5. DEFINTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
” Communication is transfer of information from one
person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence.
But the information transferred must be
understandable to the receiver – G.G. Brown.
“Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or
messages”- Fred G. Meyer.
Communication is the transmission of a message or
information by speaking or writing. .
Communication is giving, receiving or exchanging
ideas, information, signals or messages through
appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to
persuade, to seek information, to give information or
to express emotions.
7. Effective Communication
Effective communication is a two-way process -
sending the right message, that is also being correctly
received and understood by the other person/s.
Effective communication is a process through which
the sender conveys a message that the receiver readily
receives and understands. It is a two-way process
instead of a one-way process.
8. Communication & Effective
Communication is Effective conversation
giving or exchanging (communication) is a
information, signals, conversation in which no
messages by talk or one gets confused by the
gestures or writing other person's MEANING
9. VALUE & IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION
VALUE OF COMMUNICATION
The value of communication If you’re a good
is based on relevant and communicator, you’ll have
timely information. Without better chances of success.
such information, there can You’re able to persuade
be no effective people, influence
communication others, negotiate effectively.
10. VALUE & IMPORTANCE OF
Communication promotes motivation by informing and
clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the
manner they are performing the task, and how to improve
their performance if it is not up to the mark.
Communication is a source of information to the
organizational members for decision-making process as it
helps identifying and assessing alternative course of
Communication also plays a crucial role in altering
individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will
have better attitude than a less-informed individual.
Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various
other forms of oral and written communication help in
molding employee’s attitudes.
11. VALUE & IMPORTANCE OF
Communication also helps in socializing. In today's life
the only presence of another individual fosters
communication. It is also said that one cannot survive
As discussed earlier, communication also assists
in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational
member’s behavior in various ways. There are various levels
of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that
employees must follow in an organization. They must
comply with organizational policies, perform their job role
efficiently and communicate any work problem and
grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in
controlling function of management.
12. Key Questions
Differentiate between Communication and Effective
Explain the value of Communication?
Define importance of Communication?
16. Components of Communication Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder
Context - is a person who sends the message. A
Communication is sender makes use of symbols (words
or graphic or visual aids) to convey
affected by the context in the message and produce the
which it takes place. This required response. For instance - a
context may be physical, training manager conducting
social, chronological or training for new batch of employees.
Sender may be an individual or a
cultural. Every group or an organization. The views,
communication proceeds background, approach, skills,
with context. The sender competencies, and knowledge of the
chooses the message to sender have a great impact on the
message. The verbal and non verbal
communicate within a symbols chosen are essential in
context. ascertaining interpretation of the
message by the recipient in the same
terms as intended by the sender.
17. Components of Communication
Medium - Medium is a means used to
Message - Message is a key exchange / transmit the message. The
idea that the sender wants to sender must choose an appropriate
communicate. It is a sign that medium for transmitting the message
else the message might not be conveyed
elicits the response of to the desired recipients. The choice of
recipient. Communication appropriate medium of communication
is essential for making the message
process begins with deciding
effective and correctly interpreted by the
about the message to be recipient. This choice of communication
conveyed. It must be ensured medium varies depending upon the
features of communication. For instance
that the main objective of the - Written medium is chosen when a
message is clear message has to be conveyed to a small
group of people, while an oral medium is
chosen when spontaneous feedback is
required from the recipient as
misunderstandings are cleared then and
18. Components of Communication
Recipient / Decoder - Response (Feedback )-
Recipient / Decoder is a Feedback is the main
person for whom the message component of
is intended / aimed / communication process as it
targeted. The degree to which permits the sender to analyze
the decoder understands the the efficacy of the message. It
message is dependent upon helps the sender in
various factors such as confirming the correct
knowledge of recipient, their interpretation of message by
responsiveness to the the decoder. Feedback may
message, and the reliance of be verbal (through words) or
encoder on decoder. non-verbal (in form of smiles,
sighs, etc.). It may take
written form also in form of
memos, reports, etc.
20. Areas of Human Communication
communication includes verbal communication incl
rate, volume, pitch as well as udes those important but
articulation and unspoken signals that
pronunciation. Verbal individuals exhibit,
communication also includes specifically : carriage/posture,
sign language and written appearance, listening, eye
forms of communication contact, hand gestures and
21. Verbal Communication
The basis of communication is the interaction between
people. Verbal communication is one way for people to
communicate face-to-face. Some of the key components of
verbal communication are sound, words, speaking, and
Verbal communication is communication that uses words,
either written or spoken. This is in contrast to non-verbal
communication, such as body language.
"Verbal" is sometimes used colloquially in the sense of
"spoken", but it is better to use "oral" in that context, to
22. Non- Verbal Communication
“nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated
by both the source [speaker] and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for
the source or receiver [listener]. Basically it is sending and receiving message in a variety of ways without the
use of verbal codes (words). It is both intentional and unintentional. Most speakers / listeners are not
conscious of this. It includes — but is not limited to:
eye contact (gaze)
word choice and syntax
Broadly speaking, there are two basic categories of non-verbal language:
nonverbal messages produced by the body;
nonverbal messages produced by the broad setting (time, space, silence)
A very good example is: A man comes home late, hears
from the kitchen the slamming of pots and pans and
cupboard doors. He enters the kitchen, asks his wife
"What's wrong, honey?" She answers, "Nothing!" as she
slams another cupboard door and rolls her eyes toward the
She has spoken the word "Nothing", but it is her unspoken
communication that tells him that "nothing" is not the real
answer. It is clearly communicated by her actions.
A truly effective communicator will train him or herself in
nonverbal communication as well as verbal and oral.
26. CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL
1. Facial Expression 2. Gestures
Facial expressions are Deliberate movements and
responsible for a huge signals are an important way
proportion of nonverbal to communicate meaning
communication. Consider without words. Common
how much information can gestures include waving,
be conveyed with a smile or a pointing, and using fingers to
frown. While nonverbal indicate numeric amounts.
communication and behavior Other gestures are arbitrary
can vary dramatically and related to culture.
between cultures, the facial
expressions for happiness,
sadness, anger and fear are
similar throughout the world.
27. CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL
3. Paralinguistic's 4. Body Language and Posture
Paralinguistic's refers to vocal Posture and movement can also
communication that is separate convey a great deal on information.
from actual language. This includes Research on body language has
factors such as tone of voice, grown significantly since the 1970's,
loudness, inflection and pitch. but popular media have focused on
Consider the powerful effect that the over-interpretation of defensive
tone of voice can have on the postures, arm-crossing, and leg-
meaning of a sentence. When said crossing, especially after the
in a strong tone of voice, listeners publication of Julius Fast's book
might interpret approval and Body Language. While these
enthusiasm. The same words said in nonverbal behaviors can indicate
a hesitant tone of voice might feelings and attitudes, research
convey disapproval and a lack of suggests that body language is far
interest. more subtle and less definitive that
28. CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL
5. Proxemics 6. Eye Gaze
People often refer to their need for Looking, staring and blinking can
"personal space," which is also an also be important nonverbal
important type of nonverbal behaviors. When people encounter
communication. The amount of people or things that they like, the
distance we need and the amount of rate of blinking increases and pupils
space we perceive as belonging to us dilate. Looking at another person
is influenced by a number of factors can indicate a range of emotions,
including social norms, situational including hostility, interest and
factors, personality characteristics attraction.
and level of familiarity. For example,
the amount of personal space
needed when having a casual
conversation with another person
usually varies between 18 inches to
four feet. On the other hand, the
personal distance needed when
speaking to a crowd of people is
around 10 to 12 feet.
29. CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL
7. Haptics 8. Appearance
Communicating through touch is Our choice of color, clothing,
another important nonverbal hairstyles and other factors affecting
behavior. There has been a appearance are also considered a
substantial amount of research on means of nonverbal
the importance of touch in infancy communication. Research on color
and early childhood. Harry Harlow's psychology has demonstrated that
classic monkey study demonstrated different colors can evoke different
how the deprivation of touch and moods. Appearance can also alter
contact impedes development. Baby physiological reactions, judgments
monkeys raised by wire mothers and interpretations. Just think of all
experienced permanent deficits in the subtle judgments you quickly
behavior and social interaction. make about someone based on his
Touch can be used to communicate or her appearance. These first
affection, familiarity, sympathy and impressions are important, which is
other emotions. why experts suggest that job seekers
dress appropriately for interviews
with potential employers.
Listening is the ability to accurately receive messages in the
Listening is key to all effective communication
Listening means paying attention not only to the story, but how it is
told, the use of language and voice, and how the other person uses his
or her body.
It means being aware of both verbal and non-verbal messages.
Listening means paying attention not only to the story, but how it is
told, the use of language and voice, and how the other person uses his
or her body. In other words, it means being aware of both verbal and
33. Listening is not the same as
listening requires more than Hearing refers to the sounds
that: it requires focus. that you hear,
34. Importance of
•Good listening skills good listening skills can lead
also have benefits in to:
our personal lives,
better customer satisfaction,
• a greater number of greater productivity with
friends and social fewer mistakes,
networks increased sharing of
• improved self- information that in turn can
esteem and lead to more creative and
•higher grades in
academic work and
•increased health and
35. Based on the research of:
Adler, R., Rosenfeld, L. and Proctor, R. (2001) Interplay: the process of interpersonal
communicating (8th edition), Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt.
36. Ten Principles of Listening
Stop Talking Be Patient
Prepare Yourself to Avoid Personal
Put the Speaker at Listen to the Tone
Ease Listen for Ideas – Not
Remove Distractions Just Words
Empathize Wait and Watch for
38. 1. Stop Talking
“If we were supposed to talk more than we listen, we
would have two tongues and one ear.” Mark Twain.
Don't talk, listen. When somebody else is talking
listen to what they are saying, do not interrupt, talk
over them or finish their sentences for them.
Stop, just listen. When the other person has finished
talking you may need to clarify to ensure you have
received their message accurately.
39. 2. Prepare Yourself to Listen
Focus on the speaker.
Put other things out of mind.
The human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts
– what’s for lunch, what time do I need to leave to
catch my train, is it going to rain – try to put other
thoughts out of mind and concentrate on the messages
that are being communicated.
Try to understand the other person’s point of view.
Look at issues from their perspective.
Let go of preconceived ideas.
By having an open mind we can more fully empathize with
If the speaker says something that you disagree with then
wait and construct an argument to counter what is said but
keep an open mind to the views and opinions of others
41. Be Patient
A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean
that the speaker has finished.
Be patient and let the speaker continue in their own
time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say
and how to say it.
Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone.
42. 3. Put the Speaker at Ease
Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their
needs and concerns. Nod or use other gestures or
words to encourage them to continue. Maintain eye
contact but don’t stare – show you are listening and
understanding what is being said.
43. 4. Remove Distractions
Focus on what is being said: don’t doodle, shuffle
papers, look out the window, pick your fingernails or
Avoid unnecessary interruptions.
These behaviors disrupt the listening process and send
messages to the speaker that you are bored or
44. Avoid Personal Prejudice
Try to be impartial.
Don't become irritated and don't let the person’s
habits or mannerisms distract you from what they are
Everybody has a different way of speaking - some
people are for example more nervous or shy than
others, some have regional accents or make excessive
arm movements, some people like to pace whilst
talking - others like to sit still.
Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of
45. Listen to the Tone
Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying.
A good speaker will use both volume and tone to their
advantage to keep an audience attentive; everybody
will use pitch, tone and volume of voice in certain
situations – let these help you to understand the
emphasis of what is being said.
46. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
You need to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits
Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is
the ability to link together pieces of information to
reveal the ideas of others.
With proper concentration, letting go of distractions,
and focus this becomes easier.
47. Wait and Watch for Non-
Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can
all be important.
We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our
eyes – watch and pick up the additional information
being transmitted via non-verbal communication.
48. Do Not Jump To Conclusions About
What You See And Hear.
You Should Always Seek
Clarification To Ensure That Your
Understanding Is Correct.
50. What is Culture?
Culture refers to the values, norms, and traditions that
affect the way a member of a group typically perceives,
thinks, interacts, behaves, and makes judgments.
It even affects perceptions of time and cultural
calendars, which can impact day-to-day scheduling
51. What is Cultural Competence?
Cultural competence, in brief, is the ability to interact
effectively with people from different cultures.
This ability depends on awareness of one's own
cultural worldview, knowledge of other cultural
practices and worldviews, tolerant attitudes towards
cultural differences, and cross-cultural skills.
53. Managing Cultural Diversity in the
Developing cultural competence results in an ability to
understand, communicate with, and effectively
interact with people across cultures, and work with
varying cultural calendars. While there are myriad
cultural variations, here are some essential to the
Providing information accurately and promptly is
critical to effective work and team performance. This is
particularly important when a project is troubled and
needs immediate corrective actions. However, people
from different cultures vary in how, for example, they
relate to bad news. People from some Asian cultures
are reluctant to give supervisors bad news - while
those from other cultures may exaggerate it.
Some cultures - like the United States - are
individualistic, and people want to go it alone. Other
cultures value cooperation within or among other
teams. Team-building issues can become more
problematic as teams are comprised of people from a
mix of these cultural types. Effective cross-cultural
team-building is essential to benefiting from the
potential advantages of cultural diversity in the
Cultures differ in how they view time. For example,
they differ in the balance between work and family life,
and the workplace mix between work and social
behavior. Other differences include the perception of
overtime, or even the exact meaning of a deadline.
Different perceptions of time can cause a great
misunderstanding and mishap in the workplace,
especially with scheduling and deadlines. Perceptions
of time underscore the importance of cultural diversity
in the workplace, and how it can impact everyday
The business world generally runs on the western
secular year, beginning with January 1 and ending with
December 31. However, many cultures use others
calendars to determine holidays such as New Years or
specific holy days. For example, Eastern Orthodox
Christians celebrate Christmas on a different day from
western Christians. For Muslims, Friday is a day for
prayer. Jews observe holidays ranging from Rosh
Hashanah to Yom Kippur. These variations affect the
workplace as people require time off to observe their
59. To Develop Cultural Competence,
Managing Cultural Diversity In The
Strategies, Skills and Techniques.
This is the skill to understand one's reactions to
people who are different, and how our behavior might
interfere with effective working relationships. We need
to learn to overcome stereotypes? We need to see
people as individuals and focus on actual behavior,
rather than our preconceived and often biased notions.
This is the companion skill to awareness. Attitude
enables people to examine their values and beliefs
about cultural differences, and understand their
origins. It is important that to focus on facts, rather
than judgment. Also, note that suggesting that some
people are more biased and prejudiced than others can
quickly sabotage cultural training. The goal is
managing cultural diversity in the workplace, and
creating effective working relationships - not to make
Social science research indicates that our values and
beliefs about equality may be inconsistent with
behavior. Ironically, we are often unaware of this.
Knowledge about our own behavior - and how it
relates to fairness and workforce effectiveness - is an
essential skill. It's also essential to be knowledgeable
about other cultures, from communication styles to
holidays and religious events in multicultural
calendars. The minimum objective is tolerance, which
is essential for effective teamwork. Differences are
what make tolerance necessary , and tolerance is what
makes differences possible.
The goal of training - in awareness, attitude, and
knowledge - should be skills that allow organizational
leaders and employees to make cultural competence a
seamless part of the workplace. The new work
environment is defined by understanding,
communicating, cooperating, and providing
leadership across cultures. Managing cultural
diversity in the workplace is also the challenge for
organizations that want to profit from a competitive
advantage in the 21st century economy.