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3D In Vitro Models for Drug Efficiency Testing

  1. Potentials of Using 3D In Vitro Models for Drug Efficiency Testing (in comparison to 2D) By: TiffanyHo, ShannenSer, ArialChan, LimEeJing,OoJuNn
  2. Basic Principles of 2D & 3D Cell Cultures 3D cultures Growth condition Adhere and grow on a flat surface Grow on a matrix or in suspension medium Morphology Flat & stretched ; monolayer Form aggregates or spheroids Cell status Mostly proliferating stage Mixture of cells at different stages Limitation Does not adequately mimic the in vivo microenvironment Core cells receive less oxygen, growth factors and nutrients from medium ; in quiescent or hypoxic state Advantage Receive nutrients, growth factors and oxygen equally Mimic in vivo microenvironment Table 1 shows the comparison of principles of 2D & 3D cultures. (Edmondson 2014)
  3. Potentials of 3D Cultures for Drug Testing
  4. Applications ➔ Study of tumor development - Cancer cells response to host immune modulatory effect. ➔ Evaluation of anticancer drug sensitivity ➔ Drugs discovery ➔ High throughput screening ➔ 3D cell-based biosensors - Investigate cell’s response to drugs - Detect biological signals transmitted by the cell ➔ Microfluidic-based device: Organs-on-chips - Serve as disease model; mimic human organ functions. - Small device with hollow channels lined by living cells cultured with nutrient liquids flowing through the channels. Figure 1: How biosensors work (Vaghasiya n.d.)
  5. Cancer cells response to host immune modulatory effect γ γ
  6. Drug Discovery ● Oncology drug development - 2D cell cultures may not accurately mimic the 3D environment - Fundamental differences in the microenvironment of 2D and 3D cell cultures influences cellular behaviours - Crucial difference : Dissimilarity in cell morphology > 2D: Monolayer > 3D: Aggregrates and Spheroids ● 3D have higher ability to show reliable data especially when it comes to drug testings Figure 3: Cell morphology of 2D and 3D
  7. High Throughput Screening (HTS) ● HTS assays using monolayer (2D) cultures still reflect a highly artificial cellular environment - Limiting the predictive value for the clinical efficacy of a compound ● Optimize preclinical selection of the most active molecules from a large pool of potential effectors ● 3D cell culture systems: - Spheroids are emphasized due to their advantages and potential for rapid development as HTS systems - 3D double network Hydrogels are similar to natural tissues and their chemical tunability which impart abilities for response
  8. ❏ Mimics lungs physiology. ❏ Translucent design allows the viewing of inner workings of human lungs. ❏ Contains tiny hollow channels lined with lung cells and capillary cells separated by porous membrane. ❏ Vacuum pumps on either side of each channel expand and contract, thus imitating the action of a real alveolar sac. (Whitwam 2012) Figure 4: Lung-on-a-chip (Anthony 2012) Figure 5: Lung-on-a-chip as model for pulmonary edema (Whitewam 2012) ❏ Mimics inflammatory response triggered by microbial pathogens. e.g. WBCs migrate across capillary cells into the air space to engulf bacteria. ❏ Used to model pulmonary edema by introducing IL-2 in blood channel.
  9. Biomaterials Technology ● Explores materials which are not passive and walled off by the body ● Actively participates in body’s effort to repair itself ● Biometric and bioactive materials are designed to mimic the body’s natural structures & functions from macro- to micro- to nano-levels. ● Give rise to tissue and organ development ● Replacement of animal testing using combined models Figure 6: Schematic illustration of tissue engineering based on 3D biomaterials technology. - Regeneration of defective and injured tissue Current Developments
  10. 3D Printing Technology ● Biological construct in small range (mm-cm), including several cell types and biomaterials at the same time ● Use 3D biomaterials printing and with cell patterning ● Constructing 3D scaffolds with living cells embedded in hydrogels ● Functional tissue is formed faster compared to classical tissue engineering methods Figure 7: 3D printing technology for tissue engineering
  11. Thank You! Questions?
  12. References Antoni, D, Burckel, H, Josset, E & Noel, G, ‘Three-Dimensional Cell Culture : A breakthrough in Vivo’, International Journal of Molecular Science, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 28 April 2016, <>. Dougherty, E 2010, Living, breathing human lung-on-a-chip: A potential drug-testing alternative, viewed 28 April 2016, <http://wyss.>. Edmondson, R, Broglie, J, Adcock, A & Yang, L, ‘Three Dimensional Cell Culture Systems and Their Applications in Drug Discovery and Cell-based Biosensors’, International Journal of Molecular Science, vol. 3, vol.1, viewed 28 April 2016, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC4026212/#B5>. Tolikas, M 2014, Wyss Institute's technology translation engine launches 'Organs-on-Chips' company, viewed 28 April 2016, <http: //>. Ou, K & Hosseinkhani, H, 2014, ‘Development of 3D in Vitro Technology for Medical Applications’, IJMS, vol. 15, no. 10, pp.17938- 17962. Vaghasiya, K, Applications of Biosensors technology : Future trends development and new intervation in biotechnology, viewed 28 April 2016,< in-biotechnology>. Whitwam, R 2012, Lung-on-a-chip could change the way disease is treated, viewed 28 April 2016, < on-a-chip-could-change-the-way-disease-is-treated-1527521/>.