are therefore able to spend a lot ofIndian schools take the Indian identity away from their quality time with their grandchildren. This traditionalchildren, and that they separate Native Americans from relationship between grandparents and their grandchildren istheir Indian minds, communities, and culture. very important to the tribal society of the Lumbee because it Many Native Americans, including the Lumbees, allows elderly members of the tribe to feel needed, while atbelieve that modern American schools do not give children a the same time the children are treated with love andsense of their purpose in the world: They are separated by acceptance.age. They are not respected as unique individuals. They are The grandparents usually allow children to maketold what to learn and when to learn it, and they are more their own decisions when they are in between ages 5-10.inclined to believe in one great body of knowledge and skills Lumbee children are also allowed to make their ownthat everyone else is learning, too. mistakes. The grandparents do this so that children will learn On the other hand, traditional Native American to take responsibility for their wrong actions early in life.education presents knowledge as part of a unified whole: It Todays system of modern American education directlyallows children to take control over their learning and, in opposes these traditional ways. Lumbee parents prefer forfact, makes them responsible for that learning. It allows their children to be raised and educated in a close-knit familythem to believe that no single person knows everything, and where they are loved and treated as individuals.that the knowledge of each person contributes to theCulture of North Carolina Tribes Catawba Trading How did the Cherokee get Food? Tuscarora Weapons and Tools Powhatan Hunting by Peter by Durant by Ava by Noah Not only were the The Cherokee were a Tuscarora hunters used bows Do you know anything about Catawba important for native American tribe that and arrows. Tuscarora what the Powhatan tribe of being wide spread but lived in the mountains fisherman used spears. They Native Americans did to they were also North Carolina Cherokee used, axes, knifes, and hoes. hunt? Well I’m going to tell important for their were farming people. The Tuscarora Indians only use you right now. The cultural contributions. Women harvested nuts these things for a reason. But Powhatan hunters The British liked to and berries along with they also fight people when sometimes used heavy trade for all kinds of fruits and vegetables. there are enemies and wooden war clubs or things from the Cherokee hunters used intruders. Weapons were a big tomahawks. Tomahawks Catawba but there arrows and blowguns to part of Tuscarora Indians, they were used for close range favorite items were the shoot game and fishermen used them for almost when they were hunting. pottery. In an old log used spears or fishing everything. If they did not have The tomahawks were made book there were over poles to catch fish. any weapons they would not be out of carved stone. They 7,000 deer hides listed Cherokee dishes included a very successful tribe. Read also used bows and arrows that were traded! Also cornbread,soups and more about the Tuscarora for long range hunting. The there were all kinds of stews. The reason they ate Indians in our class news Powhatan fishermen used furs,pottery pots,dishes soups and paper! nets and pronged spears and utility pieces. Many cornbread to catch their fish from baskets made of reeds because it was the canoes. They also from the river. the only thing made a fire in their Wouldnt you love to that was canoes to attract the trade with the available to fish. The way they fished Catawba? them. The and hunted is followed Cherokee were by some of the people skilled who live there now. hunters. No matter what They faced the Cherokee made it through! 3
S E Q U O I A C L U B Anesta Anetsa wisi Vivamus dapibus, risus ac congue auctor, ligula purus placerat lectus, sit amet pretium magna sit amet est. SuspendisseAnetsa History Anetsa In The Makingby Cassidy by EllaAll of us know about So you know about Anesta in general.soccer,football and lacrosse but But guess what?Our class made ouryou have never heard of a ball own Anesta sticks But how did wegame like this. The make them? First our teacherCherokees,and other tribes collected 15 bendable saplings andplayed a game called “Anetsa.” It and joined them together in the shapemeant “Little brother of war.” The equipment is of a Lacrosse stick. To keep from cracking we had tosimple:a stick, straw and the ball was made out of put the bottom in a clean trashcan full of water. Butanimal skin and stuffed with fur. Anetsa was a very there was still a big gaping hole! So we took electricalviolent game. Many people got broken arms, legs and wire and sewed mesh on as netting. To sew on thein some situations died. The way you win the game is mesh you had to sew down and come back up andto catch the ball and run it to the end of the field 12 repeat this process till you are finished. There shouldtimes. When a tribe won Anetsa they got rewarded be inch or so between the stitches. Finally wewith land and other valuable things. So if you have a crumpled paper into balls and covered in duck tape.strong heart and love playing lacrosse I would Soon we had a whole platoon of colorful balls. If yourecommend trying Anetsa, but be careful! want more information go to Weebly .com/208 times. 4 Nullam arcu leo, facilisis ut
T H E O R I G I N A L C A R O L I N I A N SJohn White WatercolorsB Y Book Review by PeterSHEA Blood on the River by ElisaHave you heard of John CarboneWhite? He was a world famousartist and explorer. Want tolearn more about his paintings “Its him!” hears 12 year old Samueland why they are so important? Collier just as he is waking upJohn White made these thinking he is safe only to be taken to jail for getting his mother’s locketwatercolor paintings in the back. But His Magistrate put him innew world in 1585-87. John an orphanage where he becomes apprentice to Captain John SmithWhite showed a lot of on a boat to the new world! Soon heinformation about how the realises that the new world is not the lush forests and fields like heCoastal Algonguians lived and thought but a forbiddingtheir culture. You can learn countryside full of native americans and poisoned trees and he will haveabout their weapons, how they to learn whos friend or foe. So ifcaught fish, and where they you like adventure and laughs i think Blood on the River would be afound clean water. He took good book for you. Elisa Carbonethem back to England and uses alot of detail and adventure in her novel Blood on the River.people were amazed to seehow the Native Americanslived. These still are some themost important records of NAlife. Cherokee Recipes by Durant Cherokee Egg Soup Beat 3 eggs slightly and pour into boiling water. Boil until cooked. Season with salt and pepper. Serve hot and with cornbread. Cherokee Bean Bread Ingredients: Cornmeal DryBeans Boil dry beans in plain water until tender. Pour boiling beans and some of soup into the corn meal and stir until mixed. Have a pot of plain water on the fire boiling. If you want bean dumplings, just make mixture out onto balls and cook in the pot of plain water uncovered until done. A combination of two John White watercolors by Cassie 5
A A R O N ’ S C L A S S Did you know that the only Indian alphabet was made by the Cherokee Indians? Well it is, and this is how it works: Look at each of the columns. The symbols are organized by vowel sounds All the vowels sound different, so O sounds like aw and A sounds like I. E sounds like the E in met. And I sounds like the I in pit. Now this is how you write it. If you were to write Ava it would be written like this:RiD. That spells rid right? Well it really means Ava! Because R means “ay”, i means “v” and D means “uh” . See if you can make your name! By RiD “Well done my son it’s off to the infirmary for you’’ said Gordon as he clapped his paws. Six beautiful female lions came and lifted the lion onto a cot and took him to the infirmary.Mount Everdie Meanwhile up on the mountain four of the lions came to the By Anna Narin same meadow about half way up the mountain filled with herbs Based on a Cherokee legend and edible fungus. Each grabbed four large handfuls of different Long ago before humans were created animals ruled the plants and fungus and raced down the mountain biting eachworld. All of the animals lived in separate groups called packs. other if one of the lions got in the others way, each lion onlyThe leader of one of these packs was a lion named Gorden. thinking about himself. One day Gorden called 6 lions into the cave were he slept All four lions reached the bottom of the mountain atand said to the 6 lions “My dear lions, I am getting too old and I the same time but each was bleeding badly and each droppedwill need somebody to lead the pack. So listen carefully, I want their herbs and fungi at their leader’s feet and ran to theyou to go up to the top of Mount Everdie and bring me back what infirmary. One lion left thought Gordon as he checked hisyou find”. watch yikes! It was dinner time “Time to go back to your caves,’’ “Mount Everdie!” Cried all six lions “Yes, Mount Everdie”. he called “we will see if he returns…” But he never a got a chanceThe next day the lions packed food and water for the long trip to finish his sentence because the 6th lion came running downthen they set off at dawn. Mount Everdie was a place most animals panting. He carried nothing in his hands but he had receivedfeared. Soon the 6 lions found a fork on the path where they were several bad cuts to his fur and his face was scratched never thewalking. The six lions each took a different path. The oldest lion less he ran down and bowed to Gordon. “What happened mywas walking along his path when he saw some sparkling jewels son?”Asked Gordon “Well first I was attacked by a pack of tigersshimmering at the base of an old tree’s roots. Why go all the way that were hunting while I passed a tree whose roots were litteredup? Thought the lion. I will just fake going up and bring these with gems. Then I passed a meadow of herbs and fungi. When Ijewels down. So he found a cave to sleep in for the night because got to the top of the mountain I saw a smoke signal sent byit was too cold to travel. The next morning the lion purposely another pack of lions. They need help we must go help them!”tripped himself and rubbed dirt on his fur to make it look like he he said then Gordon said. “We need a leader who has reachedhad gone all the way up. Then he ran down like he was being the top of the mountain and seen what you can see there. Youchased and pretended to fall when he got back. “Are you ok my shall become the new chief”.son?’’ Gorden asked “(cough) I am ok” he said. “Look what Ifound master, some jewels”6
A A R O N ’ S C L A S SMaps of NC Now and ThenWhere Native Americans Lived before and after Europeans came to the New World Map Questions: 1.What tribe takes up the most space today? 2.What tribe was the largest before the Europeans came? 3.Where did tribes live before Eurpoeans came? 4. Where do most Native American tribes live today?Nullam arcu leo, facilisis ut 7
T H E O R I G I N A L C A R O L I N I A N SThe Beginning of Us (a creation myth) ORIGINAL CAROLINIAN WORD SEARCH y c d l q b i m b g o l l r i s c s k m q sby Micah q o q z l l n o m l c n u z k h q x a q y a Once,there were 4 gods. An earth,water,fire,and p r h f v h w l h y c k u n l u j z j d a zair god.These gods were sworn enemies because theyre l n o d i f t e s o o t l i a r a f l k p ffathers were bullies to each other,so they wanted to u y t a e r t n m h n f b s g f c u i s k qfollow theyre fathers foot-steps. There was 1 major m z g k f o a c o c e g h a x a a x h w y n b o e k m e h c p y e e u r n l n z a k i agod,the peace god,who got them to stop any hurtful like e a o u b k h l v o c h k k g v z h e t f tthing,and he threatened them that he would hurt e v n u q e c q h z h p u o j o a b e e l athemBut guess what? These 4 gods got together once, a j a s i o u x n p e e n p w m o q p d g hstarted to argue,and then started to fight! y r c m d o m v n l e q a s o h x l h m b w When the peace god saw this,he became very h i u x i y i m f t u q l t z t x b v e w oangry. He said,”I warned you!”He did HIS least favorite p e r a f i d n s i a p a y p m a k s o b pthing to do,FIGHT!So he blasted the fire god w c f t s t s z a u z e l h b o p j e x w o w d n o z r n n e b m l p w a i t p a l q ifirst,which made magma and the crust. Then the water a r o r c a s u t e a g r j g b o t t c b dgod fell,and made rough oceans and calm lakes. g d s m t l o t s n k r w n o n x l e p w iNext,the earth god fell, and made the green grass,the t d j z w b f x b s k o r w w q u c k r q jcrumbly sand and other things. Finally,the air god a y e j m n x e i i q p r o i x l w s h y rfell,making the puffy white clouds. d c q o e k w u b h t o m e w t f v d x t nThe peace god was so tired out g a g p o z b p m r d g i a h c a t a w b a p p f w q w s o f k e e t x x c r f r b v gfrom using his special power hehad to go,so he fell,and made us. algonquian arrow beans bow canoe catawbaOur responsibility is to keep peace cherokee corn lumbee occoneechee potteryfor the major god. powhatan saura sioux squash tomahawk treaty tusacrora 8