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The International WaterCentre (IWC)Water Leadership for the FutureIWC - creating tomorrow’s leaders in water management by changingthe way people think about, act and solve complex watermanagement challenges
Outline• Water Sensitive Cities – current strategies• Water Sensitive Cities – future strategies• City of Brisbane – Healthy Waterways Case Study
Managing Water as a Wicked Problem? Key Characteristics: 1. Difficult to clearly define problem 2. Many interdependencies &multi-causal 3. Attempts to address problem often leads to unforseen consequences 4. Problem is not stable 5. There is no clear solution 6. Problem is socially complex 7. Rarely the responsibility of any one organisation 8. Solution involves changing behaviour 9. Characterised by chronic policy failureAustralian Public Services Commission (2007)
Transitioning towards a Water Sensitive City …. The present?Presentation Heading
Evolving Urban Water Hydro-Social Contract Cumulative Socio-Political DriversWater supply Public health Flood protection Social amenity, access & protection environmental security protection Water Supply Sewered Drained Waterways Water Cycle Water Sensitive City City City City City City Point & diffuse Separate source pollution Supply sewerage Drainage, managementhydraulics schemes channelisation Service Delivery Functions Brown et al (2008).
21st Century – the century of citiesThe world is undergoing thelargest wave of urban growthin history. In 2008, for thefirst time in history, morethan half of the world’spopulation will be living intowns and cities. UNFPA, June 2007
WSUD: Wetland & biofiltration technologies Hampton Park Wetland Lynbrook Estate Wetland All Nations Park Wetland NAB Building Forecourt (Melbourne Water) (VicUrban) (City of Darebin) Wetland Blacken Ridge Baltusrol Estate Victoria Park Cremorne Street Bioretention Basin (BCC) (Australand) (Landcom) (City of Yarra) Melbourne Docklands Baltusrol Estate Bourke Street Tree Building Bioretention (Lend Lease) (Australand) Planters Planters (Portland,
What performance can we expect?Expected reductions in concentrations of ‘typical’stormwater: – Over 95% of Total Suspended Solids, – Over 50% of Total Nitrogen (TN) – Over 85% of Total Phosphorous (TP), – Over 90% of heavy metals – Over 80% of pathogen removal
Professional industry capacity building Catchment Modelling School 2005 workshop session, Brisbane Above top left: Catchment Modelling School 2005 workshop session, Sydney Above top right: Joel Rahman, presenting at Catchment Modelling School 2005, Sydney Above left: André Taylor instructing at Catchment Modelling School 2005, Sydney Toolkit Product Managers’ Above right: Break from session, Catchment Modelling School 2005, Brisbane
Transitioning towards a Water Sensitive City …. The future ?Presentation Heading
Evolving Urban Water Hydro-Social Contract Cumulative Socio-Political Drivers Public health Flood protection Social amenity, Limits on natural IntergenerationalWater supply protection environmental resources equity, resilience to access & protection climate change security Water Supply Sewered Drained Waterways Water Cycle Water Sensitive City City City City City City Adaptive, multi- Diverse, fit-for- functional purpose sources & infrastructure & Point & diffuse urban design end-use efficiency, Separate source pollution reinforcing water waterway health Supply sewerage Drainage, management sensitive values & restorationhydraulics schemes channelisation behaviours Service Delivery Functions Brown et al (2008), and Wong and Brown (2008)
Water Sensitive Cities: What is the Potential ?• Drivers – Climate change and associated uncertainties – Growing population and urbanisation – Price of water – Changing community needs and expectations• Opportunities – Linking water with energy, ecological landscapes, social capital – Influencing micro-climate and mitigating the urban heat island effects – Drainage infrastructure augmentationtrategies – Urban design integrates all elements
The MelbourneUrban Heat Island ~4 deg.C0100h March 23, 2006 ‘Cliff’ ‘Cliff’ Coutts, Beringer and Tapper Urban Policy and Research, 2008
January 2009 heat wavebodies to State Morgue Av deaths =16Combined effects of climate change, increased health care costs, increased urbanisation and aging population = $$$$
Surface Temperature Inhomogeneity Associated With Urban FabricENVI-met urban urbanmicrometeorologicalmodelling suite (includeshuman comfort)A mid-summer mid-afternoonsimulation for low densityhousing in Melbourne(Nadine D’ Argent - MonashPh.D. student)
Causes of Urban Warmth• The nature of surface materials (i.e. thermal characteristics and colour (albedo) of surfaces)• Surface shapes and structures (the complex nature of urban geometry)• Alterations in urban air quality• The presence of heat sources (cars, industry, space heating, metabolic heat, etc)• Surface waterproofing and especially removal of urban storm water
Water Sensitive Cities– key themes• Building Flexibility & Adaptability in its water sources “Cities as Water Supply Catchments”• Green Infrastructure “Cities providing Ecosystem Services”• Building social and institutional capital “Sophisticated and Water Smart Cities”
Urban Water Solutions Dams ? Desalination plants ? We must employ ALL these solutions if our cities are to become resilient to climate and social pressures. Recycle sewage ?
Cities as Water SupplyCatchments• Diversity of water sources of water (ie. alternative sources including stormwater, sewer mining, recycled wastewater, desalinated water)• Diversity of infrastructure (ie. centralised and decentralised systems promoting a fit-for-purpose framework for matching water usage to water quality)
Dual Water Supply Reticulation - “A basis for inter-generational equity”• Emerging role of decentralised water services (and private enterprise participation) Treated water for toilet reuse Header Tank Collection of light greywater Supplementary Mains water Treatment To sewer Overflow to sewer
Queensland Water Commission $9 Billion - SEQ Water Grid • Desalination at Gold Coast • Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme • Southern Regional Water Pipeline • New Traveston Dam • Recommissioned dams • Aquifer Production Bores in Brisbane
Cities providing Ecosystem Services :Ecological Landscapes… Our knowledge of the traditional ‘values’ of open spaces and landscape features needs to be bolstered with an understanding of the ‘ecological functioning’ of the urban landscapes that capture the essences of sustainable water management, micro- climate influences, facilitation of carbon sinks and use for food production.
Ecological Functions• water quality improvement• management of stormwater as a resource• flood mitigation• buffering aquatic ecosystems from the effects of catchment urbanisation and climate change• influencing urban micro climates
Water Microclimate Reuse Greywater directly used toLiving walls help to irrigate and flush toilets.regulate both internal and The cascading living wallexternal microclimate provides treatment.
Sophisticated and Water Smart Cities • Community receptive to a ecologically sustainable lifestyle • Industry skilled at sustainable urban water management • Government policies underpinning inter-agency collaboration and public/private engagement
How can we transition to the Water Sensitive City?Water Supply Sewered Drained Waterway Water Cycle Water Sensitive City City City City City City Transitioning from the ‘Drained City’ to the ‘Waterway City’
Socio-Institutional Barriers1. lack of a common vision2. institutional fragmentation3. undefined organisational responsibilities4. limited political incentives and disincentives5. poor organisational commitment6. technological path dependency7. poor community capacity to meaningfully participate, and8. lack of experience with facilitating integrated management processes Brown and Farrelly (2009, in press)
(Brown & Clarke, 2007)Key Transition Factors Water Supply Sewered Drained Waterway Water Cycle Water Sensitive City City City City City City1. Socio-Political Capital Community, Media and Political 6. Bridging Organisations2. Champions Facilitates Science – Policy Vision Facilitates Capacity Building Multi-sectoral network 7. Binding Targets3. Accountability Measurable System Target Coordination Processes Science, Policy and Development Water Cycle Land-use Planning 8. Strategic Funding Points Dedicated external funds4. Reliable & Trusted Science Academic Leadership 9. Demonstration Projects Technology Development Experimentation, Technology Development5. Market Receptivity Policy and Institutional learning Business Case for Change
Brisbane City Council’s Journey toa WaterSmart City
What is a WaterSmart City? Where we have been We are here Where we want to be Water Supply City Sewered City Drained City Waterways City Water Cycle City Water Smart City A well designed city Journey towards a Water Smart City Sustainable Healthy River water use & bay Adapted from the ‘Urban Water Management Transitions Framework’ diagram (Brown et al, 2008)
What is a WaterSmart City?For Brisbane - A City that manages itswater to deliver livability. A City that:• thinks City, plans neighbourhood• has adaptive, diverse and flexible infrastructure• is resilient• reconnects people with water• has multi-functional landscapes• provides multiple and varied sources of water• provides intergenerational equity
What is a WaterSmart City?Three City-wide Outcomes: A well designed city1. Well Designed City2. Healthy River and Bay Sustainable Healthy River water use & bay3. Sustainable Water UseKey Performance Indicators:1.By 2026, 50% of stormwater from the City’s urban footprint will be treatedusing WSUD devices2.By 2031, the WQO’s of all of SEQ’s waterways will be met
Adaptive Management andEffective Monitoring and Evaluation3 Scales of monitoring and evaluation 1. Strategy direction (Healthy River and Bay) measured through outcome KPI’s - e.g. By 2031, WQO’s of all of SEQ waterways will be met. 2. Program effectiveness measured through program and site/ investment effectiveness - e.g. Flood immunity: reduce the number of flood effected residents across the City. 3. Project effectiveness measured through site investment effectiveness - e.g. waterway rehabilitation: site riparian and aquatic habitat increased, water quality improved.
Create Healthy Waterways ProgramWaterway Health Enhancement:Protect high valueEnhance those at greatest risk from irreversibledeclineCatchment-basedAdaptive management
Waterway Enhancement Program– Improve waterway health– Creek and catchment– (Rehab) and (WSUD)– $6 million annually Creek RehabilitationPollutant removal (WSUD)
? Where are? resources allocated ? most effectively?
Results• 6 Sub-Catchment Types – Type A – High Value in protected, forested sub- catchments – Type B - high value under high threat from land use change – Type C- high value, moderately disturbed, partly protected – Type D- moderate value under moderate – high threat – Type E- low value with moderate to high threat – Type F- low value with low threat
Riparian Zone Ecosystem Services -Status Telegraph Road N Gateway N Bill Brown N Lemke Road N Dorville Road Roghan Road Boondall Wetlands N N N Rotary Park N Pineapple Street N Gertrude Street Longbill Place N Nemira Street N N Poplar Place N Church Road Albany Creek Road N N Aspley High N Zillmere Road LEGEND Beckett Road N Waterways N Assessment Sections Pick ‘N’ Pay Subcatchment Boundaries NOld Northern Road Bank Protection A Very High Horn Road Habitat B High N N Corridor C Moderate Aesthetics D Low Trouts Road Shade N E Very Low N Sub-surface Nitrogen Removal Surface Water Filtering Recreation Hoffman Street Flood Abatement 1000 metres N Rogers Parade NA Waterway Piped or RZES Not Assessed N