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Why Journalism Needs the Fifth Estate

How networked individuals can develop a Fifth Estate and support a war FOR information in Ukraine. Talk given over Skype to the Free Journalism School, Kiev, Ukraine, 29 October 2015.

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Why Journalism Needs the Fifth Estate

  1. 1. Why Journalism Needs the Fifth Estate: Networked Individuals in the War for Information William H. Dutton Quello Professor of Media and Information Policy Quello Center, Michigan State University Blog http://quello.msu.edu Twitter @QuelloCenter Presentation for students of the Free Journalism School, Kiev, Ukraine, 29 October 2015.
  2. 2. Huge Challenges for Journalism in Ukraine Major Period of Turbulence • 2014 Revolution • Annexation of Crimea by Russian Federation • War in Donbass and Luhansk regions Ongoing ‘War on Information’ • Malaysia Airlines Flight 17: 17 July 2014? • Presence of Russian soldiers in eastern Ukraine? Lower Visibility, Greater Uncertainty in West
  3. 3. Addressing Challenges Training of Journalists •Amateur and Professional •Free Journalism School: Congratulations! Nurturing the Rise of a Fifth Estate? •Complementing Journalists •Fighting a War for Information
  4. 4. Focus of This Talk The Internet’s Role in Reconfiguring Access to Information The Rise of a Fifth Estate Discussion: Is this Relevant to Journalism in Ukraine and Surrounding Nations
  5. 5. The Internet’s Use in Reconfiguring Access to: Information People Services Technology • How you get information • What you know • How you communicate • Who you know • How you obtain services • From whom, from where • How you do what you do • What know-how you require
  6. 6. Power Shifts & the Internet: New Conventional Wisdom Institutions, such as Gov’t & Business Organizations Citizens, Consumers
  7. 7. A New Organizational Form: Enabling Networked Individuals Source Information Join & Create Networks Enhance Communicative Power
  8. 8. Oxford Internet Surveys (OxIS) • 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 • Cross-sectional Surveys versus Panels • Multi-Stage Probability Sample • England, Scotland & Wales • Respondents: 14 years and older • Face-to-face Interviews, High Response Rates • Sponsorship for 2013 from the Nominet Trust, Ofcom, UK Research Councils, dot.rural • Component of World Internet Project (WIP)
  9. 9. First Port of Call Search v Sites Social Cues & Collaboration Centrality Significance Trust
  10. 10. Focused Case Studies Surveys 5th Estate Concept Cases Dynamics, Strategies
  11. 11. The Fifth Estate  Press since the 18th Century - the ‘Fourth Estate’  Internet in the 21st - enabling a Fifth Estate Internet enabling a critical mass of individuals to source information, and network in ways that support distributed social accountability in business, industry, government, politics & media.
  12. 12. The Fourth Estate “[Edmund] Burke said there were Three Estates in Parliament; but, in the Reporters’ Gallery yonder, there sat a Fourth Estate more prominent far than they all. It is not a figure of speech, or witty saying; it is a literal fact – very momentous to us in these times.” Thomas Carlyle (1831), Heroes and Hero-Worship, at www.gutenberg.org.etext/1091
  13. 13. Feudal Estates into the 21st Century Feudal Estates & Mob 21st Century Roles of Clergy Public Intellectuals Nobility Business, Industry and Economic Elites, Internet Industrial Elites Commons Government, Politicians & Regulators Press Journalists and the Mass Media Mob Civil Society, Networked Individuals, Mobs
  14. 14. Montesquieu’s Tripartite System into the 21st (US Separation of Powers) Tripartite Modern US Parallel Courts Judiciary Monarch Executive Parliament Legislative Press as 4th Journalists and the Mass Media Mob Civil Society, Networked Individuals, Mobs
  15. 15. Networked Institutions v Individuals  Networked Institutions, such as in e-Health  Networked Individuals:  going to the Internet for health and medical information  networking patients, e.g., Patients Like Me  networking physicians, e.g., Sermo
  16. 16. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10,000,000 20,000,000 30,000,000 40,000,000 50,000,000 60,000,000 70,000,000 80,000,000 90,000,000 100,000,000 Slovenia Moldova Belarus Hungary Romania Ukraine Poland UK Russia Internet Users % Population Source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats4.htm
  17. 17. 0 10,000,000 20,000,000 30,000,000 40,000,000 50,000,000 60,000,000 70,000,000 80,000,000 90,000,000 100,000,000 Slovenia Moldova Belarus Hungary Romania Ukraine Poland UK Russia Internet Users Facebook Users Source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats4.htm VKontakte.ru Used in Russia
  18. 18. Arenas: Networked Institutions Networked Individuals News Online journalism, BBC Online, Live Micro-Blogging Netizens, Citizen Journalists, Bloggers, Whistleblowers, Leaks, Churnalism.org, Hacking Blacklash Government Digital Democracy, E- Consultation, e-Voting, Surveillance Obama campaign, Arab Spring, Anti-Bribery Websites, 38 Degrees Education Online Learning, Multimedia Classrooms, MOOCs Backchannels, Informal Learning, Rate My Teacher, Khan Academy Health and Medical NHS Direct, e-mailing safety alerts Going to the Internet for health information, networks of patients, physicians
  19. 19. Fifth Estate as Complement v Substitute Networked Institutions • Democratic- Autocratic • Not Replaced Networked Individuals • Core to Institutions • Base of 5th Estate
  20. 20. Fifth Estate Strategies • Find through search or social media • Patient or citizen finds information about problemsSearching • Individual creates information • Martha Payne’s NeverSecondsSourcing • Distribute or leak information to networks • Whistle Blowers, WikiLeaks, OpenLeaks, Edward Snowden Distributing- Leaking • Self-selected collorative networks • Sermo, Patients Like MeNetworking • Aggregate information, observations • Rate My Teacher, Bribery Websites, Environmental Sensors Collective Intelligence
  21. 21. Business & Industry Meet the 5th Estate Bloggers covered the Web and Social Media with Images of BP’s Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Effects of Oil Spill (2006)
  22. 22. Martha Payne, 9 yr old girl writes blog for school project in Scotland: ‘NeverSeconds’ - Produced content: photos & reviews school lunch in 2012 - Distributed on her blog: neverseconds.blogspot.com/ - Censored by her institution (her primary school’s council) -8,859,514 pages views -Fostered debate over the quality of school lunches nationwide and worldwide
  23. 23. Business & Industry Meet the 5th Estate Videos of individuals circulated on social media immediately after huge chemical explosions at warehouse in Tianjin, China (13 Aug 2015) By 17 Aug, 50 Websites shut down by Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) for spreading rumors
  24. 24. Nanjing, China, Gas Explosion (28 Jul 2010) Explosion not covered by local papers, but covered by bloggers, including video of gov’t official interrupting a live report, saying “Who gave you permission …?” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BLdaO-XDOdM
  25. 25. Photographs of Snipers in Kiev Celebration in Kiev Marking a Year Since Shootings of Anti- government Protesters Conflicting War on Information about Who Ordered What?
  26. 26. Sourcing and Checking Facts •Churnalism •Fact Checking Challenging the Press •Retraction Web Sites Challenging Academia
  27. 27. Fifth Estate Strategies • Find through search or social media • Patient or citizen finds information about problemsSearching • Individual creates information • Martha Payne’s NeverSecondsSourcing • Distribute or leak information to networks • Whistle Blowers, WikiLeaks, OpenLeaks, Edward Snowden Distributing- Leaking • Self-selected collorative networks • Sermo, Patients Like MeNetworking • Aggregate information, observations • Rate My Teacher, Bribery Websites, Environmental Sensors Collective Intelligence
  28. 28. Accountability: Distributing, Leaking
  29. 29. Fifth Estate Strategies • Find through search or social media • Patient or citizen finds information about problemsSearching • Individual creates information • Martha Payne’s NeverSecondsSourcing • Distribute or leak information to networks • Whistle Blowers, WikiLeaks, OpenLeaks, Edward Snowden Distributing- Leaking • Self-selected collorative networks • Sermo, Patients Like MeNetworking • Aggregate information, observations • Rate My Teacher, Bribery Websites, Environmental Sensors Collective Intelligence
  30. 30. Sermo: a Collaborative Network Organisation
  31. 31. Saving Sweet Briar College
  32. 32. Reporting on China’s Stock Market Social media (WeChat and Weibo) rather than state news media have become major sources of information for Chinese given blocking of Western media reports* http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/29/world/asia/consumer-anxiety-in-china- undermines-governments-economic-plans.html?_r=0
  33. 33. Fifth Estate Strategies • Find through search or social media • Patient or citizen finds information about problemsSearching • Individual creates information • Martha Payne’s NeverSecondsSourcing • Distribute or leak information to networks • Whistle Blowers, WikiLeaks, OpenLeaks, Edward Snowden Distributing- Leaking • Self-selected collorative networks • Sermo, Patients Like Me Networking • Aggregate information, observations • Rate My Teacher, Bribery Websites, Environmental Sensors Collective Intelligence
  34. 34. Ratings with their Drawbacks Rate My Teacher Amazon Seller and Product Ratings eBay Rating of Suppliers
  35. 35. Pollution Monitoring Mobile Apps
  36. 36. Challenges to the Fifth Estate Public Intellectuals Business & Industrial Elites Government and Regulatory Agencies Press The ‘Mob’ Bad ‘Hackers’
  37. 37. Threats to Trust & Centrality of 5th • Low Up-Take of the Internet • Quality or bias of algorithms • Privacy and surveillance Search • Low Levels of Social Media Use • Echo chamber • Freedom of expression & assembly Social Cues and Collaboration • Need to Create a virtuous cycle of use • Rise of entertainment • Closing of a world on mobile apps 1st Port of Call
  38. 38. Opportunities and Problems • Empirically Anchored • Pluralistic Democratic Accountability • Distributed Intelligence Value • Enemies of the 5th Estate • Inappropriate Regulatory Responses • Top-down control of search & networks Challenges • Empowering Individuals • Critical Mass v Universal Access – Not Just a Social or Political Movement New Reality
  39. 39. What can be done? Encouraging Access to and Up-take of the Internet Fostering Greater Use of Social Media Learning and Education on Critical Sourcing and Use of Information Awareness of the Potential Value of a Fifth Estate Journalists Supporting Fifth Estate & Vice Versa
  40. 40. Research Foundations • Oxford Internet Surveys: 2003-2013 and World Internet Project (WIP) • The Internet Values Project: OII in collaboration with INSEAD, comScore, WEF, and ictQATAR • The Performance of Distributed Problem-Solving Networks (DPSN) Project (2007-8) • The Oxford e-Social Science Project (OeSS), Economic and Social Research Council (2005-12) • The Fifth Estate Project, supported by the OII, Oxford Internet Surveys (2003-13), June Klein, Electronic Boardroom™, and the Quello Center • Readings: http://quello.msu.edu/research/the-fifth- estate/
  41. 41. Why Journalism Needs the Fifth Estate: Networked Individuals in the War for Information William H. Dutton Quello Professor of Media and Information Policy Quello Center, Michigan State University Blog http://quello.msu.edu Twitter @QuelloCenter Presentation for students of the Free Journalism School, Kiev, Ukraine, 29 October 2015.

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