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SOFTWARETECHNOLOGIES 3D GRAPHICS
Submitted By – Junaid, Rizvi, Saloni, Sheetu
M.Recreation – Second Semester, Jamia Millia Islamia
Digital design is a growing specialty in the field of graphic design.
Digital designers use creativity and computer skills to design visuals
associated with electronic technology.
Digital design, a term used to describe a wide variety of computer related
skills, includes work in fields such as web design, digital imaging and 3D
Digital design is the branch of graphic design that uses computers, graphics
tablets and other electronic devices to create graphics and designs for the
Web, television, print and portable electronic devices.
It is an evolving industry, it is always changing and exploring the uses of
new devices and technology.
What is digital design?What is digital design?
Application of digital design?Application of digital design?
Digital design has become a significant part of society--almost every
product and field of work includes digital design at some point. Car
companies start their design process using computer drafting programs,
while food distributors hire digital designers to create logos and bright
boxes to help sell their products. Other applications are -
Web design – it includes digital imaging, coding, animation, interface design,
and a variety of other skills.
3d models for movies,
Animation to create interfaces
Touch-up of photographs for printing in magazines and papers
And much more…….
Digital Application in ARCHITECTUREDigital Application in ARCHITECTURE
Digital architecture uses computer
modeling, programming, simulation and
imaging to create both virtual forms and
physical structures. The terminology has also
been used to refer to other aspects of
architecture that feature digital technologies.
Digital architecture allows complex
calculations that delimit architects and allow a
diverse range of complex forms to be created
with great ease using computer algorithms.
Digital Application inDigital Application in 33D GRAPHICSD GRAPHICS
3D computer graphics is the science, study, and method of projecting a
mathematical representation of 3D objects onto a 2D image using visual tricks
such as perspective and shading to simulate the eye's perception of those
3D COMPUTER GRAPHICS CREATION FALLS INTO THREE BASIC PHASES:
The model describes
the process of forming
the shape of an
Before rendering into an image, objects must
be placed in a scene. This defines spatial
relationships between objects, including
location and size. Animation refers to the
temporal description of an object, i.e., how it
moves and deforms over time.
converts a model
into an image
1.1. 33D MODELLINGD MODELLING
A way to describe the 3D world or scene, which is
composed of mathematical representations of 3D
objects called models.
Simple 3D objects can be modeled using
mathematical equations operating in the 3-
dimensional Cartesian coordinate system.
the equation x2
is a model of a perfect sphere with radius r
MESH BASED WIREFRAME MODELLING – uses a
serious of connected lines to produce a 3D object
POLYGON BASED SURFACE MODELLING -- draws
the surfaces of an object to create its model; like
adding canvass onto the frame of a tent.
SOLID MODELLING -- uses simple geometric
forms or extrusions such as cuboids, cylinders &
prisms. These can be added or subtracted to
produce complex 3D models.
CURVE BASED FREE-FORM MODELLING – Uses a
network of spline/ nurbs to create free-form
Modelling, animation and rendering
It has modelling capabilities
It's frequently used by
o video game developers
o TV commercial studios
o architectural visualization studios
o for movie effects and movie pre-
It has more robust modelling and lighting
capability than Maya
Autodesk 3ds Max,
formerly 3D Studio Max, is
a 3D computer graphics
program for making 3D
animations, models, and
shaders (such as ambient occlusion
and subsurface scattering)
normal map creation and
a customizable user interface
its own scripting language
In addition to its modeling and animation
tools, the latest version of 3ds Max also
SketchUp, marketed officially as
Trimble SketchUp, is a 3D modeling
program for applications such as
architectural, civil and mechanical
engineering, film, and video game
The program includes drawing layout
functionality, allows surface rendering
in variable "styles“ also supports third-
party "plug-in" programs.
Google SketchUp can also save
elevations or renderings of the model,
Rhinoceros (Rhino) is a stand-alone, commercial NURBS-based 3-D modeling
The software is commonly used for industrial design, architecture, marine design,
jewelry design, automotive design, CAD / CAM, rapid prototyping, reverse
engineering, product design as well as the multimedia and graphic design industries.
Rhino specializes in free-form non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) modeling.
Rhino's increasing popularity is based
on its diversity, multi-disciplinary
functions, low learning-curve, relatively
low cost, and its ability to import and
export over 30 file formats, which
allows Rhino to act as a 'converter' tool
between programs in a design
CATIA (Computer Aided Three-
dimensional Interactive Application) is a
multi-platform CAD/CAM/CAE commercial
CATIA competes in the high-end
SolidWorks is solid modeling CAD
(computer-aided design) software that runs
on Microsoft Windows
2.2. LAYOUT AND ANIMATIONLAYOUT AND ANIMATION
A 3D world or scene is composed of collection of 3d models
Three different coordinates systems (or spaces) are defined for different
model related operations:
• The coordinate system in which a specific 3D object is defined.
• Each object usually have its own object space with the origin at the object's
• The object center is the point about which the object is moved and rotated.
• World space is the coordinate system of the 3D world to be rendered.
• The position and orientation of all the models are defined relative to the center of the
• The position and orientation of the virtual camera is also defined relative to the world
• 2D space that represents the boundaries of the image to be produced.
• Many optimization techniques are performed on screen space.
The process of taking the mathematical model
of the world and producing the output image.
The core of the rendering process involves
projecting the 3D models onto a 2D image
Types of Rendering Algorithms
Two general approaches:
Operates by tracing theoretical light rays as they
intersect objects in the scene and the projection
Ray tracer limitations
Processor intensive. A full ray
tracer is impractical for real-time
Does not take into account inter-
reflections of diffuse light,
resulting in hard shadows.
o Technique that models the inter-
reflections of diffuse light between
surfaces of the world or environment.
o Produces more photorealistic
illumination and shadows.
• Operate on an object-by-object basis, directly drawing each polygon to the screen.
• Requires all objects – including those modeled with continuous curvature – to be tessellated into polygons.
• Polygons are eventually tessellated into pixels.
Illumination for scan-line renderers
• Lighting and shading is calculated using the normal vector.
• The color is linearly interpolated across the polygon surface.
Common shading techniques scan –line
o Flat shading
o Gouraud Shading
o Phong Shading
• The color of the polygon is calculated at the center of the polygon
by using the normal vector. The complete polygon surface is
• A normal vector is calculated at each
vertex. Color is calculated for each
vertex and interpolated across the
• The normal vectors are interpolated across the surface of the polygon
• The color of each point within the polygon is calculated from its
• Mental Ray (stylized as mental ray) is a production-quality rendering application
developed by Mental Images (Berlin, Germany).
• The primary feature of Mental Ray is the achievement of high performance through
parallelism on both multiprocessor machines and across render farms.
• V-Ray is a rendering engine that is used as an extension of certain 3D computer
• It is a rendering engine that uses advanced techniques, for example global
illumination algorithms such as path tracing, photon mapping, irradiance maps and
directly computed global illumination.
• V-Ray is used in the film and video game industries and it is also used extensively in
making realistic 3D renderings for architecture.
• Segment of the 3D world to be rendered
• Objects outside the viewing volume are ignored.
o Not all objects inside the viewing
frustum are always visible from the
point of view of the camera.
o Not all polygons of a particular object
are visible from the point of view of
o Common Techniques
o Painters Algorithm
• All the polygons are sorted by their depth
and then displayed in this order.
Wikipidia – The Free Encyclopedia
OpenGL - The Industry Standard for High Performance
Google Image Search
Overview of 3D Interactive Graphics
Linux Journal - Industry of Change: Linux Storms
JCanyon - Grand Canyon Demo