• I would like to thank my mentor Mrs. Smriti Bhambra for giving me this
opportunity to complete this assignment. I would like to thank my family and
friends for your gentle support in this assignment.
• Without the help and faith of my mentor this assignment would be
incomplete. Thanks for always helping me.
• Personality Development is the sum total of ways in which an individual
reacts and interacts with others. Or Personality is generally defined as the
deeply ingrained and relatively enduring patterns of thought, feeling and
behavior. In fact, when one refers to personality, it generally implies to all
what is unique about an individual, the characteristics that makes one stand
out in a crowd.
• Q 1: What are the different types of personalities? Explain each one briefly. Identify a
famous personality of your choice who has been successful because of his/her positive
attitude. Justify your answer.
• Ans: There are five types of personalities. They are:
• The Introvert
• The Ambivert
• The Positive
• The Negative
• The Extrovert
• The Introvert: An Introvert generally prefers solitary activities to
interacting with large groups of people. If you would rather work through
your feelings in your diary than have a conversation, then you are
• The Ambivert: An Ambivert is one whose personality type is intermediate
between extrovert and introvert. An Ambivert has a balanced disposition,
intermediate between extroversion and introversion.
• The Positive: Plus, charged, willing to take changes. Succeeds more often
than fails and treats failure as a step towards success.
• The Negative: Negative, minus, rarely smiles, blames others instead of
• The Extrovert: An Extrovert is a friendly person who enjoys talking to and
being with other people. Extroverts love parties, talking on the phone, and
meeting new people.
SMRITI BHAMBRA MY
SHE IS A
INSPIRATION TO ME.
Smriti Bhambra has extremely worked hard and because of her hard work &
dedication towards her work she has been an inspiring personality for me.
She has worked for around 17yrs and still strong to work more. This is just
because of her positive attitude she had in herself that she wanted to become
Her greatest support in her life is family. Her family always supported her for
whatever she wanted to do.
Some famous quotes of Mrs. Smriti Bhambra which I would like to share are:
1. Your strongest muscle and worst enemy is your mind. Train it well.
2. When the going gets tough…. The tough gets going……
• Q2: Explain the types of motivation from with example from your life.
• There are two types of motivation:
• Extrinsic Motivation.
• Intrinsic Motivation.
• Extrinsic Motivation:
• Extrinsic motivation occurs when we are motivated to perform a behavior or engage in an activity to earn a
reward or avoid punishment.
• Examples of behaviors that are the result of extrinsic motivation include:
• Studying because you want to get a good grade
• Cleaning your room to avoid being reprimanded by your parents
• Participating in a sport to win awards
• Competing in a contest to win a scholarship
• In each of these examples, the behavior is motivated by a desire to gain a reward or avoid an adverse
• Intrinsic Motivation:
• Intrinsic motivation involves engaging in a behavior because it is personally rewarding; essentially,
performing an activity for its own sake rather than the desire for some external reward.
• Examples of actions that are the result of intrinsic motivation include:
• Participating in a sport because you find the activity enjoyable
• Solving a word puzzle because you find the challenge fun and exciting
• Playing a game because you find it exciting
• In each of these instances, the person's behavior is motivated by an internal desire to participate
in an activity for its own sake.
• Q3 With the help of an example explain the
ladder of inference.
• The Ladder of Inference describes the thinking
process that we go through, usually without
realizing it, to get from a fact to a decision or
action. The thinking stages can be seen as rungs
on a ladder and are shown in figure 1.
• Starting at the bottom of the ladder, we have reality and facts. From there, we:
• Experience these selectively based on our beliefs and prior experience.
• Interpret what they mean.
• Apply our existing assumptions, sometimes without considering them.
• Draw conclusions based on the interpreted facts and our assumptions.
• Develop beliefs based on these conclusions.
• Take actions that seem "right" because they are based on what we believe.
• This can create a vicious circle. Our beliefs have a big effect on how we select
from reality, and can lead us to ignore the true facts altogether. Soon we are
literally jumping to conclusions – by missing facts and skipping steps in the
• By using the Ladder of Inference, you can learn to get back to the facts and use
your beliefs and experiences to positive effect, rather than allowing them to
narrow your field of judgment. Following this step-by-step reasoning can lead you
to better results, based on reality, so avoiding unnecessary mistakes and conflict.
• Q1 How do you intend to develop your personality?
• Remain happy and light-hearted. Try to see the joy in the world. Laugh with
others, but not at them. Everyone appreciates someone who is jolly and jovial.
Smiling and laughing a lot is a huge part of having a good personality.
• Try to stay calm in tense situations. A lot of people seem like they have a
good personality until you see them in an emergency or tense situation. Then they
lose their cool. Don’t be this person! If you are in a tense situation, try to remain
relaxed and see what you can do to resolve the situation.
• Keep an open mind. One part about having a good personality is being willing
to change your worldview. Listen to others and always be willing to change your
mind. Don’t pass judgment on other people just because they act in a different
way than you do. Keeping an open mind will allow you to make many new friends
and probably live a much more interesting life. There’s no need to shut off parts
of the world.
• Q2 What is self conditioning and how will you practice it?
• Conditioning is a big turning point to make your future well like wise definition
says that “we can’t change our past but we can develop our future with good ones
• There are two types of conditioning:
• Self conditioning
• Environmental conditioning
• Self Conditioning:
• I believe that….
• I am best
• I am a winner
• I develop my mind everyday with good thoughts.
• This is called self conditioning.
• If I would get a chance to conditioning someone than I will go with Shubham.
Because he is handicap and he may feel sometimes that he is alone.
• He should not feel that he cannot do anything in the future.
• After conditioning I except him to be a good sports player which he can play.
• Q3 What are the applications and benefits of goal management?
• Eight Benefits of Goal Setting
• After thinking about these you may come up with some of your own, but in the meanwhile, here are
some of our thought provokers. Setting meaningful goals should bring:
• 1 Clearer Focus
• Properly thought out and stated, goals clearly set out your intentions and desires; the things you really
want to achieve.
• 2 Optimum Use of Resources
• There are never enough resources to do everything so setting goals can help you to prioritise. Place
your resources behind what you really want to do, rather than on things you are doing by default or by
• 3 Effective Use of Time
• Of course time is a resource, but it deserves special consideration because it is so important. As Peter Drucker says:
“If you want to improve how you manage time – stop doing what doesn’t need to be done!”
• 4 Peace of Mind
• Too often you can have many things on your mind. Writing down your goals can help you take all of those ideas,
apply perspective and priority, then galvanize you into commitment and action
• 5 Clarity to Decision Making
• Knowing what you are trying to do means that you can now ask: “does this activity get me closer to my goal?”
• 6 Easier Measurements of What You Do
• Setting goals, especially SMART and SHARP goals, allows you to measure how well effectively you are moving
towards achieving them
• 7 More Freedom of Thought
• Setting goals can help to release your creative energies so you can focus on how to achieve them. You’ll start to look
for ways to make it happen.
• 8 Easier Communication with Others
• Setting goals enables you to clarify with other people what you are trying to do, and therefore what they need to do
to contribute or support.
• Take some time now to think about what benefits you would gain from goal setting. How might they motivate you
to start achieving them? After thinking through our eight benefits of goal setting, it might also be worthwhile
thinking about both the kind of goals you set, and on how you set them.
• In our article Why is Goal Setting Important, we have asked what kind of goals are more likely to make you
happier. Goals per se do not necessarily lead you to happiness, only certain types. Secondly, in our article SMART
Goals we suggest a particular variant of the acronym that focuses on setting goals that are challenging and specific,
and are more likely to motivate you to achieve them. How do you get the benefits of goal setting? It’s far more
likely when your goals are specific, challenging, and related to the things that really make you happy.
• Q1. What is the value of time?
• Time management is paramount understands the value of the time. Those people do his
work on the time and understand the value of time, and then they never get the
embarrassment from their life.
• For the time management, we are only getting the 24 hours a day, and no one else can
live this time in the place. There is time limited, so everyone has to take control on his
day, then they will improve their ability to focus. Don’t waste any movement of the life,
because that time never comes again in the life. If never lose your momentum, then you
will start handling the workload efficiently and finishing it up quickly.
• Q2 Write about the different barriers of time management?
• Inability to prioritize – If we are not familiar with the basic principles of prioritization
or do not have the necessary skills or are not willing to prioritize then any of these
situations will act as a barrier to efficient time management Prioritizing daily activities
short-term objectives and long-term goals is central to efficient time management.
• Inability to Say No – It is simply not possible to please everyone Nor is it possible to
please some people all the time Therefore the ability to say no to others if we want to say
no even if it may be somewhat displeasing is an important practice in efficiently
managing our time This allows us to accomplish our goals and objectives and not
• Imbalance in Life – We may be neglecting or overindulging in some of our daily
activities We may be overactive physically while neglecting our mental enrichment Or we
may be socially very active but have low levels of physical activity Or we may be
completely “bankrupt” spiritually Or we may be involved in too many mental activities so
that we become isolated socially We need balance in life.
• Too Many Improperly Planned Desires – The mind is a very powerful source of
generating desires There is nothing wrong with having desires per se but if we do not
have a proper plan to accomplish these desires then they do more harm than good We
need to select a few key desires make a plan to achieve them and work at the plan.
• Lack of Focus – If we are not focused on our goals we will most often spend
our time on misdirected activities We need to think and decide what we want to
achieve and then make focused efforts in order to optimize the use of our time.
• Procrastination – The habit of delaying accomplishments of any task to the
very last minute in an important barrier in efficient time management Once we
know what we need to do we need to accomplish it as soon as possible.
• Q3 What are the different time saving equipment that is available today?
• From super-computers to the humble rough-pad, many
• tools are available to help you use your time better. Choose carefully and buy only
what you need and can use for a reasonable period of time, quality always pays in
the long run.
• Some suggestions:
• A good planner diary.
• A digital diary.
• Phone with answering devices.
• Files to organize your papers. Please discard unimportant paper and update your files
• Mobile recording facilities.
• (Remember; buy what you really need; only what you need.)
• Q1 Explain the time management matrix in your own words.
• Although time seems to fly by, we all have the same 24 hours a day. So why is it
that some people are able to accomplish so much more than the majority of the
population? One possible explanation can be found in their skill to manage time
more efficiently than others. But how is it possible to cope with the flood of tasks
that all require our immediate attention?
• Time management matrix.
• Important responsibilities contribute to the achievement of your goals.
• Urgent responsibilities require immediate attention. These activities are often tightly
linked to the accomplishment of someone else’s goal. Not dealing with these issues will
cause immediate consequences.
• Quadrant I – important deadlines with high urgency
The first quadrant contains tasks and responsibilities that need immediate attention.
• Quadrant II – long-term development and strategizing
The second quadrant is for items that are important without requiring immediate action.
This quadrant points out that this should be used for long-term strategizing.
• Quadrant III – distractions with high urgency
The third quadrant is reserved for tasks that are urgent, without being important.
We recommend minimizing or even eliminating these tasks as they do not
contribute to your output. Delegation is also an option here.
• Quadrant IV – activities with little to no value
The fourth and last quadrant focuses on tasks and responsibilities that do not
yield any value—items that are unimportant and not urgent. These time wasters
should be eliminated at any costs.
• Q2 Assess your time management skills and say how you will improve them.
• Make a list. The thing about making lists is that you actually have to use them. You may want to set
reminders on your phone and computer. Lists really do work if you use them. One of the most
important things is to make sure your list feels attainable. No one wants a 30-item to-do list and have
to, at the end of the day, look at the 20 items that didn’t get done. Prioritize yours and others’ needs
and plan accordingly. You might even want to make three lists — personal, home and work.
• Set deadlines. Again, there is no point in setting deadlines if you make executive decisions to always
push them back. Set a deadline and try your best to stick to it. Set your deadline a few days before the
task absolutely has to be done. This allows for the possibility that other things will get in the way, but
also allow for you still to get the task done.
• Stop multi-tasking. Multitaskers often seem to think they get more accomplished, but it’s not always
the most productive or efficient route. Let’s face it, our minds work better when we are truly able to
focus and concentrate on one thing.
• Delegate responsibilities. For those of us who like to be in control the very thought of this is likely to provoke a
bit of anxiety. The truth of the matter is that no matter how good we are, we can’t do everything. Sometimes we
take on more than we can handle. Delegation is not a sign of weakness, but a sign of intelligence. Find competent,
reliable people and share some of the responsibilities. It will allow you to be less stressed and more productive.
• Use your downtime. This tip requires some balance. Using all of your downtime for planning and prioritizing is
bad and can lead to increased stress and burnout. However, if you find yourself sitting in early morning traffic, this
may be a good time to start prioritizing your day or making plans for dinner. If you’re waiting in the doctor’s office,
this may be a good time to write the grocery list. (Just don’t forget it.) If you have opportunities like these make the
best of them, but also remember to use them for relaxation as needed.
• Reward yourself. When you accomplish something, celebrate it! How you celebrate is up to you. My word of
advice is to keep whatever you choose to do healthy, make sure it’s something you really enjoy, don’t do it in excess,
and don’t let it cause you to get further behind. Time management skills are an essential part of making your day
just a little easier. Find what works for you and stick to it.
• Q3 In the career of your choice what are the time saving techniques you will use?
• Aviation career
• Wasting time is one of our most costly activities despite the fact that each of us
can do something about it if we try. There is no such things as not enough time.
The same amount of time is available to all of us some people just use their time
• Organize your work area including your desk, equipment, records, flies, machines
and anything else you use in doing your work. When everything is in place and
you know where each item is you will never suffer the frustrations of looking for
it. You will be able to finish a job much quicker.
• Think before you start
• Pause a bit before you start a job to make sure you have all the information,
materials and tools you will need to finish it. This checking beforehand will enable
you to complete a job without an interruption to save time.
• Avoid wasting time
• Find the way to handle or avoid those people who waste your time with gossip, rumours
and idle talks. If necessary tell them directly that you have worked to do.
• Look for better ways
• Look continually for easier and faster ways of doing work. Sooner you will be able to
• Be sure the plan is consistent with the aim and goal. The plan must be consistent with the
goals and plans of the company and the way the company conducts its business.
Formulate the plan to be acceptable to the people who will implement it and those who
will be affected.
• Q1 “Leadership is the influence exercised in inter-personal situations directed through the
communication process, towards the attainment of goals”
• What does this quote imply?
• The definition implies that the following three factors are essential for leadership to function effectively.
• Set crystal clear goals
• Select the people carefully to attain the goal.
• Use interpersonal skills combined with encouraging communication to motivate the goal attainers.
• A strong paradigm shift would be to apply leadership to the self by setting objectives, developing a
healthy inter-personal self-image and using motivation to achieve the objectives set. The benefit of this
paradigm is that one becomes more successful and hence acts as a role model for the entire team.
• Q2 What are the functions of leadership?
• Leadership Functions:
• Following are the important functions of a leader:
• 1. Setting Goals:
• A leader is expected to perform creative function of laying out goals and policies to persuade the
subordinates to work with zeal and confidence.
• 2. Organizing:
• The second function of a leader is to create and shape the organization on scientific lines by
assigning roles appropriate to individual abilities with the view to make its various components to
operate sensitively towards the achievement of enterprise goals.
• 3. Initiating Action:
• The next function of a leader is to take the initiative in all matters of interest to
the group. He should not depend upon others for decision and judgment. He
should float new ideas and his decisions should reflect original thinking.
• 4. Co-Ordination:
• A leader has to reconcile the interests of the individual members of the group
with that of the organization. He has to ensure voluntary co-operation from the
group in realizing the common objectives.
• 5. Direction and Motivation:
• It is the primary function of a leader to guide and direct his group and motivate people
to do their best in the achievement of desired goals, he should build up confidence and
zeal in the work group.
• 6. Link between Management and Workers:
• A leader works as a necessary link between the management and the workers. He
interprets the policies and programmes of the management to his subordinates and
represents the subordinates’ interests before the management. He can prove effective
only when he can act as the true guardian of the interests of his subordinates.
• Q3 What are the three humour styles of bosses?
• The types of humour styles of bosses are:-
• Affiliative humor. This involves telling jokes about things that everyone might
find funny. The goal is to use humor to bring people together to find the humor
in everyday life. The types of jokes told by comedians like Jerry Seinfeld that
focus on the comedy in everyday life represents this sort of humor. The goal is
to create a sense of fellowship, happiness, and well-being. If you are fond of
jokes about animals or everyday occurrences, then you are using affiliative humor.
• Aggressive humor. This involves put-downs or insults targeted toward
individuals. This is the humor that is used by more aggressive comedians—the
put-down artists, such as Don Rickles or the late Joan Rivers. When it is intended
to threaten or psychologically harm others, it is the type of humor used by bullies.
While some of the audience to this type of humor will find it funny, others might
laugh to cover up a feeling of discomfort.
• Self-enhancing humor. This is being able to laugh at yourself, such as making a
joke when something bad has happened to you. Trying to find the humor in
everyday situations, and making yourself the target of the humor in a good-
natured way. It is related to healthy coping with stress. Jon Stewart from the Daily
Show often uses self-enhancing humor by saying things such as, “Maybe I just
don’t understand…” or “I’m not the brightest guy….”
• Q1 What are the five significant reasons why leadership is important? Justify with examples.
• Leadership is an important function of management which helps to maximize efficiency and to
achieve organizational goals. The following points justify the importance of leadership in a
• Initiates action- Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans
to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.
• Motivation- A leader proves to be playing an incentive role in the concern’s working. He
motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewards and thereby gets the work
from the subordinates.
• Providing guidance- A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the
subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform
their work effectively and efficiently.
• Creating confidence- Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through expressing the work
efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly their role and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals
effectively. It is also important to hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems.
• Building morale- Morale denotes willing co-operation of the employees towards their work and getting them into
confidence and winning their trust. A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co-operation so that they
perform with best of their abilities as they work to achieve goals.
• Builds work environment- Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work environment helps
in sound and stable growth. Therefore, human relations should be kept into mind by a leader. He should have
personal contacts with employees and should listen to their problems and solve them. He should treat employees
on humanitarian terms.
• Co-ordination- Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals.
This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective co-ordination which should be primary motive
of a leader.
• Q2 State the qualities of leadership. Identify the ones you possess and support your choices with
• There are essentially five characteristics of great leaders. The first of these is being flexible. Not
everything goes as planned. Competitors change tactics, governments force new regulations on
business, strikes stop the flow of products, and, occasionally, natural disasters occur. And at times
like these, leaders have to be able to change course; that is, first make sure their businesses will
survive, and then find a new way to reach their goals.
• The second characteristic is being able to communicate. Some leaders are great orators, but
speaking well isn’t all that’s required of a leader. As we all know, there are lots of people who talk
a great game but deliver nothing. Leaders who communicate well are those who not only share
their thoughts with employees, but also let their strength and personal character show through in
their communication, and empower those who work for them by defining the company’s goal and
showing how to get there.
• A third characteristic of great leaders–or, perhaps, group of characteristics–is having courage, tenacity,
and patience. Having the courage to stand alone, the tenacity to not succumb to pressure, and the
patience to keep fighting until you win the day–and sometimes being able to do all three at the same
time–is something you will have to develop if you want to be a true and successful leader.
• The fourth necessary characteristic is the combination of humility and presence. Acting aloof, or above
your employees, does not make a leader. Leaders have to be able to talk and listen to their employees on
all levels of the company. At the same time, they must have the respect of their employees, the kind of
respect that’s earned by being honest, having integrity, and being tough but fair.
• The fifth and final characteristic of a successful leader is being responsible. A business owner has to
realize that, as the saying goes, “A skunk stinks from the head down,” and a business does too. This
means when there is blame to be accepted, the owner must be the first one to accept it. But it also
means that when accolades are appropriate, they should be spread out among the employees. And
when this happens, a leader is born.
• Q3 Illustrate the Blake and Mouton Managerial grid and explain the same?
• Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid
• The treatment of task orientation and people orientation as two
independent dimensions was a major step in leadership studies. Many of the
leadership studies conducted in the 1950s at the University of Michigan and the
Ohio State University focused on these two dimensions.
• Q3 Illustrate the Blake and Mouton Managerial grid and explain the same?
• Building on the work of the researchers at these Universities, Robert Blake and
Jane Mouton (1960s) proposed a graphic portrayal of leadership styles through
a managerial grid (sometimes called leadership grid). The grid depicted two
dimensions of leader behaviour, concern for people(accommodating people’s
needs and giving them priority) on y-axis and concern for production(keeping
tight schedules) on x-axis, with each dimension ranging from low (1) to high (9),
thus creating 81 different positions in which the leader’s style may fall.
• The five resulting leadership styles are as follows:
• Impoverished Management (1, 1): Managers with this approach are low on both the dimensions and exercise
minimum effort to get the work done from subordinates. The leader has low concern for employee satisfaction and
work deadlines and as a result disharmony and disorganization prevail within the organization. The leaders are
termed ineffective wherein their action is merely aimed at preserving job and seniority.
• Task management (9, 1): Also called dictatorial or perish style. Here leaders are more concerned about
production and have less concern for people. The style is based on theory X of McGregor. The employees’ needs
are not taken care of and they are simply a means to an end. The leader believes that efficiency can result only
through proper organization of work systems and through elimination of people wherever possible. Such a style
can definitely increase the output of organization in short run but due to the strict policies and procedures, high
labour turnover is inevitable.
• Middle-of-the-Road (5, 5): This is basically a compromising style wherein the leader tries to maintain a balance
between goals of company and the needs of people. The leader does not push the boundaries of achievement
resulting in average performance for organization. Here neither employee nor production needs are fully met.
• Country Club (1, 9): This is a collegial style characterized by low task and high people
orientation where the leader gives thoughtful attention to the needs of people thus
providing them with a friendly and comfortable environment. The leader feels that such a
treatment with employees will lead to self-motivation and will find people working hard
on their own. However, a low focus on tasks can hamper production and lead to
• Team Management (9, 9): Characterized by high people and task focus, the style is
based on the theory Y of McGregor and has been termed as most effective style
according to Blake and Mouton. The leader feels that empowerment, commitment, trust,
and respect are the key elements in creating a team atmosphere which will automatically
result in high employee satisfaction and production.
• Advantages of Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid
• The Managerial or Leadership Grid is used to help managers analyze their own leadership
styles through a technique known as grid training. This is done by administering a
questionnaire that helps managers identify how they stand with respect to their concern
for production and people. The training is aimed at basically helping leaders reach to the
ideal state of 9, 9.
• Limitations of Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid
• The model ignores the importance of internal and external limits, matter and scenario.
Also, there are some more aspects of leadership that can be covered but are not.
• Q1 Explain the significance of interpersonal skills in your career?
• Interpersonal skills are the skills we use every day when we communicate and
interact with other people, both individually and in groups.
• People with strong interpersonal skills are often more successful in both their
professional and personal lives.
• Interpersonal skills also include skills and attributes associated with emotional
intelligence or being able to understand and manage your own and others
emotions. People with god interpersonal skills tend to be able to work well in a
team or group and other people more generally. We’ve all been developing our
interpersonal skills since childhood.
• Interpersonal skills are generally considered to include a wide range of skills, such
• Communication skills- which in turn covers
• Verbal communication-what we say and how we say it.
• Non-verbal communication-what we communicate without words, for example
through body language or tone of voice
• Listening skills- how we interpret both the verbal and non-verbal messages sent
• Emotional intelligence- being able to understand and manage your own and
• Team working- being able to work with others in group and teams, both formal
• Conflict resolution and mediation- working with others to resolve interpersonal
conflict and disagreements in a positive way, which again may be considered a
subset of communication.
• Problem solving and decision skills-working with others to identify, define and
solve problems, which includes making decisions about the best course of action.
• Q2 Why is the open self personality important?
• Introduction to self improvement is necessary for people to get out of a life of despair
and change his or her lifestyle so that a person is happy and content with himself. It tries
to help man develop his own personality and his mind in a manner which is fruitful to his
health. It does not seek to end pain or fear in our lives. All these factors are necessary
elements in shaping our lives. Rather this helps us use these as stepping stones to
developing our life. It is always said that if one wants to create a perfect personality and a
cheerful mind one must put himself through various challenging emotional and physical
problems, which help create appreciation of the smaller things in life, things which can
bring us eternal joy.
• When a human being is challenged both physically and mentally, he pushes himself to be better, thus pushes against
his self-created boundaries- boundaries which only hindered his path to progress. When someone is pushed, he gets
the determination to break open his shackles. This helps him meet newer people, be open and honest with them
and helps him stand tall amidst the various members of the society.
• Regaining one’s lost self esteem in general forms a major part of transforming a person. Self esteem refers to the
minimal amount of respect that every person must have for himself and his life. Self esteem is essential for
attaining happiness, without self esteem one cannot enjoy his life or learn to respect what his life has to offer.
Often due to the lack of self esteem people convince themselves that they do not deserve good things in life and
they thus decrease their own expectations for things such as promotions at work.
• Anger management is another aspect of self improvement. Medical science clearly states that anger simply leads to
increase in the blind pressure, thus it is strongly advised that one must learn to control the amount of anger in all
situations. When people lose their temper many methods are advised which help them to cool down quickly.
• Fear is one of the main enemies of a person. It is strongly advised that one must learn to
control fear and if possible one must face his worst fears to loosen its hold over him.
Facing it is much better than living with it at the back of your mind and once you have
faced it all the thoughts pertaining to it get cleared out.
• Positive thinking is an integral part to a healthy life. The mind holds the power to make
our life heaven or hell. It is up to the person to decide how he harvests the power of his
brain. Positive thinking is said to have transformed many lives and people say they
develop a completely different view to life once they incorporate positive thinking.
Professional help is available for people who want a change in perspective and if one
truly feels tired of life, it could be time to take such advice.
• Q3 What are the four life positions? Explain with a diagram.
• The Life Positions refers to the specific behaviour towards others that an
individual learns on the basis of certain assumptions made very early in the life.
• I am O.K., You are O.K.: This life position shows that an individual has several O.K.
experiences with others. This means, an individual encountered no severe problems or
issues with others in his childhood and had a normal relationship with them. People with
such life positions about themselves and others around him can solve any problem very
easily and realizes the significance of others being in his life. This position is based on the
• I am O.K., You are not O.K.: This life position is created when an individual was too
much ignored when he was a child. Here, an individual believes that he is right, and all
the others around him are wrong. These are the individual who possesses the rebellion
child ego and put blame on others for anything that goes wrong with them.
• I am not O.K., you are O.K.: This life position gets created when an individual feels
that others do things better than him. He feels inferior to others and believes that others
can do many things which he cannot do by himself. These kinds of people always
complain about one thing or the other and remain highly dissatisfied with their lives.
• I am not O.K., you are not O.K.: This kind of life position is created by those who
lacks interest in living. They feel life is not worth living and are the ones who have been
neglected by their parents in their childhood and were brought up by the servants. Such
kind of people commits suicide or homicide to end their lives.
• Thus, the life positions talk about the individual developing his identity, sense of worth
and perception about others during his childhood and believing it to be true until and
unless some major experience changes it.
• Q1 State in five points how you will become an open self personality.
Extraversion is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy
being with people, are full of energy, and often experience positive emotions. They tend to be
enthusiastic, action-oriented, individuals who are likely to say "Yes!" or "Let's go!" to
opportunities for excitement. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention to
Introverts lack the exuberance, energy, and activity levels of extraverts. They tend to be quiet,
low-key, deliberate, and disengaged from the social world. Their lack of social involvement should
not be interpreted as shyness or depression; the introvert simply needs less stimulation than an
extravert and prefers to be alone. The independence and reserve of the introvert is sometimes
mistaken as unfriendliness or arrogance. In reality, an introvert who scores high on the
agreeableness dimension will not seek others out but will be quite pleasant when approached.
Agreeableness reflects individual differences in concern with cooperation and social harmony. Agreeable individuals
value getting along with others. They are therefore considerate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to
compromise their interests with others'. Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature. They
believe people are basically honest, decent, and trustworthy.
Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above getting along with others. They are generally unconcerned with
others' well-being, and therefore are unlikely to extend themselves for other people. Sometimes their skepticism
about others' motives causes them to be suspicious, unfriendly, and uncooperative.
Agreeableness is obviously advantageous for attaining and maintaining popularity. Agreeable people are better liked
than disagreeable people. On the other hand, agreeableness is not useful in situations that require tough or absolute
objective decisions. Disagreeable people can make excellent scientists, critics, or soldiers.
Conscientiousness concerns the way in which we control, regulate, and direct our impulses. Impulses
are not inherently bad; occasionally time constraints require a snap decision, and acting on our first
impulse can be an effective response. Also, in times of play rather than work, acting spontaneously and
impulsively can be fun. Impulsive individuals can be seen by others as colorful, fun-to-be-with, and
Nonetheless, acting on impulse can lead to trouble in a number of ways. Some impulses are antisocial.
Uncontrolled antisocial acts not only harm other members of society, but also can result in retribution
toward the perpetrator of such impulsive acts. Another problem with impulsive acts is that they often
produce immediate rewards but undesirable, long-term consequences. Examples include excessive
socializing that leads to being fired from one's job, hurling an insult that causes the breakup of an
important relationship, or using pleasure-inducing drugs that eventually destroy one's health.
• Impulsive behavior, even when not seriously destructive, diminishes a person's effectiveness in significant ways. Acting impulsively
disallows contemplating alternative courses of action, some of which would have been wiser than the impulsive choice. Impulsivity
also sidetracks people during projects that require organized sequences of steps or stages. Accomplishments of an impulsive
person are therefore small, scattered, and inconsistent.
A hallmark of intelligence, what potentially separates human beings from earlier life forms, is the ability to think about future
consequences before acting on an impulse. Intelligent activity involves contemplation of long-range goals, organizing and planning
routes to these goals, and persisting toward one's goals in the face of short-lived impulses to the contrary. The idea that intelligence
involves impulse control is nicely captured by the term prudence, an alternative label for the Conscientiousness domain. Prudent
means both wise and cautious. Persons who score high on the Conscientiousness scale are, in fact, perceived by others as
The benefits of high conscientiousness are obvious. Conscientious individuals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success
through purposeful planning and persistence. They are also positively regarded by others as intelligent and reliable. On the negative
side, they can be compulsive perfectionists and workaholics. Furthermore, extremely conscientious individuals might be regarded as
stuffy and boring. Unconscientious people may be criticized for their unreliability, lack of ambition, and failure to stay within the
lines, but they will experience many short-lived pleasures and they will never be called stuffy.
Freud originally used the term neurosis to describe a condition marked by mental distress, emotional suffering, and
an inability to cope effectively with the normal demands of life. He suggested that everyone shows some signs of
neurosis, but that we differ in our degree of suffering and our specific symptoms of distress. Today neuroticism
refers to the tendency to experience negative feelings.
Those who score high on Neuroticism may experience primarily one specific negative feeling such as anxiety, anger,
or depression, but are likely to experience several of these emotions. People high in neuroticism are emotionally
reactive. They respond emotionally to events that would not affect most people, and their reactions tend to be more
intense than normal. They are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as
hopelessly difficult. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time, which
means they are often in a bad mood. These problems in emotional regulation can diminish a neurotic's ability to think
clearly, make decisions, and cope effectively with stress.
At the other end of the scale, individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally
reactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings. Freedom from negative
feelings does not mean that low scorers experience a lot of positive feelings; frequency of positive emotions is a
component of the Extraversion domain.
Openness to experience.
Openness to Experience describes a dimension of cognitive style that distinguishes imaginative, creative people from
down-to-earth, conventional people. Open people are intellectually curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive to beauty.
They tend to be, compared to closed people, more aware of their feelings. They tend to think and act in individualistic
and nonconforming ways. Intellectuals typically score high on Openness to Experience; consequently, this factor has
also been called Culture or Intellect. Nonetheless, Intellect is probably best regarded as one aspect of openness to
experience. Scores on Openness to Experience are only modestly related to years of education and scores on standard
Another characteristic of the open cognitive style is a facility for thinking in symbols and abstractions far removed
from concrete experience. Depending on the individual's specific intellectual abilities, this symbolic cognition may take
the form of mathematical, logical, or geometric thinking, artistic and metaphorical use of language, music composition
or performance, or one of the many visual or performing arts. People with low scores on openness to experience tend
to have narrow, common interests. They prefer the plain, straightforward, and obvious over the complex, ambiguous,
and subtle. They may regard the arts and sciences with suspicion, regarding these endeavors as abstruse or of no
practical use. Closed people prefer familiarity over novelty; they are conservative and resistant to change.
• Q2 Which ego state you are mostly in? Support your claim with an examples.
• My ego depends on the situations or people around me. If I am with my parents I am in
a child ego. If I am with my friends I am in an adult ego plus child ego.
• Parent ego
• The parent is the ego state that contains the external events that were imposed on people
in the first five years of their life. These are constructs that are imposed on the child.
Examples would be 'Don't talk to strangers,' 'Always hold a grown-up's hand when you
cross the street,' or 'Don't touch a hot stove.’
• Child ego
• The child is the ego state that contains the feelings and emotions related to the external events that were
imposed on a person in the first five years of life. These feelings or emotions are replayed in the person's
mind when the corresponding external event is recalled. Examples would be 'Being approached by a strange
person makes me feel nervous,' 'I feel safe when I hold someone's hand,' or 'I am scared of being burned.'
• Adult ego
• The adult is the ego state that evaluates what is really going on and makes independent decisions about the
world. This ego state begins forming as soon as we gain the ability to control aspects of our environment. It
allows a person to compare what they are told about the world with what they feel and experience. Let's use
the hot stove as an example. The adult is told by the parent not to touch a hot stove and recognizes that the
child's fear of being burned is reasonable. Therefore, the adult determines to use caution when it's necessary
to use a hot stove.
• Q3 Explain briefly the concepts you have learnt in transactional analysis.
• To transact means to conduct, manage, execute and perform…. A transaction is an
arrangement between human beings to give and take products and services from each
other thus providing gratification to all involved in the transaction. Everyday truncations
are commercial in nature and promote economic growth however we are now about to
study transactions where almost no commercial or money matters are involved. These
transactions are psychological in nature and relate to how people behave and how other
people behave with them in response to the behaviour. The give and take in these
transactions is behaviour related and helps one to understand human beings better and
get results from teams faster.
By doing this assignment I have learnt lot of things about personality development.
I am grateful to my teacher Mrs. Smriti Bhambra for giving me the knowledge of
personality. I even thank frankfinn for giving me the opportunity to do this
Hopefully you like this project.
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