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  1. COSMETICS CLASSIFICATION Presented By TANNU SAINI B.Sc. Chemistry (H) Gargi College (Batch 2013-2016)
  2. CLASSIFICATION OF COSMETICS  Can be classified based on widely used body parts as:  Skin cosmetics  Hair cosmetics  Face cosmetics  Eye make ups  Lip decorators & carers  Nail cosmetics
  3.  Classification of cosmetics  Types of skin care products  Skin types  General skin care routines  Face cosmetics  Lip cosmetics  Hair Cosmetics
  4. CLASSIFICATION OF COSMETICS Depending up on the physical form, cosmetics can be classified as:  Emulsions. Eg: cold cream; vanishing cream  Powders. Eg: face powder, talcum powder, tooth powder.  Sticks. Eg: Lipsticks, deodorant sticks.  Oils. Eg: hair oils.  Jellies. Eg: h& jelly  Paste. Eg: Tooth past, deodorant paste.  Soap. Eg; shampoo, shaving soap  Solution. Eg: After shave solution  Aerosols. Eg: After shave spray.
  5.  Skin care products are the products used to improve the appearance & health of skin, formulated for different types of skin & associated characteristics.  Skin care products include cleansers, facial masks, toners, moisturizers, sunscreen, tanning oils & lotions, skin lighteners, serums & exfoliants.  The skin products are designed to solve the problems from dry skin to oily skin counteract the effects of ageing, fine lines & wrinkles.
  6. TYPES OF SKIN CARE PRODUCTS 1. COLD/VANISH CREAM  Face cream is made up of oils, waxes, emulsifiers & perfumes.  Vanish cream is made up of steatric acid, alkali, water & humectants.  Vanish cream get its name from the fact that it seemed to disappear when applied on face. 2. POWDERS  It includes face powder, baby powder & talcum powder.  Talc or hydrated magnesium silicate is most commonly used component in powders.  Other ingredients include : Zinc oxide & Magnesium oxide for opacity  Magnesium & Zinc stearates for adherence. 3. MOISTURIZERS & SUNSCREEN
  7. SKIN TYPES 1. Normal skin  This type of skin has a fine, even & smooth surface due to its ideal balance between oil & moisture content .  Hence it is neither greasy nor dry.  Thus, the skin usually appears clear. This type of skin needs minimal & gentle treatment.
  8. 2. Dry skin  Dry skin has a parched appearance & tends to flake easily.  It is prone to wrinkles & lines due to its inability to retain moisture, as well as an inadequate production of sebum by sebaceous glands.  Constant protection in the form of a moisturizer by day & a moisture-rich cream by night is essential. Gentle exfoliants using sugar, rice bran or mild acids are the most suitable.
  9. 3. Oily skin  This type of skin surface is moderately greasy, which is caused by the over secretion of sebum. The excess oil on the surface of the skin causes dirt & dust from the environment to adhere to it.  Oily skin is usually prone to blackheads, whiteheads, spots & pimples.  It needs to be cleansed thoroughly every day, especially in hot or humid weather.  Moisturizing with an oil-free, water-based & non-comedogenic moisturizer is required in addition.  Exfoliants that contain fruit acids are particularly helpful, & fine-grained exfoliants may help to clear blocked pores, discouraging breakouts & improving the skin's appearance.
  10. 4. Combination skin  It is a combination of both oily & dry or normal skin, where certain areas of the face are oily & the others dry. The oily parts are usually found on a central panel, called the T–Zone, consisting of the forehead, nose & chin. The dry areas usually consist of the cheeks & the areas around the eyes & mouth.  In such cases, each part of the face should be treated according to its skin type. There are also skin care products made especially for those who have combination skin.
  11. 5. Sensitive skin  Sensitive skin has a tendency to react to many potential triggers with irritation, redness, stinging or burning, flaking, lumpiness & rashes.  The most common causes of irritation are chemical dyes & fragrances, soaps, some flower & spice oils, shaving creams, tanning lotions or spray tans, changes in temperature, excessive cleansing or exfoliating, waxing, threading, shaving & bleaching.  Sensitive skin is typically dry, but can be oily, normal or combination as well.
  12. GENERAL SKIN CARE ROUTINES CLEANSING  Cleansing is the first essential step to any daily skin care routine.  Cleansers are generally applied to wet skin over the face & sometimes also the neck, avoiding the eyes & lips.  A mild cleanser should also be used at night if makeup has been worn to remove any excess dirt or oil.  Eg: Water-based cleansers, benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid for acne.
  14. TONERS  Toners are used after cleansing the skin to freshen it up and remove any traces of cleanser, mask or makeup, as well to help restore the skin's natural pH.  Toners typically contain alcohol, water, and herbal extracts or other chemicals depending on skin type. Toners containing alcohol are quite astringent, and usually targeted at oily skins.  Dry or normal skin should be treated with alcohol-free toners.
  16. MASKS  Face masks are treatments applied to the skin for a period of time, then removed. Typically, they are applied to a dry, cleansed face, avoiding the eyes & lips.  Kinds of masks:  Clay-based masks use kaolin clay to transport essential oils & chemicals to the skin & are left on until completely dry. As the clay dries, it absorbs excess oil & dirt from the surface of the skin & may help to clear blocked pores.
  17.  Peel masks are typically gel-like in consistency, & contain various acids or exfoliating agents to help exfoliate the skin, along with other ingredients to hydrate, discourage wrinkles, or treat uneven skin tone. They are also left on to dry, & then gently peeled off.  Sheet masks consist of a fiber sheet with holes cut out for eyes & lips & cut to fit the contours of the face, onto which serums & skin treatments are brushed in a thin layer. Sheet masks are quicker, less messy, & require no specialized knowledge or equipment for their use.
  18. EXFOLIANTS  Exfoliants are products that involves the removal of the dead skin cells to improve the skin's appearance.  They can even out patches of rough skin, improve circulation to the skin, clear blocked pores to discourage acne and improve the appearance and healing of scars.  They should be applied to wet, cleansed skin, avoiding the eye area.  Eg- Chemical exfoliants may include citric acid (from citrus fruits), acetic acid (from vinegar), malic acid (from various fruits), glycolic acid, lactic acid or salicylic acid. Abrasive exfoliants include gels, creams or lotions.
  19. MOISTURIZERS  Moisturizers are creams or lotions that hydrate the skin and help it to retain moisture. They may also contain various essential oils, herbal extracts or chemicals.  Moisturizer helps prevent flaking and dryness, and may help to delay the formation of wrinkles.  Moisturizers contain oils like isopropyl palmitate, Stearyl alcohol, glycerine.  The skin around the eyes is extremely thin and sensitive, and is often the first area to show signs of ageing. Eye creams are typically very light lotions or gels, and are usually very gentle; some may contain ingredients such as caffeine or Vitamin K to reduce puffiness and dark circles under the eyes. Eye creams or gels should be applied over the entire eye area with a finger, using a patting motion.
  20. SUNSCREEN  Sunscreen is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin exposed to sunlight and thus helps protect against sunburn.  It should be applied 20 minutes before exposure, and should be re-applied every four hours.  Depending on the mode of action sunscreens can be classified into physical sunscreens or chemical sunscreens.  Physical sunscreens- reflect the sunlight & is used to block UV rays. Eg-Titanium dioxide & Zinc oxide.  Chemical sunscreens- absorb the UV light & is used to intensify UV rays. The ingredients are-  Avobenzone UVA  Dioxybenzone UVA, UVB  Octyl Salicylate UVA, UVB  Oxybenzene UVA, UVB
  21.  The efficiency of a sunscreen has been measured by its Sun Protection Factor (spf).
  22. DEODORANTS  Deodorants are substances applied to the body to affect body odor (BO) caused by bacterial growth and the smell associated with bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet and other areas of the body.  A subgroup of deodorants, antiperspirants, affect odor as well as prevent sweating by affecting sweat glands. Eg:Zirconium and aluminum chlorides and hydroxides
  23. FACE COSMETICS o Primer come in various formulas to suit individual skin conditions. It reduces the appearance of pore size, prolong the wear of makeup, and allow for a smoother application of makeup, and are applied before foundation.  Concealer is used to cover any imperfections of the skin. It is often used for any extra coverage needed to cover blemishes, under eye circles, and other imperfections.  Foundation is used to smooth out the face and cover spots or uneven skin coloration. Usually a liquid, cream, or powder, as well as most recently a light and fluffy mousse.
  24.  Face powder is used to set the foundation, giving it a matte finish, and also to conceal small flaws or blemishes. Tinted face powders may also be worn alone as a light foundation.  Rouge, blush or blusher is cheek coloring used to bring out the color in the cheeks and make the cheekbones appear more defined. Rouge comes in powder, cream, and liquid forms.  Contour powder/creams are used to define the face. They can be used to give the illusion of a slimmer face or to modify a person’s face shape in other desired ways.
  25.  Highlight, used to draw attention to the high points of the face as well as to add glow to the face, comes in liquid, cream, and powder forms. It often contains a substance to provide shimmer.  Bronzer is used to give skin a bit of color by adding a golden or bronze glow, as well as being used for contouring. It comes in either matte, semi matte/satin, or shimmer finishes.
  26. MAKE-UP
  28.  Lipsticks are intended to add color and texture to the lips and often come in a wide range of colors, as well as finishes such as matte, satin and lustre.  Lip glosses  They are intended to add shine to the lips, and may also add a tint of color, as well as being scented or flavored.  They can be completely clear, translucent, or various shades of opacity, including frosted, glittered, and metallic looks.
  29.  Lip Plumper  It is a used to give the lips an enhanced, fuller look.  Lip Plumper is distributed as a viscous liquid applied to the lips with a roller or brush applicator.  Lip balms are most often used to moisturize and protect the lips. They often contain SPF protection.  Lip liner or lip pencil is intended to fill uneven areas on the outer edges of the lips after applying lipstick, therefore giving a smooth shape. It is also used to outline the lips.
  30.  Shampoo  Types of Shampoo  Hair Conditions  Hair Growing Aids  Hair Dyeing  Tools for Hairstyling
  31. SHAMPOO  Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils ,dirt , skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair.  The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much sebum as to make hair unmanageable.  A shampoo should have the following qualities:  pleasing foam  ease of rinsing  minimal skin/eye irritation  thick and/or creamy feeling  pleasant fragrance  low toxicity  good biodegradability  slight acidity (pH less than 7)  no damage to hair  repair of damage already done to hair
  32. INGREDIENTS OF HAIR SHAMPOO  Detergents: Sodium or potassium salts of lauryl sulphate & Lauryl ether sulphate  Preservatives: Alcohols & esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid.  Opacifying agents: Higher fatty alcihol & propylene stearate.  Emollients: Lanolin & its derivatives.  Thickening agents: Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose & methyl cellulose.
  33.  Dry shampoo Powdered shampoos are designed to work without water. They are typically based on powders such as starch, silica or talc, and are intended to physically absorb excess sebum from the hair before being brushed out.  Antibacterial Antibacterial shampoos are often used in veterinary medicine for various conditions, as well as in humans before some surgical procedures.  Animal Shampoo intended for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange.  Baby Shampoo for infants and young children is formulated so that it is less irritating and usually less prone to produce a stinging or burning sensation if it were to get into the eyes. TYPES OF SHAMPOO
  34. HAIR CONDITIONER  Hair conditioner is a hair care product that changes the texture and appearance of hair.  It is a thicker substance which coats the cuticle of the hair itself.  Hair conditioner ingredients include  Moisturizers  Suncreen  Lubricant  Acidifiers  Detanglers  Oils  Surfactants  Preservatives
  35. HAIR GROOMING AIDS  Brilliantine is a hair-grooming product intended to soften men's hair, including beards and moustaches, and give it a glossy, well-groomed appearance.  Hair Oil- Oils are applied to hair to give it a lustrous look, to prevent tangles and roughness and to stabilize the hair to promote growth.  Hair gel is a hairstyling product that is used to stiffen hair into a particular hairstyle.
  36.  Hair spray is a product that is sprayed onto hair to keep it stiff or in a certain style.  Hair spray products are a blend of simple industrial polymers that provide structural support to hair.  These frequently include copolymers of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl acetate (PV).
  37. HAIR DYEING  Hair coloring is the practice of changing the color of hair.  Hair dyeing involves treatment of the hair with various chemical compounds.  Natural Colorant like Heena & black walnut shells.  Hair Dyes are based on oxidation of organic compound. Typical compounds used are:  1,4-Diaminobenzene & 2,5-Diaminotoluene  Coupling agent  Oxidant (Hydrogen peroxide)  Ammonia solution to maintain alkaline medium.
  38. TOOLS FOR HAIRSTYLES  A hair iron or hair tong is a tool used to change the structure of the hair using heat. There are three general kinds:  Curling irons: used to make the hair curly.  Straightening irons: commonly called straighteners or flat irons, are used to straighten the hair.  Crimping irons: used to create crimps of the desired size in the hair.

Notas do Editor

  1. CLAY-BASED MASKS - Because of its drying actions, clay-based masks should only be used on oily skins.
  2. PEEL MASKS - should be avoided by people with dry skin, as they also tend to be very drying. SHEET MASKS- are available to suit almost all skin types & skin complaints.
  3. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide have anti-inflammatory properties-also have a calming effect on the skin--Zinc oxide is also anti-micro