Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development

Psychologist, Assistant Professor
26 de Oct de 2019

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Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development

  2. Psychosocial Development Theory • Psychosocial development theory is based on eight stages of development • Erikson’s theory is based on the idea that development through life is a series of stages which are each defined by a crisis or challenge • The early stages provide the foundations for later stages so Erikson says that if a child does not resolve a crisis in a particular stage, they will have problems in later stages • For example, if an adolescent does not establish their own identity, they will have difficulty in relationships as an adult
  3. Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order through eight stages of psychosocial development, from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. For Erikson (1958, 1963), these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual (i.e., psycho) conflicting with the needs of society (i.e., social). According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and the acquisition of basic virtues. Basic virtues are characteristic strengths which the ego can use to resolve subsequent crises. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. These stages, however, can be resolved successfully at a later time.
  4. What is psychosocial development?? So what exactly did Erikson's theory of psychosocial development entail? Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality developed in a series of stages. Unlike Freud's theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson's theory described the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. Erikson was interested in how social interaction and relationships played a role in the development and growth of human beings. Each stage in Erikson's theory builds on the preceding stages and paves the way for following periods of development. In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development.In Erikson's view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high but so is the potential for failure.
  5. If people successfully deal with the conflict, they emerge from the stage with psychological strengths that will serve them well for the rest of their lives. If they fail to deal effectively with these conflicts, they may not develop the essential skills needed for a strong sense of self. Erikson also believed that a sense of competence motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage in Erikson's theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which is sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality. If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy in that aspect of development.
  6. Psycho-social Stage Age Psychosocial Conflict Major Question Ego strength or ego quality Important Event(s) Successful outcome 1st 0-1 Trust vs. Mistrust "Can I trust the people around me?" Hope Feeding Trust and Optimism 2nd 2-3 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt "Can I do things myself or am I reliant on the help of others?" Will Toilet Training Secure, Self confidence 3rd 4-5 Initiative vs. Guilt “Am I good or bad?” Purpose Exploration Play Sense of purpose, Initiative 4th 6-11 Industry vs. Inferiority "How can I be good?" Competence School Feeling of competence 5th Adolescence Identity vs. Confusion "Who am I?" Fidelity Social Relationships Indepencence, Strong sense of self 6th Young Adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation "Will I be loved or will I be alone?" Love Romantic Relationships Intimacy, Strong relationships 7th Middle Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation "How can I contribute to the world?" Care Parenthood and Work Activity, Productivity 8th Late Adulthood Integrity vs. Despair "Did I live a meaningful life?" Wisdom Reflecting on life Integrity, Wisdom
  7. Erik Erikson vs. Sigmund Freud • Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory are two well-known theories of development. While he was influenced by Freud's ideas, Erikson's theory differed in a number of important ways. • Like Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of predetermined stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. • Freud believed that this age served as more of a transitional period between childhood and adolescence. Erikson, on the other hand, believed that kids continue to forge a sense of independence and competence.
  8. MEPSI • The Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (MEPSI) is designed to measure the strength of psychosocial attributes that arise from progression through Erik Erikson's eight stages of development. It evolved in response to the apparent lack of a valid and reliable, yet easily administered survey instrument to measure psychosocial attributes in the adult population within the context of Eriksonian developmental theory. • The MEPSI was developed by modifying the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (Rosenthal, Gurney, & Moore, 1981) which assesses Erikson's first six stages of life cycle development. This modified version was administered to a sample of 168 adults, 112 women and 56 men, 19 to 86 years of age. • Five positive and five negative items are used to describe attributes derived from successful resolution and unsuccessful resolution, respectively, of a given stage or crisis. This yields 10 items per subscale, corresponding to the eight stages of development, and 80 items total.
  9. Overview: •This first stage of psychosocial development consists of: •Psychosocial Conflict: Trust versus mistrust •Major Question: "Can I trust the people around me?" •Basic Virtue: Hope •Important Event(s): Feeding Trust versus Mistrust
  10. Stage 1:Trust versus Mistrust • At the first stage of Erickson’s Psychosociaal development, children learn to trust others. • Trust, in this convention, refers to the ability to expect certain things, from, and depend on, other people. • This sense of trust is derived principally from the relationship an infant has with his or her mother.
  11. •The trust between an infant and his mother is usually developed through the act of touching and physical interaction, as this often fosters a sense of familiarity and is something that the infant subconsciously remembers as he grows up. • If the mother is unable to adequately care for the infant, such as feeding him when he’s hungry or providing him with the necessary amount of affection, then the infant will develop a sense of mistrust not only towards his mother, but also towards the world around him. The infant will not be willing to trust and depend on other people, a tendency which may continue throughout the remaining stages of his psychosocial development. Success or Failure
  12. Trust vs. Mistrust Infants: Age 0- 18 months Positive Outcome: • Develop secure attachment and trust people and environment. Negative Outcome: • Develop mistrust to people and things in environment, even to themselves.
  13. Comparison with Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Psychosexual Development • Freud referred this as oral stage. • At this point in development, a child's primary source of pleasure is through the mouth via sucking, eating, and tasting. • Problems with this stage can result in what Freud referred to as an oral fixation. Psychosocial Development • Erikson called this the trust versus mistrust stage. • Children learn to either trust or mistrust their caregivers. • The care that adults provide determines whether children develop this sense of trust in the world around them. • Children who do not receive adequate and dependable care may develop a sense of mistrust of others and the world.
  14. Trust versus Mistrust • For example, if the care has been harsh or inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant will develop a sense of mistrust and will not have confidence in the world around them or in their abilities to influence events. • This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them.
  15. Virtue • The main virtue that is developed by a healthy resolution to the crisis at this stage is the virtue of “hope,” manifested by a deep faith and basic conception that everything will be alright, the possession of an inner calm and healthy grounding. • The secondary strength to be derived is identified as “drive” which allows the individual to take reasonable risks and demonstrate inner resolve and determination when faced with uncertainty.
  16. Research • Consistent with Erikson's views on the importance of trust, research by Bowlby and Ainsworth has outlined how the quality of the early experience of attachment can affect relationships with others in later life.
  17. Stage 2:Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt Overview: This second stage of psychosocial development consists of : • Psychosocial Conflict: Autonomy versus shame and doubt • Major Question: "Can I do things myself or am I reliant on the help of others?" • Basic Virtue: Will • Important Event(s): Toilet training
  18. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt • As toddlers (ages 1–3 years) begin to explore their world, they learn that they can control their actions and act on their environment to get results. • They begin to show clear preferences for certain elements of the environment, such as food, toys, and clothing. • A toddler’s main task is to resolve the issue of autonomy vs. shame and doubt by working to establish independence. This is the “me do it” stage.
  19. Success or Failure • Gaining a sense of personal control over the world is important at this stage of development. Toilet training plays a major role; learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. Successfully toilet training can help children at this stage of development gain a greater sense of autonomy. Those who learn to use the toilet emerge feeling confident in themselves. • Problems with toilet training can leave kids feeling doubtful of their own abilities and may even result in feelings of shame. • Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection. • Children at this age are becoming increasingly independent and want to gain more control over what they do and how they do it. Kids in this stage of development often feel the need to do things independently, such as picking out what they will wear each day, putting on their own clothes, and deciding what they will eat. While this can often be frustrating for parents and caregivers, it is an important part of developing a sense of self-control and personal autonomy. • Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self- doubt.
  20. Autonomy versus Shame/Doubt Age: 2-3 years Positive Outcome: Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self- doubt Negative Outcome: Problem in this stage can leave kids feeling doubtful of their own abilities and may even result in feelings of shame.
  21. Comparison with Freud’s Psychosexual Development Psychosexual Development • Freud called this the anal stage of development. • Children gain a sense of mastery and competence by controlling bladder and bowel movements. • Children who succeed at this stage develop a sense of capability and productivity. • Those who have problems at this stage may develop an anal fixation. As adults, they might be excessively orderly or messy. Psychosocial Development • Erikson called this the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage. • Children develop self- sufficiency by controlling activities such as eating, toilet training, and talking. • Those who succeed at this stage develop a sense of independence while those who struggle will be left doubting themselves.
  22. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt • For example, we might observe a budding sense of autonomy in a 2-year-old child who wants to choose her clothes and dress herself. Although her outfits might not be appropriate for the situation, her input in such basic decisions has an effect on her sense of independence. If denied the opportunity to act on her environment, she may begin to doubt her abilities, which could lead to low self- esteem and feelings of shame.
  23. Virtue The virtue that is developed at this stage is “will” with the secondary strength of “self- control.” Parents and caregivers who perceive their children’s assertions of will and self- control as a healthy striving toward independence rather than as stubbornness and defiance will help their children become self- reliant, self-disciplined and responsible individuals who have the confidence to decide for themselves and exercise sound judgment.
  24. Teaching Approaches • Teach the parents to participate in their child’s care. • Give the child simple, direct, and honest explanations just before treatment or surgery. • Use puppets or coloring books to explain procedures. • Let the child play with equipment to reduce anxiety. • Let the child make appropriate choices, such as choosing the side of the body for an injection.
  25. Case • A 35 year old computer specialist enters treatment for bipolar depression. Though he adequately addresses trust versus doubt dynamics, he becomes stuck in the shame aspects of his illness believing he is personally responsible for his disability, should have control over his symptoms and can not lead a worthwhile life. He focuses his frustration on the fact that his female psychiatrist of similar age knows his “secrets” but he is not “allowed” to know hers. His anger becomes projected onto the medication she prescribes leading him to self-discontinue numerous medication trials due to minor side effects. When extensive, intrusive personal inquiries towards the psychiatrist are addressed in session as boundary issues, the computer specialist responds by hacking into the psychiatrist’s personal and financial information. When he gleefully shares his new-found knowledge with her, a more focused discussion of his boundary violations allows him to verbalize his fear that the psychiatrist views him as “damaged goods”. He perceives her lack of self-disclosure as confirming this. “You would never socialize with someone like me”. Step-wise exploration of his internalized stigma about psychiatric disabilities and anger over the loss of control during hypomanic episodes produced a gradual diminution of side effect complaints and extinguished his unilateral discontinuation of medication. Acceptance by the gentleman that his disability was not a character flaw allowed him to embrace the hope that a meaningful life and recovery was possible.
  26. Stage 3:Initiative versus Guilt Overview: This third stage of psychosocial development consists of : • Psychosocial Conflict: Initiative versus Guilt • Major Question: “Am I good or bad?” • Basic Virtue: Purpose • Important Event(s): Exploration, Play
  27. Initiative versus Guilt • Once children reach the preschool stage, they are capable of initiating activities and asserting control over their world through social interactions and play. • According to Erikson, preschool children must resolve the task of initiative vs. guilt. By learning to plan and achieve goals while interacting with others.
  28. Success or Failure • If they have successfully completed the earlier two stages, kids now have a sense that the world is trustworthy and that they are able to act independently. Now it is important for kids to learn that they can exert power over themselves and the world. They need to try things on their own and explore their own abilities. By doing this, they can develop ambition and direction. • How Do Kids Develop Initiative? • Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment by taking initiative by planning activities, accomplishing tasks and facing challenges. During this stage, it is important for caregivers to encourage exploration and to help children make appropriate choices. Caregivers who are discouraging or dismissive may cause children to feel ashamed of themselves and to become overly dependent upon the help of others. • This stage can sometimes be frustrating for parents and caregivers as children begin to exercise more control over the things that impact their lives. Such decisions can range from the friends they play with, the activities they engage in, and the way that they approach different tasks. Parents and other adults might want to guide children toward certain friends, activities, or choices, but children might resist and insist on making their own choices. While this might lead to some conflicts with parental wishes at times, it is important to give kids a chance to make such choices. • However, it is important that parents continue to enforce safe boundaries and encourage children to make good choices through the use of modeling and reinforcement. • As you might guess, play and imagination take on an important role at this stage. Children have their sense of initiative reinforced by being given the freedom and encouragement to play. When efforts to engage in physical and imaginative play are stifled by caregivers, children begin to feel that their self-initiated efforts are a source of embarrassment. Children who are over-directed by adults may struggle to develop a sense of initiative and confidence in their own abilities.
  29. Initiative versus Guilt Age: 3-5 years Positive Outcome: • Initiative, a sense of ambition and responsibility, occurs when parents allow a child to explore within limits and then support the child’s choice. • These children will develop self- confidence and feel a sense of purpose Negative Outcome: • Those who are unsuccessful at this stage—with their initiative misfiring or stifled by over-controlling parents—may develop feelings of guilt.
  30. Comparison with Freud’s Psychosexual Development Psychosexual Development • Freud referred to this as the phallic stage. • The libido's energy is focused on the genitals. Children begin to identify with their same-sex parent. • Boys experience the Oedipus complex while girls experience the Electra complex. Psychosocial Development • Erikson's called this the initiative versus guilt stage. • Children begin to take more control over their environment. • Those who are successful at this stage develop a sense of purpose while those who struggle are left with feelings of guilt.
  31. Initiative versus Guilt • What to ask: • Which self-care skills does the child perform at home? • How does he/she keep busy at home? • What is his/her reaction to schedules and routines? • What would the child like to be when he/she grows up? • What is his/her favorite activity? • Can he/she state his/her name • and identify family members? • What to look • Occupies free time independently • Participates in self-care activities • Evaluates disapproval of others • Initiates activities rather than just • imitating others’ actions
  32. Virtue • Success in this stage leads to the virtue of purpose, which is shown by children’s style of decision-making, working with and leading others, initiating projects and ideas, and courage to instigate activities. Children also mature with “direction”, the secondary strength that benefits them in this stage, manifested by their aims and goals, and being able to take initiative and appropriate risks. • On the other hand, if not resolved appropriately, negative behaviors such as getting depressed easily, putting themselves down, demonstrating slumped posture, and possessing low energy may be developed by the children. These behaviors are results of the frustration that they develop from not being able to accomplish goals planned for themselves. They may become aggressive and ruthless, and demonstrate actions such as throwing objects, hitting, or yelling.
  33. Teaching Approaches • Each the parents to participate in their child’s care. • Use simple, neutral words to describe procedures and surgery to the child. • Encourage the child to fantasize to help plan his/her responses to possible situations. • Use body outlines or dolls to show anatomic sites and procedures. • Let the child handle equipment before a procedure. • Use play therapy as an emotional outlet and a way to test the child’s sense of reality.
  34. Research A 52 year old male psychologist with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder became more distant and passive over a 6 months period of multiple, relatively minor relapses that none the less produced significant employment problems. Without warning, he unsuccessfully overdosed with the clear intent to end his life. After a prolonged period of intensive inpatient treatment and support from his family, he verbalized regret about the attempt, but admitted that he didn’t have the “nerve” to cope with this disabling illness. With much encouragement from his recovering consumer- provider peer group, he agreed to pursue outpatient therapy to develop a recovery plan, and included a 6 months moratorium on further suicide attempts. This allowed vital time for him to dissipate internalized anger and grieve the loss of identity that occurred when he ceased working. While his illness continued to progress, he verbalized less concern about his occupation-significant disability and did not repeat the suicidal behavior during 9 years of outpatient follow-up.
  35. Stage 4: Industry versus Inferiority Overview: This fourth stage of psychosocial development consists of : • Psychosocial Conflict: Industry versus Inferiority • Major Question: “How good can I be?” • Basic Virtue: Competence • Important Event(s):School
  36. Industry vs. Inferiority • During the elementary school stage (ages 6–12), children face the task of industry vs. inferiority. • Children begin to compare themselves with their peers to see how they measure up. • They either develop a sense of pride and accomplishment in their schoolwork, sports, social activities, and family life, or they feel inferior and inadequate because they feel that they don’t measure up. • If children do not learn to get along with others or have negative experiences at home or with peers, an inferiority complex might develop into adolescence and adulthood.
  37. Industry Versus Inferiority Age: 5-12 years Positive Outcome: • If the child cannot develop the specific skill they feel society is demanding (e.g., being athletic) then they may develop a sense of inferiority. Negative Outcome: • Some failure may be necessary so that the child can develop some modesty. Again, a balance between competence and modesty is necessary. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of competence.
  38. Comparison with Freud’s Psychosexual Development Psychosexual Development: • Freud referred to this as the latent period. • The libido's energy is suppressed and children are focused on other activities such as school, friends, and hobbies. • Freud believed this stage was important for developing social skills and self-confidence. Psychosocial Development: • Erikson called this the industry versus inferiority stage. • Children develop a sense of competence by mastering new skills. • Kids who succeed at this stage develop pride in their accomplishments while those who struggle may be left feeling incompetent.
  39. Examples • For example, Children are at the stage where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to do things on their own. Teachers begin to take an important role in the child’s life as they teach the child specific skills. • the best way to visualize how the industry vs inferiority stage might impact a child is to look at an example. Imagine two children in the same 4th-grade class. • Olivia finds science lessons difficult, but her parents are willing to help her each night with her homework. She also asks the teacher for help and starts to receive encouragement and praise for her efforts. • Jack also struggles with science, but his parents are uninterested in assisting him with his nightly homework. He feels bad about the poor grades he receives on his science assignments but is not sure what to do about the situation. His teacher is critical of his work but does not offer any extra assistance or advice. Eventually, Jack just gives up, and his grades become even worse.
  40. Examples • While both children struggled with this aspect of school, Olivia received the support and encouragement she needed to overcome these difficulties and still build a sense of mastery. Jack, however, lacked the social and emotional encouragement he needed. In this area, Olivia will likely develop a sense of industry where Jack will be left with feelings of inferiority. • At this stage that the child’s peer group will gain greater significance and will become a major source of the child’s self-esteem. The child now feels the need to win approval by demonstrating specific competencies that are valued by society and begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments.
  41. Virtue The main virtue that is developed by resolved conflicts at this stage is the virtue of “competence”, displayed by making things and creating results, applying skills and processes productively and having the sense of being capable. The secondary virtue that a child develops from success at this stage is “method”, which is shown by the individual who has the capacity to utilize process and method in the quest of fulfilling ideas or goals, is able to demonstrate confidence that is enough to enable him to seek and respond to challenges and learning, and who possesses an active and busy productive outlook.
  42. Teaching Approaches • At this stage, it is important for both parents and teachers to offer support and encouragement. However, adults should be careful not to equate achievement with acceptance and love. • Unconditional love and support from adults can help all children through this stage, but particularly those who may struggle with feelings of inferiority. • Children who are overpraised, on the other hand, might develop a sense of arrogance. Clearly, balance plays a major role at this point in development. • Parents can help kids develop a sense of realistic competence by avoiding excessive praise and rewards, encouraging efforts rather than outcome, and helping kids develop a growth mindset. Even if children struggle in some areas of school, encouraging kids in areas in which they excel can help foster feelings of competence and achievement.
  43. Research The study examined the relationship between Inferiority complex and Academic achievement of high school students in Vellore district. The study adopted survey method of research. Participants were 200 high school students randomly selected in various schools in Vellore district. The research instrument used for data collection was Inferiority complex developed by Sorenson tested at 0.05 and 0.01 level of significant. The findings indicated that there is a positive relationship between inferiority complex and academic achievement of high school student. The level of inferiority complex and academic achievement of high school student is high in nature. There exist significant impact with respect to gender,type of family and medium of instruction. And there is no significant on subject and location on the inferiority complex and academic achievement of high school students. G. Kalaivani, A study on inferiority complex of high school students in relation to their academic achievement in Vellore District, International Educational Scientific Research Journal,Volume : 3, Issue : 5, MAY 2017
  44. Stage 5:Identity versus Role Confusion Overview: This fifth stage of psychosocial development consists of : • Psychosocial Conflict: Identity Versus Confusion • Major Question: "Who am I?" • Basic Virtue: Fidelity • Important Event(s): Social Relationships
  45. Identity vs. Identity Confusion Identity • • Defining who you are, what you value and direction in life. • • Commitments to vocation, personal relationships, sexual orientation, ethnic group, ideals. • • Resolution of “identity crisis” or exploration Identity Confusion • Lack of direction and definition of self. • • Restricted exploration in adolescence – Earlier psychosocial conflicts not resolved – Society restricts choices • • Unprepared for stages of adulthood
  46. Identity Versus Role Confusion • In this stage, there is a difficult transition from childhood to adulthood on one hand, and sensitivity to social and historical change on the other. • During adolescence, youngsters go through major physical, intellectual, and emotional changes. The magnitude of physical change in early adolescence exceeds other stages except infancy. • Adolescents are frequently confused as they are unaware of how to respond to the new sexual feelings that they experience. • They are also concerned with what others think of them; hence concentrate more on their looks, attitude and mannerisms. Some adolescents are found to be shy whereas some are very outspoken. • Adolescents do want to assert their independence, yet long for the stability of structure and discipline.
  47. Factors affecting Identity Development • Personality – Flexible, open-minded. • Child-rearing practices – Authoritative, attached. • Peers, friends to interact with. • Schools and communities – Offer rich/varied opportunities for exploration also supports identity development. • Larger context – Culture – Historical time period.
  48. Identity versus Role Confusion Age: 13-21 years Positive Outcome: • The adolescent must make a conscious search for identity. This is built on the outcome and resolution to conflict in earlier stages. Negative Outcome: • If the adolescent can not make deliberate decisions and choices, especially about vocation, sexual orientation, and life in general, role confusion becomes a threat.
  49. Comparison with Freud’s Psychosexual Development Psychosexual Development • Freud referred to this point in psychosexual development as the genital stage. • Children begin to explore romantic relationships. • The goal of this stage is to develop a sense of balance between all the areas of life. Those who have successfully completed the earlier stages are now warm, caring and well-adjusted. Psychosocial Development • Erikson's called this point in psychosocial development the identity versus role confusion stage. • Children develop a personal identity and sense of self. • Teens explore different roles, attitudes, and identities as they develop a sense of self.
  50. Virtue The main virtue that is developed by a resolution to the crisis at this stage is the virtue of “fidelity” which is characterized by self-esteem and self-confidence that are requisite to associating freely with people and ideas on the basis of their value, loyalty, and interpersonal and social integrity. The second strength that may be developed at this stage is “devotion,” defined as discretion and includes personal identity and pride, dignity and standards, and appreciating useful personal roles and reasons for being. However, unsuccessful resolution in this stage may lead to maladaptations which are “fanaticism” and “repudiation.” Fanaticism is manifested by being self-important and extremist, while repudiation is characterized by being socially disconnected and cut off from others.
  51. Research A 27 year old psychiatry resident develops severe major depression during the third year of training. Despite a long history of chronic, untreated anxiety and a strong family history of affective disorder, the resident refuses pharmacotherapy from a psychiatrist and consults a masters-level therapist for cognitive-behavioral interventions while self-prescribing a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor anti-depressant. During later periods of severe depressive symptoms, the resident crisis calls other house staff in the middle of the night. The residency training director becomes involved in the last few months of training due to performance issues and after residents became alarmed by these cries for help. Unable to accept a new identity that incorporates the depressive illness, the resident continues to reject more aggressive treatment and refuses to embrace a recovering role—“I will not surrender my keys”. The issue is dropped when the resident graduates and moves out of state. Outside the supervision of an academic setting where a vital recovering practitioner identity and skill repertoire could have been acquired, the graduated resident develops job failure and attempts suicide.
  52. Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
  53. Psychosocial Conflict: Intimacy versus Isolation This stage takes place during young adulthood between the ages of approximately 19 and 40. During this period, the major conflict centers on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people. Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Such relationships are often romantic in nature, but Erikson believed that close friendships were also important. Intimate Relationships • Erikson described intimate relationships as those characterized by closeness, honesty, and love. • They were not restricted to sexual relationships but also encompassed feelings of caring and commitment.
  54. Major Question:"Will I be loved or will I be alone?" Important Event(s): Romantic Relationships • Success: People who are successful in resolving the conflict of the intimacy versus isolation stage are able to develop deep, meaningful relationships with others. They have close, lasting romantic relationships, but they also forge strong relationships with family and friends • Failure: Failure at this stage results in loneliness and isolation. Adults who struggle with this stage experience poor romantic relationships. They might never share deep intimacy with their partners or might even struggle to develop any relationships at all. Basic Virtue/ strength: Love • The basic strength that emerges from the intimacy of the young adult years is love, which Erikson considered the greatest human virtue.
  55. Intimacy in Young Adulthood as a Predictor of Divorce in Midlife (2008) Research and Application • A longitudinal U.S. study by Mark I. Weinberger, Yariv Hofstein, and Susan Krauss Whitbourne explored the extent to which an individual’s potential for intimacy in young adulthood predicted divorce by midlife. Intimacy was defined as the potential to establish close relationships involving high levels of communication, closeness, and commitment. • Marital status 34 years after college graduation was obtained from 167 participants (M age = 55.1 years, 60% male, 30% divorced) originally tested in college in 1966–68 in the United States. • The study showed that women but not men with low intimacy in college had higher risk of divorce in midlife in the sample. Source: 2733523/
  56. • Since communication and openness are crucial to forming intimate relationships, individuals who fail to resolve satisfactorily the Intimacy vs. Isolation psychosocial crisis, particularly women, may put themselves at risk for being unable to maintain a stable marital relationship. • It can be useful for professionals and couples to identify and reverse destructive processes currently existing in a relationship by examining levels of intimacy within couples, particularly for female partners. For example, working on active communication between couples. Research and Application
  57. The Continuing Benefits of Education: Adult Education and Midlife Cognitive Ability Research and Application • Researchers have given little attention to the potential impact of adult education on cognitive ability, still malleable in midlife. • Hatch et al, conducted a research to examine whether there were continuing effects of education over the life course on cognitive ability in midlife with specific attention to the relationship between adult education by 43 years and cognitive ability at 53 years. • The study used multivariate regression to estimate the continuing effects of adult education on multiple measures of midlife cognitive ability. Source - articles/PMC3159532/
  58. Research and Application • Educational attainment completed by early adulthood was associated with all measures of cognitive ability in late midlife. The continued effect of education was apparent in the associations between adult education and higher verbal ability, verbal memory, and verbal fluency in late midlife. No association between adult education and mental speed and concentration was found. • Associations between adult education and midlife cognitive ability indicate wider benefits of education to health that may be important for social integration, well- being, and the delay of cognitive decline in later life.
  59. Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation
  60. Psychosocial Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation This stage takes place during middle adulthood between the ages of approximately 40 and 65. • During this time, adults strive to create or nurture things that will outlast them; often by parenting children or contributing to positive changes that benefit other people. Contributing to society and doing things to benefit future generations are important needs at the generativity versus stagnation stage of development. • Generativity refers to "making your mark" on the world through caring for others as well as creating and accomplishing things that make the world a better place. • Stagnation refers to the failure to find a way to contribute. These individuals may feel disconnected or uninvolved with their community and with society as a whole.
  61. Major Question: "How can I contribute to the world?“ • Success: Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. • Failure: Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world. • Midlife crisis: It is at this point in life that some people might experience what is often referred to as a "midlife crisis." People might reflect back on their accomplishments and consider their future trajectory and feel regret. In some cases this might involve regretting missed opportunities such as going to school, pursuing a career or having children. Basic Virtue: Care Care is the basic virtue that emerges from generativity in adulthood. Erikson defined care as a broad concern for others and believed it was manifested in the need to teach, not only to help others but also to fulfill one’s identity.
  62. Research and Application • The research shows that individuals who cultivate satisfying and successful engagement with their careers, intimate relationships, and then invest in the nurturance of others in midlife, may in fact be setting the stage for better emotional and cognitive health in old age. • For example, generativity requires the use of sophisticated communication, emotional capacities, and systematic thought as one reflects on his or her own achievements and then coherently conveys this to another person to whom they are investing in. These can be worked on through counselling.
  63. Research and Application Benefits of higher education in mid-life: A life course agency perspective • The argument developed in this study is that people do exercise agency and make space for alternative ageing experiences via participation to education. • This study conducted by purpose of this study is to investigate the benefits of higher education in mid-life from the perspective of life course agency. • The inquiry is based on the life history interviews of mid-life professionals who pursued Master’s degrees from well- established Finnish universities in their fifties. A thematic narrative approach was used to analyze the data. Source- 0.1177/1477971416672807
  64. Research and Application • The findings indicate that older graduates enjoy obvious benefits from attaining higher education and pursuing a new Master’s degree. • However, there is much variation between graduates and the significance of experienced benefits depends on the overall life plan and expectations of the person concerned. • The conclusion considers higher education attainment in mid-life in a wider societal context and suggests directions for future research.
  65. Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
  66. Psychosocial Conflict: Ego Integrity versus Despair • This stage begins at approximately age 65 and ends at death. • The onset of this stage is often triggered by life events such as retirement, the loss of a spouse, the loss of friends and acquaintances, facing a terminal illness, and other changes to major roles in life. • During this period, people reflect back on the life they have lived and come away with either a sense of fulfillment from a life well lived or a sense of regret and despair over a life misspent.
  67. Major Question: "Did I live a meaningful life?“ Important Event(s): Reflecting back on life • Success: Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. This stage leads to the development of what Erikson referred to as ego integrity. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death. • Failure: Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair. Basic Virtue: Wisdom The basic strength that emerges from ego integrity at this stage is wisdom. Erikson defined this wisdom as an "informed and detached concern with life itself even in the face of death itself.“
  68. Ego Integrity vs. Despair in a Movie • In the recent movie- 102 not out, Amitabh Bachan and Rishi Kapoor play father and son, who are both seen in the last stage of Erikson’s theory-Ego Integrity vs. Despair. However both lie at the opposite ends of the spectrum.
  69. Education for the elderly
  70. Education for the elderly A school for the elderly in north of Bangkok, Thailand
  71. Prem Lakshmi Mandir, an exclusive, one of a kind school in Surat Gujrat, that admits senior citizens only. Here senior citizens engage in activities like reading, watching informative CDs, listening to poetry of famous poets, and watching Ramayan and Mahabharata. Education for the elderly
  72. Research and Application Difficulties faced by older adults in higher education A 2011 research by Lin Yi Yun in the University of Georgia, Older Adults’ motivation to learn in higher education, discussed the difficulties and barriers faced by older adults in higher education. • Demographic barriers- poor memory, low energy and time • Attitudinal barriers- Age bias • Structural barriers- lack of transportation, support services and financing; lack of flexibility in courses.
  73. Accepting the past scale 1. Thinking about my past brings more pain than pleasure. ____ 2. I feel comfortable talking about things I’ve done in the past. ____ 3. Sometimes I have the feeling that I’ve never had the chance to live. ____ 4. There are things from my past that I will have to set right, before I will be truly happy. ____ 5. All in all, I am comfortable with the choices I’ve made in the past. ____ 6. There are some disappointments in life that I will never be able to accept. Some personal experiences from earlier on are still too difficult to think about. ____ 8. Generally, I feel contented with the way my life has turned out. ____ 9. There are things about my life that I have difficulty accepting. ____ 10. I have not led a very meaningful life. ____ 11. I look back on the things I’ve done with a sense of satisfaction. ____
  74. 12. There are things from my past that frighten me. ____ 13. When I look back on my past, I have feeling of fulfillment. ____ 14. I still feel angry about certain childhood experiences. ____ 15. I don’t worry abut things that happened a long time ago. ____ 16. I generally feel contented with what I have done so far in my life. Accepting the past scale
  75. Accepting the past and Ego Integrity Participant 1 • Age 78 • Had poor relationships in childhood and early and middle adulthood • No specific interests that she currently follows • No new significant learning in the past 5 years. • Score: 28 Participant 2 • Age 83 • Had poor and dysfunctional relationships in childhood and early and middle adulthood. • Has had a meaningful life. She is a writer, avid reader, and has been learning Hindustani classical music for years. • Her grandchildren keep teaching her new things in technology like using Whatsapp and Facebook. • Uses her cognitive abilities more • Score: 51 Score Range: 16 to 80
  76. Education and learning in old age
  77. Implication The strengths of Erikson’s theory are: Stage theory - development took place in stages • Ego identify - formation of ego identity right from birth • Crisis – every individual has to go through crisis in his/her life The weaknesses of Erikson’s theory are: • Focus on the competing forces rather than emotional development of individuals • Difficult to be tested scientifically as it is not possible to measure some of the concepts upon which the theory is based • Fails to specify the effect of failure in one stage impacts which other stages
  78. Implication The strengths of Erikson’s theory are: Stage theory - development took place in stages • Ego identify - formation of ego identity right from birth • Crisis – every individual has to go through crisis in his/her life The weaknesses of Erikson’s theory are: • Focus on the competing forces rather than emotional development of individuals • Difficult to be tested scientifically as it is not possible to measure some of the concepts upon which the theory is based • Fails to specify the effect of failure in one stage impacts which other stages
  79. Implication Various educational implications of Erikson’s theory are possible depending upon the age group of the learner and the tasks they are expected to perform. For example, Allowing the child to play with various natural, simple materials, and role-playing for the expression of fantasy and imagination. Games, stories and songs can be used. Real-life activities like serving food, chopping vegetables or making chapattis, prepare children for participation in the community around them. Child-directed activities where the child chooses his or her activity and repeats it as often as they want must be encouraged. Erikson’s psychosocial theory is a very powerful way for building self- awareness and for improving oneself, as it helps to understand a person’s learning according to his or her personal differences