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Digital design

Digital design and software technologies

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Digital design

  1. 1. DIGITAL DESIGN SOFTWARETECHNOLOGIES 3D GRAPHICS Submitted By – Junaid, Rizvi, Saloni, Sheetu M.Recreation – Second Semester, Jamia Millia Islamia
  2. 2.  Digital design is a growing specialty in the field of graphic design. Digital designers use creativity and computer skills to design visuals associated with electronic technology.  Digital design, a term used to describe a wide variety of computer related skills, includes work in fields such as web design, digital imaging and 3D modeling.  Digital design is the branch of graphic design that uses computers, graphics tablets and other electronic devices to create graphics and designs for the Web, television, print and portable electronic devices.  It is an evolving industry, it is always changing and exploring the uses of new devices and technology. What is digital design?What is digital design?
  3. 3. Application of digital design?Application of digital design? Digital design has become a significant part of society--almost every product and field of work includes digital design at some point. Car companies start their design process using computer drafting programs, while food distributors hire digital designers to create logos and bright boxes to help sell their products. Other applications are - Web design – it includes digital imaging, coding, animation, interface design, and a variety of other skills. 3d models for movies, Animation to create interfaces Architectural planning Product designing Touch-up of photographs for printing in magazines and papers And much more…….
  4. 4. Digital Application in ARCHITECTUREDigital Application in ARCHITECTURE  Digital architecture uses computer modeling, programming, simulation and imaging to create both virtual forms and physical structures. The terminology has also been used to refer to other aspects of architecture that feature digital technologies.  Digital architecture allows complex calculations that delimit architects and allow a diverse range of complex forms to be created with great ease using computer algorithms.
  5. 5. Digital Application inDigital Application in 33D GRAPHICSD GRAPHICS 3D computer graphics is the science, study, and method of projecting a mathematical representation of 3D objects onto a 2D image using visual tricks such as perspective and shading to simulate the eye's perception of those objects. 3D COMPUTER GRAPHICS CREATION FALLS INTO THREE BASIC PHASES: The model describes the process of forming the shape of an object. Before rendering into an image, objects must be placed in a scene. This defines spatial relationships between objects, including location and size. Animation refers to the temporal description of an object, i.e., how it moves and deforms over time. Rendering converts a model into an image
  6. 6. 1.1. 33D MODELLINGD MODELLING  A way to describe the 3D world or scene, which is composed of mathematical representations of 3D objects called models.  Simple 3D objects can be modeled using mathematical equations operating in the 3- dimensional Cartesian coordinate system.  Example: the equation x2 + y2 + z2 = r2 is a model of a perfect sphere with radius r
  7. 7.  MESH BASED WIREFRAME MODELLING – uses a serious of connected lines to produce a 3D object  POLYGON BASED SURFACE MODELLING -- draws the surfaces of an object to create its model; like adding canvass onto the frame of a tent.  SOLID MODELLING -- uses simple geometric forms or extrusions such as cuboids, cylinders & prisms. These can be added or subtracted to produce complex 3D models.  CURVE BASED FREE-FORM MODELLING – Uses a network of spline/ nurbs to create free-form models. MODELING TECHNIQUES
  8. 8. OTHER MODELING TECHNIQUES LINKED WITH ARCHITECTURE  Poly modelling - 3DS Max, Maya  Patch modelling - Spline based  Parametric modelling - Catia, Solidworks, Unigraphics  Nubs modelling - Rhino
  9. 9. 3Ds Max  Modelling, animation and rendering package  It has modelling capabilities  It's frequently used by o video game developers o TV commercial studios o architectural visualization studios o for movie effects and movie pre- visualization.  It has more robust modelling and lighting capability than Maya Autodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio Max, is a 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models, and images.
  10. 10.  shaders (such as ambient occlusion and subsurface scattering)  dynamic simulation  particle systems  Radiosity  normal map creation and rendering  global illumination  a customizable user interface  its own scripting language  In addition to its modeling and animation tools, the latest version of 3ds Max also features -
  11. 11. SketchUp  SketchUp, marketed officially as Trimble SketchUp, is a 3D modeling program for applications such as architectural, civil and mechanical engineering, film, and video game design.  The program includes drawing layout functionality, allows surface rendering in variable "styles“ also supports third- party "plug-in" programs.  Google SketchUp can also save elevations or renderings of the model, called "screenshots",
  12. 12. Rhinoceros (Rhino) is a stand-alone, commercial NURBS-based 3-D modeling software, The software is commonly used for industrial design, architecture, marine design, jewelry design, automotive design, CAD / CAM, rapid prototyping, reverse engineering, product design as well as the multimedia and graphic design industries. Rhino specializes in free-form non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) modeling. RHINO  Rhino's increasing popularity is based on its diversity, multi-disciplinary functions, low learning-curve, relatively low cost, and its ability to import and export over 30 file formats, which allows Rhino to act as a 'converter' tool between programs in a design
  13. 13.  CATIA (Computer Aided Three- dimensional Interactive Application) is a multi-platform CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software suite  CATIA competes in the high-end CAD/CAM/CAE software CATIA SOLIDWORKS SolidWorks is solid modeling CAD (computer-aided design) software that runs on Microsoft Windows
  14. 14. 2.2. LAYOUT AND ANIMATIONLAYOUT AND ANIMATION  A 3D world or scene is composed of collection of 3d models  Three different coordinates systems (or spaces) are defined for different model related operations: • The coordinate system in which a specific 3D object is defined. • Each object usually have its own object space with the origin at the object's center • The object center is the point about which the object is moved and rotated. OBJECT SPACE
  15. 15. • World space is the coordinate system of the 3D world to be rendered. • The position and orientation of all the models are defined relative to the center of the world space. • The position and orientation of the virtual camera is also defined relative to the world space. • 2D space that represents the boundaries of the image to be produced. • Many optimization techniques are performed on screen space. SCREEN SPACE WORLD SPACE
  16. 16. 3.3. RENDERINGRENDERING  The process of taking the mathematical model of the world and producing the output image.  The core of the rendering process involves projecting the 3D models onto a 2D image plane. Types of Rendering Algorithms Two general approaches:  Pixel-oriented rendering: Ray tracers  Polygon-oriented rendering: Scan-line renderers
  17. 17. Ray Tracers Operates by tracing theoretical light rays as they intersect objects in the scene and the projection plane. Ray tracer limitations  Processor intensive. A full ray tracer is impractical for real-time applications.  Does not take into account inter- reflections of diffuse light, resulting in hard shadows. Radiosity o Technique that models the inter- reflections of diffuse light between surfaces of the world or environment. o Produces more photorealistic illumination and shadows.
  18. 18. Scan-line renderers • Operate on an object-by-object basis, directly drawing each polygon to the screen. • Requires all objects – including those modeled with continuous curvature – to be tessellated into polygons. • Polygons are eventually tessellated into pixels. Illumination for scan-line renderers • Lighting and shading is calculated using the normal vector. • The color is linearly interpolated across the polygon surface. Common shading techniques scan –line renderer o Flat shading o Gouraud Shading o Phong Shading
  19. 19. Flat Shading • The color of the polygon is calculated at the center of the polygon by using the normal vector. The complete polygon surface is uniformly lighted. Gouraud Shading • A normal vector is calculated at each vertex. Color is calculated for each vertex and interpolated across the polygon. Phong Shading • The normal vectors are interpolated across the surface of the polygon • The color of each point within the polygon is calculated from its
  20. 20. MENTAL-RAY • Mental Ray (stylized as mental ray) is a production-quality rendering application developed by Mental Images (Berlin, Germany). • The primary feature of Mental Ray is the achievement of high performance through parallelism on both multiprocessor machines and across render farms. V-RAY • V-Ray is a rendering engine that is used as an extension of certain 3D computer graphics software. • It is a rendering engine that uses advanced techniques, for example global illumination algorithms such as path tracing, photon mapping, irradiance maps and directly computed global illumination. • V-Ray is used in the film and video game industries and it is also used extensively in making realistic 3D renderings for architecture.
  21. 21. Viewing frustum • Segment of the 3D world to be rendered • Objects outside the viewing volume are ignored. Hidden surface determination o Not all objects inside the viewing frustum are always visible from the point of view of the camera. o Not all polygons of a particular object are visible from the point of view of the camera. o Common Techniques o Painters Algorithm o Z-Buffering Painter’s Algorithm • Polygon-oriented. • All the polygons are sorted by their depth and then displayed in this order.
  22. 22. References:  Wikipidia – The Free Encyclopedia http://www.wikipedia.org/  OpenGL - The Industry Standard for High Performance Graphics http://www.opengl.org/  Google Image Search http://images.google.com  Overview of 3D Interactive Graphics http://www.siggraph.org/project-grants/com97/com97-tut.html  Linux Journal - Industry of Change: Linux Storms Hollywood http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/5472  JCanyon - Grand Canyon Demo http://java.sun.com/products/jfc/tsc/articles/jcanyon/