O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Chapter 14 lecture outline

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment
14
A Healthier Environment
LectureOutline
I. Unintentional Injury
A. The major threat...
Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment
2. Cell phone conversations have proven more distracting than those
between drivers a...
Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment
problems such as depression, anxiety, uncontrollable mood swings,
and anger.
3. Each ...
Anúncio
Anúncio
Próximos SlideShares
Chapter 11 lecture outline
Chapter 11 lecture outline
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 12 Anúncio
Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (20)

Anúncio

Semelhante a Chapter 14 lecture outline (20)

Mais de Macomb Community College (20)

Anúncio

Mais recentes (20)

Chapter 14 lecture outline

  1. 1. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment 14 A Healthier Environment LectureOutline I. Unintentional Injury A. The major threat to the lives of college students is not illness, but injury. B. Almost 75 percent of deaths among Americans 15 to 24 years old are caused by “unintentional injuries,” suicides, and homicides. C. Those who respond well in crisis have three underlying psychological attributes: 1. They believe that they can influence events. 2. They are able to find meaningful purpose in turmoil and trauma. 3. They know that they can learn from both positive and negative experiences. II. Safety on the Road A. Introduction 1. The annual number of traffic fatalities has fallen in recent years, but the number of teenager killed in car accidents has increased. 2. An average of 117 people die every day in motor vehicle crashes—an average of one every twelve minutes. B. Avoid Distracted Driving 1. This refers to any nondriving activity a person engages in that has the potential to distract him or her from the primary task of driving and increase the risk of crashing. 2. The three types of distraction are: a. Visual b. Manual c. Cognitive 3. Nearly 15 people die each day in the U.S. in crashes that involve distracted driving; another 1,200 are injured. C. Don’t Text or Talk 1. Even if the cell phone is a hands-free model, using it while driving is as dangerous as driving drunk.
  2. 2. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment 2. Cell phone conversations have proven more distracting than those between drivers and passengers. 3. Suggestions to avoid distractions while driving: a. Never text or talk while behind the wheel. b. Turn off the ringer on your phone and set it out of reach. c. Never eat, drink, primp, use a GPS device, read, or surf through radio stations, or CD tracks while you drive. d. If you happen to call someone who is driving, suggest that the driver call you back upon arrival. D. Stay Sober and Alert 1. The number of fatalities caused by drunk driving has dropped. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration attributes this decline to: a. Increases in the drinking age. b. Educational programs aimed at reducing nighttime driving by teens. c. The formation of Students Against Destructive Decisions and similar groups. d. Changes in state laws that lowered the legal blood-alcohol concentration level for drivers under age 21. 2. Falling asleep at the wheel is second only to alcohol as a cause of serious motor-vehicle accidents. E. Buckle Up 1. Seat belts save an estimated 9,500 lives in the United States each year. F. Check for Air Bags 1. An air bag, either with or without a seat belt, has proved the most effective means of preventing adult death. G. Rein in Road Rage 1. Some strategies for reducing road rage include the following: a. Lower the stress in your life. b. Consciously decide not to let other drivers get to you. c. Slow down. d. Modify bad driving habits one at a time. e. Be courteous—even if other drivers are not. f. Never retaliate. g. If you do something stupid, show that you are sorry. H. Cycle Safely 1. Per vehicle mile, motorcyclists are 35 times more likely to die in a crash than passenger car occupants. 2. The most common motorcycle injury is head trauma. a. This can cause physical disability, paralysis, general weakness, problems reading and thinking, personality changes and psychiatric
  3. 3. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment problems such as depression, anxiety, uncontrollable mood swings, and anger. 3. Each year, bicycle crashes kill about 700 bicyclists and send 450,000 to 587,000 to emergency rooms. III. Living in a Dangerous World 1. The World Health Organization defines violence as “the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or a group or community that either results in, or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation.” 2. Mass shootings – the killing of four of more people at a single location – has emerged as a national concern. IV. Crime and Violence on Campus A. Introduction 1. According to the Bureau of Justice, college students are victims of almost half a million violent crimes a year, including assault, robbery, sexual assault, and rape. 2. College students ages 18 to 24 are less likely to be victims of violent crime, including robbery and assault, than non-students of the same age. 3. More than half of crimes against students are committed by strangers. 4. Male college students are twice as likely to be victims of overall violence as female students. 5. About three in four campus crimes are never reported to police. B. Hazing 1. Hazing refers to any activity that humiliates, degrades, or poses a risk of emotional or physical harm for the sake of joining a group or maintaining full status in that group. 2. Its forms include verbal ridicule and abuse, forced consumption of alcohol or ingestion of vile substances, sexual violation, sleep deprivation, paddling, beating, burning, or branding. C. Hate or Bias Crimes 1. More than half of hate or bias crimes on campus are motivated by race. D. Shootings, Murders, and Assaults 1. Shootings of students and faculty have occurred at several campuses in recent years. However, they remain uncommon. 2. Strategies for keeping campuses safe: a. Enforcing codes of conduct b. Tougher sanctions, including expulsions, for serious misconduct
  4. 4. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment c. Zero-tolerance policies for campus violence d. Building a sense of community e. Screening out students who pose a real threat f. Warning students about criminal activity at orientation, through the campus newspaper, in residence halls, and through campus Internet communication devices V. Sexual Victimization and Violence A. Introduction 1. Sexual victimization refers to any situation in which a person is deprived of free choice and forced to comply with sexual acts. 2. Much sexual violence takes place within families, marriage, and dating relationships. B. Cyberbullying 1. Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or individual using electronic forms of contact repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him-or herself. 2. Both cyberbullies and their victims are likely to experience psychiatric and psychosomatic problems. C. Sexual Harassment 1. All forms of sexual harassment or unwanted sexual attention—from the display of pornographic photos to the use of sexual obscenities to a demand for sex by anyone in a position of power or authority—are illegal. 2. About half of men and one third of women admit that they have sexually harassed someone on campus. 3. If you encounter sexual harassment as a student, report it to the department chair or dean. D. Stalking 1. Stalking is defined as the “willful, repeated, and malicious following, harassing, or threatening of another person,” and is common on college campuses. 2. College students are targeted because: a. They are young and still learning how to manage complex social relationships and may not see their behavior as stalking. b. College students tend to live close to each other and have a lot of unsupervised time. E. Intimate Partner (Dating) Violence 1. Actual or threatened physical or sexual violence or psychological and emotional abuse of a current or former dating partner is a form of violence.
  5. 5. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment 2. In the U.S. one in seven college student couples reported at least on e episode of male-to-female violence in the preceding 12 months. F. Nonvolitional Sex and Sexual Coercion 1. Nonvolitional sex is sexual behavior that violates a person’s right to choose when and with whom to have sex and what sexual behaviors to engage in. 2. Sexual coercion can take many forms: a. Peer pressure b. Taking advantage of one’s desire for popularity c. Threatening an end to a relationship d. Getting someone intoxicated e. Stimulating a partner against his or her wishes f. Insinuating an obligation based on the time or money one has expended G. Rape 1. Rape refers to sexual intercourse with an unconsenting partner under actual or threatened force. 2. In 2012 the Justice Department updated the legal definition of rape as the penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or the oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. 3. Acquaintance, or Date, Rape – the partner knows the victim. 4. Stranger Rape – the rapist is an unknown assailant. 5. Over the course of five years, including summers and vacations, one of every four or five female students is raped. 6. In surveys of male university students, between 3 and 6 percent have been raped by other men; up to 25 percent have been sexually assaulted. 7. Women who escape rape attempts do so by resisting verbally and physically, usually by yelling and fleeing. 8. Women who use forceful verbal or physical resistance are more likely to avoid rape than women who try pleading, crying, or offering no resistance. 9. Types of Rape a. Marital Rape – most common form of rape and is a form of domestic abuse b. Anger Rape – usually on a total stranger, is motivated by hatred and a desire for revenge for the rejection the rapist feels he’s suffered from women. c. Power Rape – is generally a premeditated attack motivated by a desire to dominate and control another person.
  6. 6. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment d. Sadistic Rape is a premeditated assault that often involves bondage, torture, or sexual abuse. e. Gang rape – involves three or more rapists. Men in close groups that drink and party together are more likely to participate in such assaults. The reasons may go beyond aggression and sexual gratification to the excitement and camaraderie the men feel while sharing the experience. f. Sexual gratification rape is usually an impulsive attack by someone willing to use physical coercion for the sake of sex. 10. Acquaintance, or Date Rape a. Nine in ten reported rapes and sexual assaults in the U.S. involve a single offender with whom the victim had a prior relationship. b. Factors that lead to this type of rape include: i. Personality and early sexual experiences ii. Situational variables (what happens during the date) iii. Rape Myths iv. Drinking v. Date rape drugs vi. Gender differences in interpreting sexual cues 11. Stranger Rape a. Rape prevention consists primarily of making it as difficult as possible for a rapist to make you his victim. i. Do not advertise that you are a woman living alone. ii. Do not open your door to strangers. iii. Lock your car when it is parked, and drive with locked doors. iv. Avoid dark and deserted areas, and be aware of the surroundings when you are walking. v. Have house or car keys in hand as you approach the door. vi. Carry a device for making a loud noise. 12. Male Nonconsensual Sex and Rape a. No one knows how common male rape is because men are less likely to report such assaults than women. b. About 10 percent of acquaintance rape cases are men. 13. Impact of Rape a. Rape-related injuries include: i. Unexplained vaginal discharge, bleeding, infections, multiple bruises, and fractured ribs. b. Victims often develop chronic symptoms such as: i. Headaches, backaches, high blood pressure, sleep disorders, pelvic pain, and sexual fertility problems.
  7. 7. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment c. Psychological scars of a sexual assault take a long time to heal. They include: i. Hopelessness, low self-esteem, high levels of self-criticism, and self- defeating relationships. d. An estimated 30 to 50 percent of women develop posttraumatic stress disorder following a rape. 14. What to Do in Case of Rape a. Women who are raped should call a friend or a rape crisis center. b. A rape victim should not bathe or change her clothes before calling. c. All rape victims should talk with a doctor or health-care worker about testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections and post intercourse conception. 15. Even an unsuccessful rape attempt should be reported because the information a woman may provide about the attack may prevent another woman from being raped. VI. From Personal to Planetary Threats: The Environment and Your Health 1. The ecosystem is a community of organisms that share a physical and chemical environment. 2. We cannot separate our individual health from that of the environment in which we live. B. Climate Change 1. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has issued warnings on the growing dangers of global climate change. C. Global Warming 1. Certain gases in Earth’s atmosphere trap energy from the sun and retain heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse. D. The Health Risks 1. Climate change can imperil health directly by changing patterns of infectious diseases, the supply of fresh water, and food availability. VII. The Impact of Pollution 1. Pollution is any change in the air, water, or soil that could reduce its ability to support life. 2. Pollutant is a substance or agent in the environment, usually the by- product of human industry or activity that is injurious to human, animal or plant life. a. Chronic affect may take years to develop or may be a recurrent or continuous reaction, usually after repeated exposure.
  8. 8. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment 3. Mutagens are agents that cause alterations in the genetic material of living cells. a. Teratogens are mutagens that can cross the placenta of a pregnant woman and cause a spontaneous abortion or birth defects. 4. Carcinogens are substances or agents that cause cancer. 5. Health problems linked with pollution include: a. Headaches and dizziness b. Decline in cognitive functioning c. Eye irritation and impaired vision d. Nasal discharge e. Cough, shortness of breath, and sore throat f. Constricted airways g. Constriction of blood vessels and increased risk of heart disease h. Increased risk of stroke i. Chest pains and aggravation of the symptoms of colds, pneumonia, bronchial asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, and other respiratory problems j. Birth defects and reproductive problems k. Nausea, vomiting, and stomach cancer l. Allergy and asthma from diesel fumes in polluted air m. Higher mortality from strokes VIII. The Water You Drink A. Introduction 1. Fears about the public water supply have led many Americans to turn off their taps. 2. Each year the CDC reports an average of 7,400 cases of illness related to the water people drink. B. Is Bottled Better? 1. Bottled water is second only to soft drinks as America’s favorite beverage 2. .Medical researchers have not found a scientific reason to recommend bottled water. 3. Despite images of mountain streams and glacier peaks on the labels, most comes from an urban water supply. C. Portable Water Bottles 1. The simplest, safest, most ecofriendly water container is a glass. 2. Disposable bottles pose a risk to the environment.
  9. 9. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment IX. Indoor Pollutants: The Inside Story The quality of the air you breathe inside can have an even greater impact on your well-being than outdoor pollution. A. Environmental Tobacco Smoke 1. The mixture of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, or cigar and a smoker’s exhalations contains over 4,000 compounds. 2. Over 40 of them are known to cause cancer. 3. Secondhand smoke or passive smoking, poses greatest risks for infants and young children, and youngsters with asthma or other respiratory problems. 4. Third-hand smoke – tobacco residue contains cancer-causing toxins that stick to a variety of surfaces, where they can get into the dust, and picked up on the fingers. B. Mold and Other Biological Contaminants 1. Mold is a type of fungus that decomposes organic matter and provides plants with nutrients. a. Common molds include Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Stachybotrys, a slimy dark green mold that has been blamed for infant deaths and various illnesses, from Alzheimer’s disease to cancer, in adults that breathe in its spores. C. Household Products 1. Products that clean, disinfect, degrease, polish, wax, and preserve contain powerful chemicals that can pollute indoor air during and for long periods after their use. 2. Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a controversial chemical commonly used to make plastics, may increase a healthy person’s risk of developing heart disease later in life. D. Pesticides 1. An estimated 50,000 to 70,000 U.S. workers die each year of chronic diseases related to past exposure to toxic substances. 2. Endocrine disruptors, are chemicals that act as or interfere with human hormones, particularly estrogen, and may pose a different threat. a. Scientists are investigating their effect on fertility, falling sperm counts, and cancers of the reproductive organs. X. Chemical Risks 1. Various chemicals, including benzene, asbestos, and arsenic, have been shown to cause cancer. 2. Risks can be greatly increased with simultaneous exposures to more than one carcinogen.
  10. 10. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment 3. An estimated 50,000 to 70,000 workers die each year of chronic diseases related to past exposure to toxic substances. 4. Endocrine disruptors – chemicals that act as or interfere with human hormones, particularly estrogen. a. Scientists are investigating their impact on fertility, falling sperm counts, and cancers of the reproductive organs. B. Chemical Weapons 1. Terrorist threats include the possibility of the use of chemical weapons. 2. Possible bioterror agents include poison gases, herbicides, and other types of chemical substances that can kill, maim, or temporarily incapacitate. XI. Invisible Threats Unseen threats to health are various forms of radiation, energy radiated in the form of waves or particles. A. Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) 1. These are the invisible electric and magnetic fields generated by an electrically charged conductor. 2. Epidemiological studies have revealed a link between exposure to high- voltage lines and cancer, especially leukemia, in electrical workers and children. B. Cell Phones 1. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), has stated that “the available scientific evidence does not show that any health problems as associated with using wireless phones. There is no proof, however, that wireless phones are absolutely safe.” C. Microwaves 1. There’s no evidence that existing levels of microwave radiation encountered in the environment pose a health risk to people. 2. There is concern about the safety of chemicals in plastic wrapping and plastic containers used in microwave ovens. a. These chemicals leak into food. b. Some of these chemicals have caused cancer in mice. D. Ionizing Radiation 1. Ionizing radiation is radiation that poses enough energy to separate electrons from their atoms leaving charged ions. 2. Its effects on health depends on many factors including the amount, length of exposure, type, part of the body exposed, and the health and age of the individual.
  11. 11. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment XII. Your Hearing Health 1. Hearing loss is the third most common chronic health problem, after high blood pressure and arthritis, among older Americans. B. How Loud Is That Noise? 1. 1. Loudness or the intensity of sound is measured in decibels (dB). C. Effects of Noise 1. Noise-induced hearing loss is 100 percent preventable and irreversible. 2. Hearing aids are the only treatment, but they do not correct the problem; they just amplify sound to compensate for hearing loss. 3. Tinnitus is ringing in the ear. D. Are Earbuds Hazardous to Hearing? 1. The dangers to your hearing depend on how loud the music is and how long you listen. 2. Ask yourself the following questions to see if you need your hearing checked. a. Do you frequently have to ask people to repeat themselves? b. Do you have difficulty hearing when someone speaks in a whisper? c. Do people complain that you turn up the volume too much when watching television or listening to music? d. Do you have difficulty following conversation in a noisy environment: e. Do you avoid groups of people because of hearing difficulty: f. Have your friends or family suggested that you might have hearing loss? E. Hearing Loss 1. About one in five 6 to 19-year-olds has impaired hearing. 2. In a recent study, as many as one quarter of college student suffered mild hearing loss. 3. Hearing loss generally increase with age. Keywords carcinogen decibel (dB) ecosystem electromagnetic fields (EMFs) endocrine disruptors hazing ionizing radiation microwaves mutagen nonvolitional sex pollutant
  12. 12. Chapter 14 – A Healthier Environment pollution rape sexual coercion sexual harassment stalking

×